Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.158.1.3

Transfer of Fragilaria atomus Hust. to the genus Stauroforma (Bacillariophyta) based on observation of type and newly collected material

Dávia Talgatti, Carlos E. Wetzel, Eduardo A. Morales, Luc Ector, Lezilda Carvalho Torgan

Abstract


Fragilaria atomus was described from a brackish water lagoon in southern Finland and has subsequently been reported from several localities worldwide. However, due to its small size, it can be easily mistaken with other small, morphologically similar araphid diatoms. To clarify the morphological, metric and structural features of the species, lectotype material from BRM (Hustedt’s diatom collection) and specimens from salt marshes in Brazil were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. Fragilaria atomus is compared to seven morphologically similar taxa belonging to Fragilaria, Stauroforma and Psammoneis. The results revealed that some important features of Fragilaria (discoid closing plates, rimoportulae and spines) are not present in F. atomus. The absence of these structures, together with the opposite striation pattern, round areolae, features of the apical pore field, and reduced or absent sternum, suggest that a transfer of F. atomus to Stauroforma is appropriate. The distribution and ecology of F. atomus is discussed.


Keywords


araphids, Bacillariophyceae, Brazil, diatoms, Fragilaria atomus, Hustedt Collection, salt marsh, South America, Stauroforma, taxonomy, type material

Full Text:

PDF/A (3.03 MB)

References


Ács, É., Morales, E.A., Kiss, K.T, Bolla, B., Plenkovic-Moraj, A., Reskóné, M.N. & Ector, L. (2009) Staurosira grigorszkyi nom. nov. (Bacillariophyceae) as araphid diatom from Lake Balaton, Hungary, with notes on Fragilaria hungarica Pantocsek. Nova Hedwigia 89: 469–483.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1127/0029-5035/2009/0089-0469

Andrén, T., Andrén, E., Berglund, B.E. & Yu, S.-Y. (2007) New insights on the Yoldia Sea low stand in the Blekinge archipelago, southern Baltic Sea. GFF 129: 277–285.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/11035890701294277

Anonymous (1975) Proposals for standardization of diatom terminology and diagnoses. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 53: 323–354.

Antsiferova, A. & Bogatyrëva S.N. (2009) Nizshie sinezelën' īe i diatomov'īe vodorosli gosudarstvennofo prirodnogo zapovednika "Voroninski ĭ". Emel’ianov (predsedatel’), V.V., Gudina, A.N., Egorov, A.A., Campdurova, L.E.Trud’ īgosudarstvnnogo prirodnog zapovednika «Voroninski ĭ» [Proceedings of the State Nature Reserve «Voroninskiy»] 1: 52–107.

Austin, P., Mackay, A., Palagushkina, O. & Leng, M. (2007) A high-resolution diatom-inferred palaeoconductivity and lake level record of the Aral Sea for the last 1600 yr. Quaternary Research 67: 383–393.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yqres.2007.01.009

Bahls, L.L. (2004) Biological integrity of Careless Creek based on the structure and composition of the benthic algae community. Helena, Mont.: Montana Dept. of Environmental Quality: 18 pp.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.24628

Bąk, M., Witkowski, A. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (2006) Diatom flora diversity in the strongly eutrophicated and β-mesosaprobic waters of the Szczecon Lagoon, NW Poland, southern Baltic Sea. In: Ognajanova-Rumenova, N. & Manoylov, K. (eds.) Advances in Phycological studies. Pensoft Publishers & University Publishing House Sofia, Moscow, pp. 293–317.

Barber, H.G. & Haworth, E.V. (1981) A guide to the morphology of the diatom frustule with a key to the British freshwater genera. Freshwater Biological Association Scientific Publication 44: 1–112.

Bogaczewicz-Adamczak, B. & Dziengo, M. (2003) Using benthic diatom communities and diatom indices to assess water pollution in the Puck Bay (southern Baltic Sea) littoral zone. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies 32: 131–157.

Bradbury, J.P., Grosjean, M., Stine, S. & Sylvestre, F. (2001) Full and late glacial lake records along the PEP1 Transect: Their role in developing interhemispheric palaeoclimate interactions. In: Markgraf, V. (ed.) Interhemispheric Climate Linkages. Academic Press, New York, pp. 265–291.

Brockmann, C. (1950) Die Watt-Diatomeen der schleswig-holsteinischen Westküste. Abhandlugen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main 478: 1–26.

Burton, T.M., Oemke, M.P. & Molloy, J.M. (1994) Effects of stream order and alkalinity on the composition of diatom communities in two northern Michigan river systems. In Kociolek, J.P. (Ed.) Proceedings of the Eleventh International Diatom Symposium. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, pp. 609–620.

Busse, S. & Snoeijs, P. (2002) Gradient responses of diatom communities in the Bothnian Bay, northern Baltic Sea. Nova Hedwigia 74: 501–525.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1127/0029-5035/2002/0074-0501

Busse, S. & Snoeijs, P. (2003) Gradient responses of diatom communities in the Bothnian Sea (northern Baltic Sea), with emphasis on responses to water movement. Phycologia 42: 451–464.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2216/i0031-8884-42-5-451.1

Caraus, I. (2002) The algae of Romania. A distributional checklist of actual algae. Studii şi Cercetări, Biologie. Universitatea Bacău 7: 1–694.

Cleve, P.T. & Grunow, A. (1880) Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Arctischen Diatomeen. Kongliga Svenska-Vetenskaps Akademiens Handlingar 17: 1–121.

Cleve-Euler, A. (1953) Die Diatomeen von Schweden und Finnland. Part II, Arraphideae, Brachyraphideae. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handligar, ser. 4, 4: 1–158.

Denys, L. (1989) Observations on the transition from Calais deposits to surface peat in the western Belgian Coastal plain. Results of a paleoenvironmental diatom study. Professional Paper Belgische Geologische Dienst 241: 20–43.

Donkin, A.S. (1861) On the marine Diatomaceae of Northumberland with a description of several new species. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, new series, London 1: 1–15.

Ehrenberg, C.G. (1838) Die Infusionsthierchen als vollkommene Organismen. Ein Blick in das tiefere organische Leben der Natur. Verlag von Leopold Voss, Leipzig. pp. 1–xvii, 1–548, pls 1–64. [two volumes: Text, Atlas]

Ehrenberg, C.G. (1843) Mittheilungen über 2 neue asiatische Lager fossiler Infusorien-Erden aus dem russischen Trans-Kaukasien (Grusien) und Sibirien. Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlich-Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1843: 43–49.

Flower, R.J., Jones, V.J. & Round, F.E. (1996) The distribution and classification of the problematic Fragilaria (virescens v.) exigua Grun./ Fragilaria exiguiformis (Grun.) Lange-Bertalot: a new species or a new genus? Diatom Research 11: 41–57.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.1996.9705363

Garcia, M. (2006) The transfer of Fragilaria obtusa Hustedt to the genus Staurosira Ehrenberg (Bacillariophyceae). Phycological Research 54: 87–93.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1835.2006.00412.x

Gibson, J.A.E., Roberts, D. & Van de Vijver, B. (2006) Salinity control of the distribution of diatoms in lakes of the Bunger Hills, East Antarctica. Polar Biology 29: 694–704.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00300-006-0107-8

Gregory, W. (1857) On the Post-Tertiary diatomaceous and of Glenshira. Part II. Transactions of the Microscopical Society of London 5: 67–88.

Horton, B.P., Corbett, R., Culver, S.J., Edwards, R.J. & Hillier, C. (2006) Modern saltmarsh diatom distributions of the Outer Banks, North Carolina, and the development of a transfer function for high resolution reconstructions of sea level. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 69: 381–394.

Hustedt, F. (1931) Die Kieselalgen Deutschlands, Österreichs und der Schweiz. In: Dr. L. Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamenflora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft. Band 7, Teil 2, Lief. 1: 1–176.

Krammer, K. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (1991) Bacillariophyceae 3, Centrales, Fragilariaceae, Eunotiaceae. In: Ettl, H., Gerloff, J., Heynig, H. & Mollenhauer, D. (eds), Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Fisher, Stuttgart 2 (3): 576 pp.

Krauss, F. (1845) Pflanzen des Cap- und Natal–Landes, gesammelt und zusammengestellt. Flora oder Botanische Zeitung, Regensburg 28: 337–344.

Krayesky, D.M., Meave del Castillo, E., Zamudio, E., Norris, J.N. & Fredericq, S. (2009) Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) of the Gulf of Mexico. In: Felder, D.L. & Camp, D. K. (eds) Gulf of Mexico: Its Origin, Waters, and Biota. I. Biodiversity. Texas A & M University Press, United States of America, pp. 155–185.

Kützing, F.T. (1849) Species Algarum. Lipsiae. F.A. Brockhaus, 922 pp.

Leśniewska, M. & Witak, M. (2008) Holocene diatom biostratigraphy of the SW Gulf of Gdańsk, Southern Baltic Sea (part III). Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies 37: 32–52.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/v10009-008-0017-x

Leśniewska, M. & Witak, M. (2011) Diatoms as indicators of eutrophication in the SW part of the Gulf of Gdańsk, the Baltic Sea. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies 40: 68–81.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s13545-011-00 08-5

López Fuerte, F.O., Siqueiros Beltrones, D.A. & Navarro, J.N. (2010) Benthic diatoms associated with mangrove environments in the northwest region of México. CONABIO-UABCS-CICIMAR-IPN, Comité Editorial de CICIMAR-Oceánides. México, 206 pp.

Lyngbye, H.C. (1819) Tentamen hydrophytologiae danicae continens omnia hydrophyta cryptogama Daniae, Holsatiae, Faeroae, Islandiae, Groenlandiae hucusque cognita, systematice disposita, descripta et iconibus illustrata, adjectis simul speciebus norvegicis. pp. i–xxxii, 1–248, 70 pls. Hafniae [Copenhagen]: typis Schultzianis, in commissis Librariae Gyldendaliae.

Majewska, R., Zgrundo, A., Lemke, P. & De Stefano, M. (2012) Benthic diatoms of the Vistula River estuary (Northern Poland): Seasonality, substrata preferences, and the influence of water chemistry. Phycological Research 60: 1–19.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1835.2011.00637.x

Mereschkowsky, C. (1902) Sur Catenula, un nouveau genre de diatomées. Scripta Botanica (Botanisheskia Zapiski, St. Petersburg) 19: 93–116.

Morales, E.A. (2001) Morphological studies in selected fragilarioid diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) from Connecticut waters (U.S.A.). Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 151: 105–120.

Morales, E.A. (2002) Studies in selected fragilarioid diatoms of potential indicator value from Florida (USA) with notes on the genus Opephora Petit (Bacillariophyceae). Limnologica 32: 102–113.

Morales, E.A. & Edlund, M.B. (2003) Studies in selected fragilarioid diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) from Lake Hovsgol, Mongolia. Phycological Research 51: 225–239.

Morales, E.A. & Manoylov, K.M. (2006) Morphological studies on selected taxa in the genus Staurosirella Williams et Round (Bacillariophyceae) from rivers in North America. Diatom Research 21: 343–364.

Morales, E.A., Novais, M.H., Chávez, G., Hoffmann L. & Ector, L. (2012) Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) from the Bolivian Altiplano: three new araphid species from the Desaguadero River draining lake Titicaca. Fottea 12: 41–58.

Partridge, T.C., Kerr, S.J., Metcalfe, S.E., Scott, L., Talma, A.S. & Vogel, J.C. (1993) The Pretoria Saltpan: a 200000 year Southern African lacustrine sequence. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeocology 101: 317–337.

Poulin, M., Bérard-Therriault, L. & Cardinal, A. (1984) Les diatomées benthiques de substrats durs des eaux marines et saumâtres du Québec 3. Fragilarioideae (Fragilariales, Fragilariaceae). Naturaliste Canadien (Revue d'Ecologie et de Systématique) 111: 349–367.

Poulin, M., Bérard-Therriault & Cardinal, A. (1986) Fragilaria and Synedra (Bacillariophyceae): a morphological and ultrastrutural approach. Diatom Research 1 (1): 99–112.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.1986.9704961

Prasad, A.K.S.K. & Livingston, R.J. (1993) Frustule morphology of the planktonic pennate diatom Fragilaria gessneri Hustedt (Bacillariophyta) from the Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico, with a description of Desikaneis gen. nov. Phycologia 32: 434–443.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2216/i0031-8884-32-6-434.1

Prasad, A.K.S.K., Nienow, J.A. & Linvingston, R.J. (1990) The genus Cyclotella (Bacillariophyta) in Chocktawhatchee Bay, Florida, with special reference to C. striata and C. choctawhatcheeana sp. nov. Phycologia 29: 418–436.

Rabenhorst, L. (1860) Die Algen Sachsens resp. Mittel-Europa’s. Decas 95-96. nos 943-953.

Rosen, B.H. & Lowe, R.L. (1981) Valve ultrastructure of some confusing Fragilariaceae. Micron 22: 293–294.

Round, F.E. (1984) The circumscription of Synedra and Fragilaria and their subgroupings. In: Mann, D.G. (ed.). Proceedings of the Seventh International Diatom Symposium, Koeltz, Koenigstein, pp. 241–253.

Round, F.E. & Bukhtiyarova, L. (1996) Four new genera based on Achnanthes (Achnanthidium) together with a re-definition of Achnanthidium. Diatom Research 11: 345–361.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.1996.9705389

Round, F.E., Crawford, R.M. & Mann, D.G. (1990) The Diatoms. Biology & morphology of the genera. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 741 pp.

Ryves, D.B., Clarke, A.L., Appleby, P.G., Amsinck, S.L., Jeppesen, E., Landkildehus, F. & Anderson, N.J. (2004) Reconstructing the salinity and environment of the Limfjord and Vejlerne Nature Reserve, Denmark, using a diatom model for brackish lakes and fjords. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61: 1988–2006.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/f04-127

Sabbe, K. (1997) Systematics and ecology of intertidal benthic diatoms of the Westerschelde estuary (The Netherlands). Thesis, University of Ghent, Ghent.

Sabbe, K. & Vyverman, W. (1995) Taxonomy, morphology and ecology of some widespread representatives of the diatom genus Opephora. European Journal of Phycology 30: 235–249.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09670269500651011

Sar, E. (1996) Flora diatomologica de Bahia San Antonio (Prov. de Rio Negro, Argentina). O. Pennales I. Revista del Museo de La Plata 14, Botánica 107: 309–432.

Sato, S., Kooistra, W.H.C.F., Watanabe, T., Matsumoto, S. & Medlin, L.K. (2008) A new araphid diatom genus Psammoneis gen. nov. (Plagiogrammaceae, Bacillariophyta) with three new species based on SSU and LSU rDNA sequence data and morphology. Phycologia 47: 510–528.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2216/08-04.1

Schmidt, A. (1875) Atlas der Diatomaceen-kunde. Aschersleben, Commissions-Verlag Von Ludwig Siever’s Buchandlung Series I (Heft 7): pls 25–28.

Simonsen, R. (1959) Neue Diatomeen aus der Ostsee. I. Kieler Meeresforschungen 15: 74–83.

Simonsen, R. (1987) Atlas and Catalogue of the Diatom Types of Friedrich Hustedt. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. Vol: 1–3, 525 pp., 772 pls.

Snoeijs, P.J.M. (Ed.) (1993) Intercalibration and distribution of diatom species in the Baltic Sea, Vol. 1. Baltic Marine Biologists Publication No. 16a. Opulus Press, Uppsala, 129 pp.

Snoeijs, P.J.M., Hällfors, G. & Leskinen, E. (1991) The transfer of two epipsammic diatom species to the genus Martyana. Diatom Research 6: 165–173.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.1991.9705155

Stockner, J.G. & Lund, J.W.G. (1970) Live algae in postglacial lake deposits. Limnology and Oceanography 15: 41–58.

Stoermer, E.F. & Kreis, R.G.Jr. (1978) Preliminary checklist of diatoms (Bacillariophyta) from the Laurentian Great Lakes. International Association for Great Lakes Research 4: 149–169.

Sullivan, M.J. (1982) Similarity of an epiphytic and edaphic diatom community associated with Spartina alterniflora. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 101: 84–90.

Torgan, L.C., Donadel, L. & Gonçalves da Silva, J. (2010) A transferência de Navicula sovereignae Hustedt para o gênero Placoneis Mereschkowsky (Bacillariophyta). Iheringia, Série Botânica, Porto Alegre 65: 107–114.

Tuji, A. & Williams, D.M. (2006) Examination of the type material of Synedra rumpens=Fragilaria rumpens, Bacillariophyceae. Phycological Research 54: 99–103.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1835.2006.00414.x

Tuji, A. & Williams, D.M. (2008) Examination of types in the Fragilaria pectinalis-capitellata species complex. In: Likhoshway Y. (ed.). Proceedings of the 19th International Diatom Symposium, Listvyanka, Russia, 2006. Biopress Limited, Bristol, U.K. pp. 125–139.

Ulanova, A. & Snoeijs, P. (2006) Gradient responses of epilithic diatom communities in the Baltic Sea proper. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 68: 661–674.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2006.03.014

Ulanova, A., Busse, S. & Snoeijs, P. (2009) Coastal diatom-environment relationships in the brackish Baltic Sea. Journal of Phycology 45: 54–68.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2008.00628.x

Van Heurck, H. (1881) Synopsis des Diatomées de Belgique. Atlas. Ducaju & Cie., Anvers. pls 31–77.

Verweij, G. & Mertens, A. (2008) Prepareermethoden onder de loep. Diatomededelingen 32: 45–51.

Vilbaste, S., Sundbäck, K., Nilsson, C. & Truu, J. (2000) Distribution of benthic diatoms in the littoral zone of the Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea. European Journal of Phycology 35: 373–385.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09670260010001735981

Weckström, K. & Juggins, S. (2005) Coastal diatom-environment relationships from the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea. Journal of Phycology 42: 21–35.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2006.00166.x

Williams, D.M. & Round, F.E. (1987) Revision of the genus Fragilaria. Diatom Research 2: 267–288.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.1987.9705004

Williams, D.M. & Round, F.E. (1988) Fragilarifoma, nom. nov., a new generic name for Neofragilaria Williams & Round. Diatom Research 3: 265–267.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.1988.9705039

Witak, M. (2013) Diatom biofacies in the SW Gulf of Gdańsk and the Vistula Lagoon (the southern Baltic Sea) as indicators of the basin evolution in the Middle and Late Holocene. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies 42: 70–88.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s13545-013-0052-4

Witak, M. & Jankowska, D. (2005) The Vistula Lagoon evolution based on diatom records. Baltica 18: 68–76.

Witak, M., Boryn, K. & Mayer, A. (2005) Holocene environmental changes recorded by diatom stratigraphy in the Vistula Lagoon. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies 34: 111–113.

Witak, M. & Dunder, J. (2007) Holocene diatom biostratigraphy of the SW Gulf of Gdańsk, Southern Baltic Sea (part II). Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies 36: 3–20.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/v10009-007-0021-6

Witkowski, A. (1993a) Fragilaria gedanensis sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae), a new epipsammic diatom species from the Baltic Sea. Nova Hedwigia 56: 497–503.

Witkowski, A. (1993b) Fallacia florinae (Moeller) comb. nov., a marine, epipsammic diatom. Diatom Research 8: 215–219.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.1993.9705254

Witkowski, A. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (1993) Established and new diatom taxa related to Fragilaria schulzii Brockmann. Limnologica 23: 59–70.

Witkowski, A., Lange-Bertalot, H. & Metzeltin, D. (1996) The diatom species Fragilaria martyi (Heribaud) Lange-Bertalot, identity and ecology. Archiv für Protistenkunde 146: 281–292.

Witkowski, A., Lange-Bertalot, H. & Metzeltin, D. (2000) Diatom flora of marine coasts I. Iconographia Diatomologica 7: 1–925.

Witkowski, A., Cedro, B., Kierzek, A. & Baranowski, D. (2009) Diatoms as a proxy in reconstructing the Holocene environmental changes in the south-western Baltic Sea: the lower Rega River Valley sedimentary record. Hydrobiologia 631: 155–172.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-009-9808-7

Wulff, A., Vilbaste, S. & Truu, J. (2005) Depth distribution of photosynthetic pigments and diatoms in the sediments of microtidal fjord. Hydrobiologia 534: 117–130.

Zgrundo, A. & Bogaczewicz-Adamczak, B. (2004) Applicability of diatom indices for monitoring water quality in coastal streams in the Gulf of Gdansk Region, northern Poland. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies 33: 31–46.

Zgrundo, A., Dziengo-Czaja, M., Bubak, I. & Bogaczewicz-Adamczak, B. (2009) Studies on the biodiversity of contemporary diatom assemblages in the Gulf of Gdańsk. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies 37, Supplement 2: 139–153.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand