DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3873.3.3
Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

The first well-preserved coelophysoid theropod dinosaur from Asia

HAI-LU YOU, YOICHI AZUMA, TAO WANG, YA-MING WANG, ZHI-MING DONG

Abstract


Coelophysoid dinosaurs represent the earliest major radiation of neotheropods. These small-to-medium-sized agile bipeds lived throughout much of Pangaea during the Late Triassic–arly Jurassic. Previously reported coelophysoid material from Asia (excluding the Gondwanan territory of India) is limited to two specimens that comprise only limb fragments. This paper describes a new genus and species of coelophysoid, Panguraptor lufengensis, from the Lower Jurassic Lufeng Formation of Yunnan Province, China. The new taxon is represented by a well-preserved skeleton, including the skull and lower jaw, the presacral vertebral column and partial ribs, the right scapula, a partial forelimb, part of the pelvic girdle, and an almost complete hind limb. It is distinguished from other coelophysoid theropods by the unique combination of the following three character states: 1) diagonal (rostrodorsal-caudoventral) ridge on lateral surface of maxilla, within antorbital fossa, 2) elliptical, laterally facing fenestra caudodorsal to aforementioned diagonal ridge, and 3) hooked craniomedial corner of distal tarsal IV. Cladistic analysis recovers Panguraptor lufengensis deeply nested within Coelophysoidea as a member of Coelophysidae, and it is more closely related to Coelophysis than to “Syntarsus”. Panguraptor represents the first well-preserved coelophysoid theropod dinosaur from Asia, and provides fresh evidence supporting the hypothesis that terrestrial tetrapods tended to be distributed pan-continentally during the Early Jurassic.


Keywords


Theropoda, Coelophysoidea, new genus and species, Early Jurassic, Lufeng Formation, Lufeng

Full Text:

PDF/A (3.55 MB)

References


Bien, M.-N. (1940) Discovery of Triassic saurischian and primitive mammalian remains at Lufeng, Yunnan. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China, 20, 225–234.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-6724.1940.mp203-4002.x

Bristowe, A. & Raath, M. (2004) A juvenile coelophysoid skull from the Early Jurassic of Zimbabwe, and the synonymy of Coelophysis and Syntarsus. Palaeontologia Africana, 40, 31–41.

Brusatte, S.L., Nesbitt, S.J., Irmis, R.B., Butler, R.J., Benton, M.J. & Norell, M.A. (2010) The origin and early radiation of dinosaurs. Earth-Science Reviews, 101, 68–100.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2010.04.001

Camp, C.L. (1936) A new type of small bipedal dinosaur from the Navajo Sandstone of Arizona. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, 24, 39–53.

Carrano, M.T., Hutchinson, J.R. & Sampson, S.D. (2005) New information on Segisaurus halli, a small theropod dinosaur from the Early Jurassic of Arizona. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 25, 835–849.
h
ttp://dx.doi.org/10.1671/0272-4634(2005)025[0835:niosha]2.0.co;2

Cheng, Z.-W., Li, P.-X., Pang, Q.-Q., Zhang, Z.-X., Zhang, Z.-J., Jin, Y.-G., Lu, L.-W. & Fang, X.-S. (2004) New progress in the study of the Jurassic of central Yunnan. Geological Bulletin of China, 23 (2), 154–159.

Chinsamy, A. (1994) Dinosaur bone histology: implications and inferences. In: Rosenberg, G.D. & Wolberg, D.L. (Eds.), Dino Fest. The Paleontological Society, Knoxville, pp. 213–227.

Colbert, E.H. (1989) The Triassic dinosaur Coelophysis. Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin, 57, 1–160.

Cope, E.D. (1889) Synopsis of the families of Vertebrata. American Naturalist, 23, 849–877.

Dong, Z.-M. (2001) Primitive armored dinosaur from the Lufeng Basin, China. In: Tanke, D.H. & Carpenter, K. (Eds.), Mesozoic Vertebrate Life. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, pp. 237–242.

Ezcurra, M.D. (2006) The cranial anatomy of the coelophysoid theropod Zupaysaurus rougieri from the Upper Triassic of Argentina. Historical Biology, 19, 185–202.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08912960600861467

Ezcurra, M.D. (2012) Phylogenetic analysis of Late Triassic - Early Jurassic neotheropod dinosaurs: implications for the early theropod radiation. Journal of vertebate Paleontology, Supplement, 91.

Ezcurra, M.D. & Brusatte, S.L. (2011) Taxonomic and phylogenetic reassessment of the early neotheropod dinosaur Camposaurus arizonensis from the Late Triassic of North America. Palaeontology, 54, 763–772.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01069.x

Fang, X.-S., Pang, Q.-Q., Lu, L.-W., Zhang, Z.-X., Pan, S.-G., Wang, Y.-M., Li, X.-K. & Cheng, Z.-W. (2000) Lower, Middle, and Upper Jurassic subdivision in the Lufeng region, Yunnan Province. Proceedings of the Third National Stratigraphical Congress of China, 2000, 208–214.

Goloboff, P.A., Farris, J.S. & Nixon, K.C. (2008) TNT, a free program for phylogenetic analysis. Version 1.1: Willi Hennig Society Edition. Available at http://www.zmuc.dk/public/phylogeny/TNT. Cladistics., 24, 774–786.

Holtz, T.R. (1994) The Phylogenetic Position of the Tyrannosauridae - Implications for Theropod Systematics. Journal of Paleontology, 68, 1100–1117.

Huang, B.-C., Li, Y.-A., Fang, X.-S., Sun, D.-J., Pang, Q.-Q., Cheng, Z.-W. & Li, P.-X. (2005) Magnetostratigraphy of the Jurassic in Lufeng, central Yunnan. Geological Bulletin of China, 24 (4), 322–328.

Irmis, R. (2004) First report of Megapnosaurus (Theropoda: Coelophysoidea) from China. Paleobios, 24, 11–18.

Lü, J.-C., Li, S.-X., Ji, Q., Wang, G.-F., Zhang, J.-H. & Dong, Z.-M. (2006) New eusauropod dinosaur from Yuanmou of Yunnan Province, China. Acta Geologica Sinica-English Edition, 80, 1–10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-6724.2006.tb00788.x

Luo, Z.-X. & Wu, X.-C. (1995) Correlation of vertebrate assemblage of the Lower Lufeng Formation, Yunnan, China. In: Sun, A. & Wang, Y. (Eds.) Sixth Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota, Short Papers. China Ocean Press, Beijing, pp. 83–88.

Marsh, O.C. (1881) Principal characters of American Jurassic dinosaurs. Part V. American Journal of Science, Series 3, 21, 417–423.

Nopcsa, B.F. (1928) The genera of reptiles. Palaeobiologica, 1, 163–188.

Owen, R. (1842) Report on British fossil reptiles. Report of the British Association of Advanced Sciences, 9, 60–204.

Raath, M.A. (1977) The anatomy of the Triassic theropod Syntarsus rhodesiensis (Saurischia: Podokesauridae) and a consideration of its biology. Rhodes University, Grahamstown, 233 pp.

Rinehart, L.F., Lucas, S.G. & Heckert, A.B. (2001) Preliminary statistical analysis defining the juvenile, robust and gracile forms of the Triassic dinosaur Coelophysis. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 21, 93A.

Rinehart, L.F., Lucas, S.G., Heckert, A.B., Spielmann, J.A. & Celeskey, M.D. (2009) The Paleobiology of Coelophysis bauri (Cope) from the Upper Triassic (Apachean) Whitaker quarry, New Mexico, with detailed analysis of a single quarry block. Bulletin of New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science, 45, 1–260.

Rowe, T. (1989) A new species of the theropod dinosaur Syntarsus from the Early Jurassic Kayenta Formation of Arizona. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 9, 125–136.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02724634.1989.10011748

Seeley, H.G. (1887) On the classification of the fossil animals commonly named Dinosauria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 43, 165–171.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspl.1887.0117

Sekiya, T. (2010) A new prosauropod dinosaur from Lower Jurassic in Lufeng of Yunnan. Global Geology, 29 (1), 6–15.

Sereno, P.C. (1998) A rationale for phylogenetic definitions, with application to the higher-level taxonomy of Dinosauria. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen, 210, 41–83.

Sereno, P.C. (1999) The evolution of dinosaurs. Science, 284, 2137–2147.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.284.5423.2137

Simmons, D.J. (1965) The non-therapsid reptiles of the Lufeng Basin, Yunnan, China. Fieldiana Geology, 15, 1–93.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.5426

Tykoski, R.S. (1998) The osteology of Syntarsus kayentakatae and its implications for ceratosaurid phylogeny. Master thesis, University of Texas, Austin, 217 pp.

Tykoski, R.S. (2005) Anatomy, Ontogeny, and Phylogeny of Coelophysoid Theropods. PhD dissertation, University of Texas, Austin, 551pp.

Tykoski, R.S. & Rowe, T. (2004) Ceratosauria. In: Weishampel, D.B., Dodson, P. & Osmólska, H. (Eds.), The Dinosauria, Second Edition. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 47–70.

Xing, L.-D. (2012) Sinosaurus from southwestern China. Master thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, 267 pp.

Young, C.-C. (1941a) A complete osteology of Lufengosaurus hueni Young (gen. et sp. nov.) from Lufeng, Yunnan, China. Palaeontologica Sinica, New Series C, 7, 1–53.

Young, C.-C. (1941b) Gyposaurus sinensis Young. (sp. nov.), a new Prosauropoda from the Upper Triassic beds at Lufeng, Yunnan. Bulletin of Geological Society of China, 21, 205–253.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-6724.1941.mp212-4005.x

Young, C.-C. (1942) Yunnanosaurus huangi Young (gen. et sp. nov.), a new Prosauropoda from the Red Beds at Lufeng, Yunnan. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China, 22, 63–104.

Young, C.-C. (1947) On Lufengosaurus magnus Young (sp. nov.) and additional finds of Lufengosaurus huenei Young. Palaeontologica Sinica, New Series C, 12, 1–53.

Young, C.-C. (1948) On two new saurischians from Lufeng, Yunnan. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China, 28, 75–90.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-6724.1948.mp281-2007.x

Young, C.-C. (1951) The Lufeng saurischian fauna in China. Palaeontologia Sinica, New Series C, 13, 1–96.

Zhang, Y.-H. & Yang, Z.-L. (1995) A new complete osteology of Prosauropoda in Lufeng Basin, Yunnan, China: Jingshanosaurus. Yunnan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Kunming, 100 pp.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa