Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Description and phylogenetic relationships of a new genus and two new species of lizards from Brazilian Amazonia, with nomenclatural comments on the taxonomy of Gymnophthalmidae (Reptilia: Squamata)

Guarino R. Colli, Marinus S. Hoogmoed, David C. Cannatella, JOSÉ Cassimiro, Jerriane Oliveira Gomes, JosÉ Mário Ghellere, Jerriane Oliveira Gomes, JosÉ Mário Ghellere, Pedro M. Sales Nunes, Kátia C. M. Pellegrino, Patricia Salerno, Sergio MARQUES DE SOUZA, Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues

Abstract


We describe a new genus and two new species of gymnophthalmid lizards based on specimens collected from Brazilian Amazonia, mostly in the "arc of deforestation". The new genus is easily distinguished from other Gymnophthalmidae by having very wide, smooth, and imbricate nuchals, arranged in two longitudinal and 6–10 transverse rows from nape to brachium level, followed by much narrower, strongly keeled, lanceolate, and mucronate scales. It also differs from all other Gymnophthalmidae, except Iphisa, by the presence of two longitudinal rows of ventrals. The new genus differs from Iphisa by having two pairs of enlarged chinshields (one in Iphisa); posterior dorsal scales lanceolate, strongly keeled and not arranged in longitudinal rows (dorsals broad, smooth and forming two longitudinal rows), and lateral scales keeled (smooth). Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses based on morphological and molecular data indicate the new species form a clade that is most closely related to Iphisa. We also address several nomenclatural issues and present a revised classification of Gymnophthalmidae.

 


Keywords


Reptilia, Reptiles, phylogeny, biodiversity, forest, Conservation, Amazon, South America

Full Text:

PDF/A (7.41 MB)

References


Aldrich, S., Walker, R., Simmons, C., Caldas, M. & Perz, S. (2012) Contentious land change in the Amazon's Arc of Deforestation. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 102 (1), 103–128.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00045608.2011.620501

Avila-Pires, T.C.S. (1995) Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata). Zoologische Verhandelingen, Leiden, 299, 1–706.

Bambach, R.K. (2006) Phanerozoic biodiversity mass extinctions. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 34, 127–155.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.earth.33.092203.122654

Barnosky, A.D., Matzke, N., Tomiya, S., Wogan, G.O.U., Swartz, B., Quental, T.B., Marshall, C., McGuire, J.L., Lindsey, E.L., Maguire, K.C., Mersey, B. & Ferrer, E.A. (2011) Has the Earth's sixth mass extinction already arrived? Nature, 471 (7336), 51–57.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature09678

Beer, R. (2014) Um passo para trás. Veja, 2400, 108–109.

Benton, M.J. (1995) Diversification and extinction in the history of life. Science, 268 (5207), 52–58.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.7701342

Boulenger, G.A. (1885) Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II. Iguanidae, Xenosauridae, Zonuridae, Anguidae, Anniellidae, Helodermatidae, Varanidae, Xantusiidae, Teiidae, Amphisbaenidae. Printed by Order of the Trustees, London, 497 pp.

Brooks, T.M., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Rylands, A.B., Konstant, W.R., Flick, P., Pilgrim, J., Oldfield, S., Magin, G. & Hilton-Taylor, C. (2002) Habitat loss and extinction in the hotspots of biodiversity. Conservation Biology, 16 (4), 909–923.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2002.00530.x

Brown, J.M., Hedtke, S.M., Lemmon, A.R. & Lemmon, E.M. (2010) When trees grow too long: Investigating the causes of highly inaccurate Bayesian branch-length estimates. Systematic Biology, 59 (2), 145–161.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/Sysbio/Syp081

Burt, C.E. & Burt, M.D. (1931) South American lizards in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 61 (7), 227–395.

Castoe, T.A., Doan, T.M. & Parkinson, C.L. (2004) Data partitions and complex models in Bayesian analysis: The phylogeny of Gymnophthalmid lizards. Systematic Biology, 53 (3), 448–469.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10635150490445797

Coe, M.T., Marthews, T.R., Costa, M.H., Galbraith, D.R., Greenglass, N.L., Imbuzeiro, H.M.A., Levine, N.M., Malhi, Y., Moorcroft, P.R., Muza, M.N., Powell, T.L., Saleska, S.R., Solorzano, L.A. & Wang, J.F. (2013) Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south-southeastern Amazonia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 368 (1619), 1–9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/Rstb.2012.0155

Colli, G.R., Zatz, M.G. & da Cunha, H.J. (1998) Notes on the ecology and geographical distribution of the rare gymnophthalmid lizard Bachia bresslaui. Herpetologica, 54 (2), 169–174.

Conselho Editorial do Senado Federal (2003) Missão Rondon: apontamentos sobre os trabalhos realizados pela Comissão de Linhas Telegráficas Estratégicas de Mato Grosso ao Amazonas, sob a direção do Coronel de Engenharia Cândido Mariano da Silva Rondon, de 1907 a 1915. Senado Federal, Brasília, 284 pp.

Cope, E.D. (1864) On the characters of the higher groups of Reptilia Squamata: and especially of the Diploglossa. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 16 (4), 224–231.

Cope, E.D. (1868) Sixth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 20, 305–313.

Cope, E.D. (1875) Check-list of North American Batrachia and Reptilia; with a systematic list of the higher groups, and an essay on geographical distribution. Based on the specimens contained in the U. S. National Museum. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 1, 1–104.

Costa, M.H. & Pires, G.F. (2010) Effects of Amazon and Central Brazil deforestation scenarios on the duration of the dry season in the arc of deforestation. International Journal of Climatology, 30 (13), 1970–1979.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/Joc.2048

Costello, M.J., May, R.M. & Stork, N.E. (2013) Can we name Earth's species before they go extinct? Science, 339 (6118), 413–416.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1230318

D'Angiolella, A.B., Gamble, T., Avila-Pires, T.C.S., Colli, G.R., Noonan, B.P. & Vitt, L.J. (2011) Anolis chrysolepis Duméril & Bibron, 1837 (Squamata: Polychrotidae), revisited: molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the Anolis chrysolepis species group. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 160 (2), 35–63.

Diacon, T.A. (2004) Stringing Together a Nation: Cândido Mariano da Silva Rondon and the Construction of a Modern Brazil, 1906–1930. Duke University Press, Durham, N.C., 248 pp.

Dirzo, R. & Raven, P.H. (2003) Global state of biodiversity and loss. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 28, 137–167.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.energy.28.050302.105532

Dowling, H.G. & Savage, J.M. (1960) A guide to the snake hemipenis: a survey of basic structure and systematic characteristics. Zoologica, 45, 17–28.

Duméril, A.M.C. & Bibron, C. (1839) Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Tome Cinquième. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, 854 pp.

Durieux, L., Machado, L.A.T. & Laurent, H. (2003) The impact of deforestation on cloud cover over the Amazon arc of deforestation. Remote Sensing of Environment, 86 (1), 132–140.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0034-4257(03)00095-6

Edgar, R.C. (2004) MUSCLE: a multiple sequence alignment method with reduced time and space complexity. BMC Bioinformatics, 5, 1–19.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-5-113

Fearnside, P.M. & Graça, P.M.L.D. (2006) BR-319: Brazil's Manaus-Porto Velho highway and the potential impact of linking the arc of deforestation to central Amazonia. Environmental Management, 38 (5), 705–716.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-005-0295-y

Ferreira, J., Aragão, L.E.O.C., Barlow, J., Barreto, P., Berenguer, E., Bustamante, M.C.C., Gardner, T.A., Lees, A.C., Lima, A., Louzada, J., Parry, L., Peres, C.A., Pardini, R., Pompeu, P.S., Tabarelli, M. & Zuanon, J. (2014) Brazil's environmental leadership at risk. Science, 364 (6210), 706–707.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1260194

Ferreira, L.V., Venticinque, E. & Almeida, S. (2005) O desmatamento na Amazônia e a importância das áreas protegidas. Estudos Avançados, 19, 157–166.

Fitzinger, L. (1843) Systema Reptilium. Braumüller et Seidel Bibliopolas, Vindobonae, 132 pp.

Fitzinger, L.J. (1867) Bilder-Atlas zur Wissenschaftlich-populären Naturgeschichte der Wirbelthiere. Druck und Verlag der Kaiserl. Königl. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Wien, 240 pp.

Gainsbury, A.M. & Colli, G.R. (2003) Lizard assemblages from natural cerrado enclaves in southwestern Amazonia: the role of stochastic extinctions and isolation. Biotropica, 35 (4), 503–519.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2003.tb00607.x

Gamble, T., Colli, G.R., Rodrigues, M.T., Werneck, F.P. & Simons, A.M. (2012) Phylogeny and cryptic diversity in geckos (Phyllopezus; Phyllodactylidae; Gekkota) from South America's open biomes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 62 (3), 943–953.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2011.11.033

Gamble, T., Daza, J.D., Colli, G.R., Vitt, L.J. & Bauer, A.M. (2011) A new genus of miniaturized and pug-nosed gecko from South America (Sphaerodactylidae: Gekkota). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 163 (4), 1244–1266.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00741.x

Garda, A.A., Wiederhecker, H.C., Gainsbury, A.M., Costa, G.C., Pyron, R.A., Vieira, G.H.C., Werneck, F.P. & Colli, G.R. (2013) Microhabitat variation explains local-scale distribution of terrestrial Amazonian lizards in Rondônia, western Brazil. Biotropica, 45 (2), 245–252.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2012.00906.x

Glavin, T. (2007) The Sixth Extinction: Journeys Among the Lost and Left Behind. Thomas Dunne Books, New York, 336 pp.

Gray, J.E. (1838) Catalogue of the slender-tongued saurians, with descriptions of many new genera and species. Annals of Natural History, 1 (5), 388–394.

Gray, J.E. (1845) Catalogue of the Specimens of Lizards in the Collection of the British Museum. Printed by order of the Trustees, London, 289 pp.

Gray, J.E. (1851) Description of a new genus and family of cyclosaurian lizards, from Para. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1851, 39–39.

Hansen, M.C., Stehman, S.V., Potapov, P.V., Loveland, T.R., Townshend, J.R.G., DeFries, R.S., Pittman, K.W., Arunarwati, B., Stolle, F., Steininger, M.K., Carroll, M. & DiMiceli, C. (2008) Humid tropical forest clearing from 2000 to 2005 quantified by using multitemporal and multiresolution remotely sensed data. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105 (27), 9439–9444.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073%03pnas.0804042105

Hoogmoed, M.S., Ribeiro, M.A., Jr. & Araújo, C.O. (2007) Avaliação do estado de conhecimento da herpetofauna na região da BR-163 no estado do Pará. In: Venturieri, A. (Ed.), Zoneamento ecológico-econômico da área de influência da Rodovia BR-163 (Cuiabá-Santarém). Vol. 2. EMBRAPA Amazônia Oriental (CPATU), Belém, PA, pp. 143–152.

International Commission on International Nomenclature. (1999) International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 4th Edition. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London, 306 pp.

Korfanta, N.M., Newmark, W.D. & Kauffman, M.J. (2012) Long-term demographic consequences of habitat fragmentation to a tropical understory bird community. Ecology, 93 (12), 2548–2559.

Leakey, R.E. & Lewin, R. (1995) The Sixth Extinction: Patterns of Life and the Future of Humankind. Doubleday, New York, 288 pp.

Lees, A.C. & Peres, C.A. (2006) Rapid avifaunal collapse along the Amazonian deforestation frontier. Biological Conservation, 133 (2), 198–211.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.Biocon.2006.06.005

Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1889) An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 910 pp.

Maddison, D.R. & Maddison, W.P. (2005) MacClade 4: Analysis of Phylogeny and Character Evolution. Version 4.08a. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts. Available from: http://macclade.org (accessed 30 June 2015)

Mahood, S.P., Lees, A.C. & Peres, C.A. (2012) Amazonian countryside habitats provide limited avian conservation value. Biodiversity and Conservation, 21 (2), 385–405.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S10531-011-0188-8

Manzani, P.R. & Abe, A.S. (1988) Sobre dois novos métodos de preparo do hemipenis de serpentes. Memórias do Instituto Butantan, 50, 15–20.

Marshall, D.C. (2010) Cryptic failure of partitioned Bayesian phylogenetic analyses: Lost in the land of long trees. Systematic Biology, 59 (1), 108–117.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/Sysbio/Syp080

May, R.M. (2011) Why worry about how many species and their loss? Plos Biology, 9 (8), e1001130.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001130

Mesquita, D.O., Colli, G.R., Franca, F.G.R. & Vitt, L.J. (2006) Ecology of a Cerrado lizard assemblage in the Jalapão region of Brazil. Copeia, 2006 (3), 460–471.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1643/0045-8511(2006)2006%5B460:EOACLA%5D2.0.CO;2

Mora, C., Tittensor, D.P., Adl, S., Simpson, A.G.B. & Worm, B. (2011) How many species are there on Earth and in the ocean? Plos Biology, 9 (8), e1001127.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001127

More, B. (1922) Ovid's Metamorphoses (Translation). The Cornhill Publishing Company, Boston. Available from: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0028%3Abook%3D1%3Acard%3D1 (accessed 30 June 2015)

Morton, D.C., Le Page, Y., DeFries, R., Collatz, G.J. & Hurtt, G.C. (2013) Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 368 (1619), 1–8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/Rstb.2012.0163

Nunes, P.M.S., Fouquet, A., Curcio, F.F., Kok, P.J.R. & Rodrigues, M.T. (2012) Cryptic species in Iphisa elegans Gray, 1851 (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) revealed by hemipenial morphology and molecular data. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 166 (2), 361–376.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2012.00846.x

Nylander, J.A.A. (2004) MrModeltest 2.1. Program distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Pellegrino, K.C.M., Rodrigues, M.T., Harris, D.J., Yonenaga-Yassuda, Y. & Sites, J.W. (2011) Molecular phylogeny, biogeography and insights into the origin of parthenogenesis in the Neotropical genus Leposoma (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae): Ancient links between the Atlantic Forest and Amazonia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 61 (2), 446–459.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.Ympev.2011.07.010

Pellegrino, K.C.M., Rodrigues, M.T., Yonenaga-Yassuda, Y. & Sites, J.W. Jr. (2001) A molecular perspective on the evolution of microteiid lizards (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae), and a new classification for the family. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 74 (3), 315–338.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/bijl.2001.0580

Peloso, P.L.V., Pellegrino, K.C.M., Rodrigues, M.T. & Ávila-Pires, T.C.S. (2011) Description and phylogenetic relationships of a new genus and species of lizard (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) from the Amazonian rainforest of northern Brazil. American Museum Novitates, 3713, 1–24.

Pesantes, O.S. (1994) A method for preparing the hemipenis of preserved snakes. Journal of Herpetology, 28 (1), 93–95.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1564686

Peters, J.A. & Donoso-Barros, R. (1970) Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata. Part 2. Lizards and amphisbaenians. United States National Museum Bulletin, 297, 1–293.

Pyron, R.A., Burbrink, F.T. & Wiens, J.J. (2013) A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 13, 1–53.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-13-93

Rambaut, A. & Drummond, A.J. (2007) Tracer v1.5: MCMC Trace Analyses Tool. Available from: http://tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/software/tracer/ (accessed 30 June 2015)

Raup, D.M. & Sepkoski, J.J. Jr. (1982) Mass extinctions in the marine fossil record. Science, 215 (4539), 1501–1503.

Righi, C.A., Graca, P.M.L.D., Cerri, C.C., Feigl, B.J. & Fearnside, P.M. (2009) Biomass burning in Brazil's Amazonian "arc of deforestation": Burning efficiency and charcoal formation in a fire after mechanized clearing at Feliz Natal, Mato Grosso. Forest Ecology and Management, 258 (11), 2535–2546.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.Foreco.2009.09.010

Rodrigues, M.T. (1991) Herpetofauna das dunas interiores do Rio São Francisco, Bahia, Brasil. III. Procellosaurinus: um novo gênero de microteiídeos sem pálpebra, com a redefinição do gênero Gymnophthalmus (Sauria, Teiidae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, São Paulo, 37 (21), 329–342.

Rodrigues, M.T. (1996) Lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians from the Quaternary sand dunes of the middle Rio São Francisco, Bahia, Brazil. Journal of Herpetology, 30 (4), 513–523.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1565694

Rodrigues, M.T. & Avila-Pires, T.C.S. (2005) New lizard of the genus Leposoma (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) from the lower Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. Journal of Herpetology, 39 (4), 541–546.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1670/240-04a.1

Rodrigues, M.T. & Borges, D.M. (1997) A new species of Leposoma (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from a relictual forest in semiarid northeastern Brazil. Herpetologica, 53 (1), 1–6.

Rodrigues, M.T., Camacho, A., Nunes, P.M.S., Recoder, R.S., Teixeira, M., Valdujo, P.H., Ghellere, J.M.B., Mott, T. & Nogueira, C. (2008) A new species of the lizard genus Bachia (Squamata : Gymnophthalmidae) from the Cerrados of central Brazil. Zootaxa, 1875, 39–50.

Rodrigues, M.T., Cassimiro, J., De Freitas, M.A. & Silva, T.F.S. (2009a) A new microteiid lizard of the genus Acratosaura (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from Serra do Sincorá, state of Bahia, Brazil. Zootaxa, 2013, 17–29.

Rodrigues, M.T., Cassimiro, J., Pavan, D., Curcio, F.F., Verdade, V.K. & Pellegrino, K.C.M. (2009b) A new genus of microteiid lizard from the Caparaó mountains, southeastern Brazil, with a discussion of relationships among Gymnophthalminae (Squamata). American Museum Novitates, 3673, 1–27.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1206/622.1

Rodrigues, M.T., Freire, E.M.X., Pellegrino, K.C.M. & Sites, J.W. Jr. (2005) Phylogenetic relationships of a new genus and species of microteiid lizard from the Atlantic forest of north-eastern Brazil (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 144 (4), 543–557.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2005.00177.x

Rodrigues, M.T., Pavan, D. & Curcio, F.F. (2007a) Two new species of lizards of the genus Bachia (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) from central Brazil. Journal of Herpetology, 41 (4), 545–553.

Rodrigues, M.T., Pellegrino, K.C.M., Dixo, M., Verdade, V.K., Pavan, D., Argolo, A.J.S. & Sites, J.W. (2007b) A new genus of microteiid lizard from the Atlantic forests of state of Bahia, Brazil, with a new generic name for Colobosaura mentalis, and a discussion of relationships among the Heterodactylini (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae). American Museum Novitates, 3565, 1–27.

Rodrigues, M.T., Teixeira, M., Recoder, R.S., Dal Vechio, F., Damasceno, R. & Pellegrino, K.C.M. (2013) A new species of Leposoma (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) with four fingers from the Atlantic Forest central corridor in Bahia, Brazil. Zootaxa, 3635 (4), 459–475.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/Zootaxa.3635.4.7

Ronquist, F. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. (2003) MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics, 19 (12), 1572–4.

Roosevelt, T. (1914) Through the Brazilian Wilderness. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 278 pp.

Savage, J.M. (1997) On terminology for the description of the hemipenes of squamate reptiles. Herpetological Journal, 7 (1), 23–25.

Scheffers, B.R., Joppa, L.N., Pimm, S.L. & Laurance, W.F. (2012) What we know and don't know about Earth's missing biodiversity. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 27 (9), 501–510.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2012.05.008

Schinz, H.R. (1833) Naturgeschichte und Abbildungen der Reptilien. Aus Brodtmann's lithographischer Kunstanstalt, Schaffhausen, 240 pp.

Stamatakis, A. (2006) RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics, 22 (21), 2688–90.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btl446

Swofford, D.L. (2002) PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analyses Using Parsimony (and other methods). Sinauer Associates, Sunderland

Teixeira, M. Jr., Dal Vechio, F., Nunes, P.M.S., Neto, A.M., Lobo, L.M., Storti, L.F., Gaiga, R.A.J., Dias, P.H.F. & Rodrigues, M.T. (2013a) A new species of Bachia Gray, 1845 (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the western Brazilian Amazonia. Zootaxa, 3636 (3), 401–420.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3636.3.1

Teixeira, M., Jr., Recoder, R.S., Camacho, A., De Sena, M.A., Navas, C.A. & Rodrigues, M.T. (2013b) A new species of Bachia Gray, 1845 (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the eastern Brazilian Cerrado, and data on its ecology, physiology and behavior. Zootaxa, 3616 (2), 173–189.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3616.2.6

Tschudi, J.J. (1847) Die familie der Ecpleopoda. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 13, 41–60.

Uetz, P., Goll, J. & Hallermann, J. (2007) Die TIGR-Reptiliendatenbank. Elaphe, 15 (3), 22–25.

Uzzell, T. (1973) A revision of lizards of the genus Prionodactylus, with a new genus for P. leucostictus and notes on the genus Euspondylus (Sauria, Teiidae). Postilla, 159, 1–67.

Vitt, L.J., Avila-Pires, T.C.S., Zani, P.A., Esposito, M.C. & Sartorius, S.S. (2003) Life at the interface: ecology of Prionodactylus oshaughnessyi in the western Amazon and comparisons with P. argulus and P. eigenmanni. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne de Zoologie, 81 (2), 302–312.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/z03-004

Vitt, L.J. & Caldwell, J.P. (2009) Herpetology. An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Elsevier Inc., Burlington, MA, 720 pp.

Vitt, L.J., Magnusson, W.E., Pires, T.C.A. & Lima, A.P. (2008) Guia de Lagartos da Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Amazônia Central / Guide to the Lizards of Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Central Amazonia. Áttema Design Editorial, Manaus, 176 pp.

Werneck, F.P., Gamble, T., Colli, G.R., Rodrigues, M.T. & Sites, J.W. (2012) Deep diversification and long-term persistence in the South American 'dry diagonal': Integrating continent-wide phylogeography and distribution modeling of geckos. Evolution, 66 (10), 3014–3034.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2012.01682.x

Zaher, H. (1999) Hemipenial morphology of the South American xenodontine snakes, with a proposal for a monophyletic Xenodontinae and a reappraisal of colubroid hemipenes. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 240, 1–168.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4000.4.1

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa