DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15560/13.1.2033

Amphibians of the Sikkim Himalaya, India: an annotated checklist

Barkha Subba, Neelvara Ananthram Aravind, Gudasalamani Ravikanth

Abstract


We present an annotated list of amphibians for the state of Sikkim, India. Data were obtained through literature reviews, fieldwork and review of museum collections. Forty-four species of amphibians belonging to 20 genera in eight families and three orders have been reported in Sikkim from 1864 to 2015. During our fieldwork, we recorded 23 species, of which two are new records for the state.

Keywords


species inventory; new records; updated list; identification; Eastern Himalaya

Full Text:

PDF/A

References


Agarwal, I. & V.K. Mistry. 2008. Bufo stuarti from western Arunachal Pradesh, India. Russian Journal of Herpetology 15(2): 166–168.

Anderson, J.1871. A list of the reptilian accessions to the Indian Museum, Calcutta, from 1865 to 1870, with a description of some new species. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 40: 12–28. http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/35630820

Annandale, N. 1908. Breeding habits of Tylototriton verrucosus.
Records of the Indian Museum 2: 305–306.

Annandale, N. 1912. Zoological results of the Abor Expedition, 1911–1912. Amphibia: Records of the Indian Museum 8: 7–36.

Ao, J., S. Bordoloi & A. Ohler. 2003. Amphibian fauna of Nagaland with nineteen new records from the state including five new records for India. Zoos’ Print Journal 6: 1117–1125.

Arrawatia M.L. & S. Tambe. 2011. Biodiversity of Sikkim — exploring and conserving a global hotspot. Gangtok: Information and Public Relation Department, Government of Sikkim,.

Boulenger, G.A. 1882. Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia s. Equadata in the collection of the British Museum. Second Edition. London: Taylor and Francis. 596 pp. doi: 10.5962/bhl.title.20903

Boulenger, G.A. 1890. The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma, Reptilia and Batrachia. London: Taylor and Francis. 539 pp.

Boulenger, G.A. 1908. A revision of the Oriental pelobatid batrachians (genus Megalophrys). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1908: 407–430. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.1908.tb01852.x

Boulenger, G.A. 1920. A monograph of the South Asian, Papuan, Melanesian and Australian frogs of the genus Rana. Records of the Indian Museum 20: 1–226. doi: 10.5962/bhl.title.12471

Campbell, A. 1840. Note on the Lepchas of Sikkim, with a vocabulary of their language. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 9: 379–393. http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/39938604

Chanda, S.K. 2002. Hand book of Indian amphibians. Calcutta: Zoological Survey of India. 335 pp.

Chaudhuri, S.K. 1966. Studies on Tylototriton verrucosus (Himalayan Newt) found in Darjeeling. Journal of the Bengal Natural History Society 35(1): 32–36.

Chettri, B., S. Bhupathy & B.K. Acharya. 2011. An overview of the herpetofauna of Sikkim with emphasis on the elevational distribution pattern and threats and conservation issues; pp. 233–254, in: M.L. Arrawatia and S. Tambe (eds.). Biodiversity of Sikkim: exploring and conserving a global hotspot. Gangtok: Information and Public Relations Department, Government of Sikkim.

Dasgupta, R. 1990. Distribution and conservation problems of the Himalayan Newt (Tylototriton verrucosus) in the Darjeeling Himalayas. Hamadryad 15(1): 13–15.

Deuti, K. & V. D. Hegde. 2007. Handbook on Himalayan salamander. New Delhi: Nature Books India. 43 pp.

Djong, T. H., M. M. Islam, M. Nishioka, M. Matsui, H. Ota, et al. 2007. Genetic relationships and reproductive isolation mechanisms among the Fejervarya limnocharis complex from Indonesia (Java) and other Asian countries. Zoological Science 24(4): 360–375. doi: 10.2108/zsj.24.360

Dinesh, K.P., C. Radhakrishnan, B.H. Channakeshavamurthy & N.U. Kulkarni. 2015a. Checklist of Amphibia of India (updated till January 2015). Accessed at http://mhadeiresearchcenter.org/resources, 1 January 2016.

Dinesh, K.P., S.P. Vijayakumar, B.H. Channakeshavamurthy, V.R. Toreskar, N.U. Kulkarni & K. Shanker. 2015b. Systematic status of Fejervarya (Amphibia, Anura, Dicroglossidae) from South and SE Asia with the description of a new species from the Western Ghats of Peninsular India. Zootaxa 3999: 79–94. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3999.1.5

Dubois, A. 1975. Une nouveau complexe d’espèces jumelles distinguées par le chant: les grenouilles de Népal voisines de Rana limnocharis Boie (Amphibienes, Anoures). Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences 28: 1717–1720.

Dubois, A. 1976. Les grenouilles du sous-genre Paa du Nepal. Famille Ranidae genre Rana. Bibliographie du Népal. Cahiers Népalais. Documents 6: vi + 275.

Dubois, A. & M. Matsui.1983. A new species of frog (genus Rana, subgenus Paa) from western Nepal (Amphibia: Anura). Copeia 1983: 895–901. doi: 10.2307/1445091

Dubois, A. & A. Ohler. 1999. Asian and Oriental toads of the Bufo melanostictus, Bufo scaber and Bufo steinegeri groups (Amphibia, Anura): a list of available and valid names and redescription of some name bearing types. Journal of South Asian Natural History 4: 133–180.

Dubois, A. 2004. Amphibians of Nepal: a few words of caution. Alytes 21(3): 174–180

Frost, D.R. 2016. Amphibian species of the world: an online reference. Version 6.0. Accessed at http://research.amnh.org/vz/herpetology/amphibia/index.html, 1 July 2016.

Gammie, J.1928. Reptiles; pp. 188–190, in: H.H. Risley (ed.). The gazetter of Sikhim. Delhi: Low Price Publications.

Gray, J.E. 1853. Descriptions of some undescribed species of reptiles collected by Dr. Joseph Hooker in the Khassia Mountains, East Bengal and Sikkim-Himalaya. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (2nd series) 12: 386–392. http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/22191820

Günther, A.C.L.G. 1858. Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia in the collection of the British Museum. London. Taylor and Francis. 160 pp. http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/8412080

Günther, A.C.L.G. 1864. The reptiles of British India. London: Ray Society. 216 pp. doi: 10.5962/bhl.title.5012

Hooker, J.D. 1849. The Rhododendrons of Sikkim Himalaya; An account, botanical and geographical, of the Rhododendrons recently discovered in the mountains of Eastern Himalaya, from drawings and descriptions made on the spot, during a government botanical mission to that country. London: Keevi, Benham and Reeve. 87 pp. http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11630657

Howlader, M.S.A. 2011. Cricket frog (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae): two regions of Asia are two groups. Bangladesh Wildlife Bulletin 5: 1–7.

Inger, R.F. & S.K. Dutta.1986. An overview of the amphibian fauna of India. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 83 (supplement) 83: 135–146.

IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature). 2016. The IUCN Red List of threatened species. Version 2016-1. Accessed at http://www.iucnredlist.org on 1 July 2016.

Jerdon, T.C.1870. Notes on some new species of birds from the north-eastern frontier of India. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 1870: 59–61. http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/ 41777551

Jha, A. & K. Thapa. 2002. Reptiles and amphibians of Sikkim. Chhattisgarh: 60 pp.

Kotaki, M., A. Kurabayashi , M. Matsui, W. Khonsue, T.H. Djong & M. Tandon. 2008. Genetic divergences and phylogenetic relationships among the Fejervarya limnocharis complex in Thailand and neighboring countries revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Zoological Science 25 (4): 381–390. doi: 10.2108/zsj.25.381

Kotaki, M., A. Kurabayashi , M.Matsui , M. Kuramoto, T.H. Djong & M. Sumida. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the diversified frogs of genus Fejervarya (Anura: Dicroglossidae). Zoological Science 27(5): 386–395. doi: 10.2108/zsj.27.386

Luu, V.Q.T. Calame, T.Q. Nguyen, A. Ohler, M. Bonkowski & T. Ziegler. 2014. First records of Gracixalus supercornutus (Orlov, Ho and Nyugen, 2004) and Rhacophorus maximus Günther, 1858 from Laos. Herpetology Notes 7: 419–423.

Mahony, S., E.C. Teeling & S.D. Biju. 2013. Three new species of horned frogs, Megophrys (Amphibia: Megophryidae), from northeast India, with a resolution to the identity of Megophrys boettgeri populations reported from the region. Zootaxa 3722(2): 143–169. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3722.2.2

Mathew, R. & N. Sen. 2010. Pictorial guide to the amphibians of north east India. Kolkota: Zoological Survey of India. 144 pp.

McCann, C. 1932. Notes on Indian batrachians. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 36: 152–180. http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/48198985

McKay, J. L. 2006. A field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of Bali. Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company. 138 pp.

Mittermeier, R.A., W.R.Turner, F.W. Larsen, T.M. Brooks & C. Gascon. 2011. Global biodiversity conservation: the critical role of hotspots; pp. 3–7, in: F.E. Zachos & J.C. Habel (eds.). Biodiversity hotspots. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

Nag, S. & K. Vasudevan 2014. Observations on overwintering larvae of Tylototriton verrucosus (Caudata: Salamandridae) in Darjeeling, Himalaya, India. Salamandra 50(4): 245–248.

Nanhoe, L.M.R. & P.E. Ouboter. 1987. The distribution of reptiles and amphibians in the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri region (Nepal). Zooligische Verhandeligen 240: 1–105.

Ohler, A. & A. Dubois. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships and generic taxonomy of the tribe Paini (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae, Dicriglossinae) with diagnoses of two new genera. Zoosystema 28: 769–784.

Reza, A.H.M.A. 2008. Geographic distribution: Occydozyga borealis. Herpetological Review 39(2): 235.

Sailo, S., H.T. Lalremsanga, R.N.K. Hooroo & A. Ohler. 2009. Ingerana borealis (Annandale, 1912): a new record from Mizoram (India), with notes on its systematic position and natural history. Alytes 27: 1–12.

Sarkar, A.K., M.L. Biswas & S. Ray. 1992. Fauna of West Bengal: Amphibia. Calcutta: Zoological Survey of India. State Fauna Series 3: 67–100.

Sarkar, A.K., & S. Ray. 2006. Amphibia; pp. 285–316, in: J.R.B. Alfred (ed.), Fauna of Arunachal Pradesh. Part 1. Calcutta: Zoological Survey of India.

Schleich, H.H. & W. Kastle. 2002. Amphibians and reptiles of Nepal. Koenigstein: Koeltz Scientific Books. 1201 pp.

Shah, K.B. & S. Tiwari. 2004. Herpetofauna of Nepal. A conservation companion. Kathmandu, Nepal: IUCN Nepal / The World Conservation Union. 237 pp.

Shrestha, T.K. 2001. Herpetology of Nepal: a study of amphibians and reptiles of Trans-Himalayan region of Nepal, India, Pakistan and Bhutan. Kathmandu: privately printed. 280 pp.

Smith, M.A. 1929. On a collection of amphibians and reptiles from the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra. Records of the Indian Museum 31: 77–80.

Subba, B., G. Ravikanth & N.A. Aravind. 2015. Scaling new heights: first record of Boulenger’s Lazy Toad, Scutiger boulengeri (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae) from high altitude lake in Sikkim Himalaya, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(10): 7655–7663. doi: 10.11609/JoTT.o4325.7655-63

Sumarli, A.X., L.L. Grismer, S. Aanuar, M.A.Muin, E.S.H. Quah, et al. 2015. First report on the amphibians and reptiles of a remote mountain, Gunung Tebu in northeastern Peninsular Malaysia. Check List 11(4): 1679. doi: 10.15560/11.4.1679

Swan, L.W. 1947. Distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the mountains of Southeastern Asia [MA thesis]. Stanford: Stanford University. 91 pp.

Swan, L.W. & A.E. Leviton. 1962. The herpetology of Nepal: a history, checklist and zoogeographical analysis of the herpetofauna; pp. 103–147, in: E.L. Kessel (ed.). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (4th Series) 32(6). http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/15772985

Swan, L.W. 1993. The Satpura hypothesis: a biogeographical challenge to geology. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 90: 141–162.

Tambe, S., G. Kharel, M.L. Arrawatia, H. Kulkarni, K. Mahamuni & A.K. Ganeriwala. 2012. Reviving dying springs: climate change adaptation experiments from the Sikkim Himalaya. Mountain Research and Development 32(1):62–72. doi: 10.1659/mrd-journal-d-11-00079.1

Taylor, E.H. 1968. The caecilians of the world: a taxonomic review. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. 790 pp.

Tickell, S.R. 1843. Notes on a curious species of tiger or jaguar, killed near the snowy range, north of Darjeeling. Journal of Asiatic Society Bengal 12(2): 814–816.

Waltner, R.C. 1973. Geographical and altitudinal distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the Himalayas (Part I). Cheetal 16: 28–36.

Wogan, G.O.U., H. Win, T. Thin, K.S. Lwin, A.K. Shein, et al. 2003. Description a new species of Bufo (Anura: Bufonidae) from Myanmar and redescription of the little known species Bufo stuarti. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 54: 141–153. http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/40724332

Wogan, G.O.U., J.V. Vindum, J.A. Wilkinson, M.S. Koo, J.B. Slowinski, et al. 2008. New country records and range extensions for Myanmar amphibians and reptiles. Hamadryad 33(1): 83.

Yang, D.-T. 1991. Phylogenetic systematics of the Amolops group of ranid frogs of Southeastern Asia and the Greater Sunda Islands. Fieldiana, Zoology (New Series) 63: 1–46. doi: 10.5962/bhl.title.2854

Ye,C., L. Fei, G. Wi & N. Xu. 1992. Study on the phylogenetic relationship between species of Scutiger genus in Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (Amphibia: Pelobatidae). Acta Herpetologica Sinica 2: 27–39. [In Chinese].

Zhao, E.M. & K. Adler. 1993. Herperology of China. Oxford, Ohio: The Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 132 pp.






Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.