Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


A new genus, Rubroboletus, to accommodate Boletus sinicus and its allies

Kuan Zhao, Gang Wu, ZhuLiang Yang


Rubroboletus is erected as a new genus to accommodate Boletus sinicus and its allies based on morphological and molecular evidence. Morphologically, Rubroboletus differs from the remaining genera in Boletaceae by the combination of a reddish pileal surface, an orange-red to blood red surface of the hymenophore, yellow tubes, pink to red reticula or spots on the yellow background of the stipe, a bluish color-change when injured, a non-amyloid context, smooth spores which are olive-brown in deposit, and an interwoven trichodermal pileipellis. Our phylogenetic analyses based on five gene markers (ITS, nrLSU, tef1-α, rpb1 and rpb2) recognized eight species in the genus, including one new species and seven new combinations. A key to the eight species is provided.


Boletes, New taxa, Rubroboletus, Phylogeny, Taxonomy

Full Text:

PDF/A (3.76 MB)


Alessio, C.L. (1985) Boletus Dill. ex L. (sensu lato). Fungi Europaei. Vol. 2. Libreria editrice Biella Giovanna, Saronno.
Ammirati, J.A., Traquair, J.A. & Horgen, P.A. (1985) Poisonous mushrooms of the northern United States and Canada. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 396 pp.
Arora, D. & Frank, C.M. (2014) Clarifying the butter boletes: a new genus, Butyriboletus, is established to accommodate Boletus sect. Appendiculati, and six new species are described. Mycologia.
Benjamin, D.R. (1995) Mushrooms: poisons and panaceas—a handbook for naturalists, mycologists and physicians. WH Freeman and Company, New York, 422 pp.
Berkeley, M.J. & Broome, C.E. (1874). Enumeration of the fungi of Ceylon. Part II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 14: 29–141.
Binder, M. & Besl, H. (2000) 28S rDNA sequence data and chemotaxonomical analyses on the generic concept of Leccinum (Boletales). In: Associazone Micologica Bresadola (Ed.) Micologia. Grafica Sette, Brescia, 75–86 pp.
Binder, M. & Bresinsky, A. (2002) Retiboletus, a new genus for a species-complex in the Boletaceae producing retipolides. Feddes Repertorium 113: 30–40.;2-d
Binder, M. & Hibbett, D.S. (2006) Molecular systematics and biological diversification of Boletales. Mycologia 98: 971–981.
Boedijn, K.B. (1951) Some mycological notes. Sydowia 5(3–6): 211–229.
Both, E.E. (1993) The Boletes of North America: a compendium. Buffalo Museum of Science, Buffalo, 436 pp.
Both, E.E. (1998) New taxa of boletes and two boletes with identity problems. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences 36: 215–232.
Boudier, J.L.É. (1902) Champignons nouveaux de France. Bulletin de la Société Mycologique de France 18: 137–146.
Chiu, W.F. (1948) The boletes of Yunnan. Mycologia 40: 199–231.
Chiu, W.F. (1957) Altas of Yunnan boletes. Science Press, Beijing, 156 pp. [in Chinese]
Corner, E.J.H. (1972) Boletus in Malaysia. Singapore Botanic Gardens, Singapore, 263 pp.
Dentinger, B.T., Ammirati, J.F., Both, E.E, Desjardin, D.E., Halling, R.E., Henkel, T.W., Moreau, P.A., Nagasawa, E., Soytong, K., Taylor, A.F., Watling, R., Moncalvo, J.M. & McLaughlin, D.J. (2010) Molecular phylogenetics of porcini mushrooms (Boletus section Boletus). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57: 1276–1292.
Dentinger, B.T., Didukh, M.Y. & Moncalvo, J.M. (2011) Comparing COI and ITS as DNA barcode markers for mushrooms and allies (Agaricomycotina). PLoS One 6(9): e25081.
Desjardin, D.E., Wilson, A.W. & Binder, M. (2008) Durianella, a new gasteroid genus of boletes from Malaysia. Mycologia 100: 956–961.
Desjardin, D.E., Binder, M., Roekring, S. & Flegel, T. (2009) Spongiforma, a new genus of gastroid boletes from Thailand. Fungal Diversity 37: 1–8.
Dick, E.A. (1960) Notes on boletes. XII. Mycologia 52: 130–136.
Doyle, J.J. & Doyle, J.L. (1987) A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochemical Bulletin 19: 11–15.
Drehmel, D., James, T. & Vilgalys, R. (2008) Molecular phylogeny and biodiversity of the boletes. Fungi 1(4): 17–23.
Estadès, A. & Lannoy, G. (2004) Les bolets européens. Bulletin Mycologique et Botanique Dauphiné-Savoie 44(3): 3–79.
Ellis, M.B. & Ellis, J.P. (1990) Fungi without gills (hymenomycetes and gasteromycetes): an identification handbook. Chapman & Hall, London, 329 pp.
Ennamany, R., Bingen, A., Creppy, E.E., Kretz, O., Gut, J.P., Dubuisson, L., Balabaud, C., Sage, P.B. & Kirn, A. (1998) Aspirin (R) and heparin prevent hepatic blood stasis and thrombosis induced by the toxic glycoprotein Bolesatine in mice. Human & Experimental Toxicology 17 (11): 620–624
Flammer, R. (2008) Boletus torosus—coprin und alkohol. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde (4): 146–147.
Fries, E.M. (1836–1838) Epicrisis systematis mycologici. Typographia academica, Uppsala, 610 pp.
Frost, C.C. (1874) Catalogue of boleti of New England, with descriptions of new species. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences 2:100–105.
Gelardi, M., Simonini, G., Ercole, E. & Vizzini, A. (2014) Alessioporus and Pulchroboletus gen. nov. (Boletaceae, Boletineae), two novel genera to accommodate Xerocomus ichnusanus and X. roseoalbidus from European Mediterranean basin: molecular and morphological evidence. Mycologia.
Hall, T.A. (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series 41: 95–98.
Halling, R.E., Baroni, T.J. & Binder, M. (2007) A new genus of Boletaceae from eastern North America. Mycologia 99: 310–316.
Halling, R.E., Nuhn, M., Fechner, N.A., Osmundson, T.W., Soytong, K., Arora, D., Hibbett, D.S. & Binder, M. (2012a). Sutorius: a new genus for Boletus eximius. Mycologia 104:951–961.
Halling, R.E., Nuhn, M., Osmundson, T.W., Fechner, N.A., Trappe, J.M., Soytong, K., Arora, D., Hibbett, D.S. & Binder, M. (2012b) Affinities of the Boletus chromapes group to Royoungia and the description of two new genera, Harrya and Australopilus. Australian Journal of Botany 25:418–431.
Hibbett, D.S., Ohman, A., Glotzer, D., Nuhn, M., Kirk, P. & Nilsson, R.H. (2011) Progress in molecular and morphological taxon discovery in Fungi and options for formal classification of environmental sequences. Fungal Biology Reviews 25: 38–47.
Høiland, K. (1987) A new approach to the phylogeny of the order Boletales (Basidiomycotina). Nordic Journal of Botany 7: 705–718.
Horak, E. (2005) Röhrlinge und Blätterpilze in Europa, Auflage 6. Elsevier GmbH, München.
Horak, E. (2011) Revision of Malaysian species of Boletales s. l. (Basidiomycota) described by EJH Corner (1972, 1974). Malayan Forest Records 51: 1–283.
Hosen, M.I., Feng, B., Wu, G., Zhu, X.T., Li, Y.C. & Yang, Z.L. (2013) Borofutus, a new genus of Boletaceae from tropical Asia: phylogeny, morphology and taxonomy. Fungal Diversity 58: 215–226.
Katoh, K., Kuma, K., Toh, H. & Miyata, T. (2005) MAFFT version 5: improvement in accuracy of multiple sequence alignment. Nucleic Acids Research 33: 511–518.
Klofac, W. (2007) Schlüssel zur Bestimmung von Frischfunden der europäischen Arten der Boletales mit röhrigem Hymenophor. Öst Z Pilzk 16: 187–279.
Knudsen, H. & Taylor, A. (2012) Boletus L.: Fr. In: Knudsen, H. & Vesterholt, J. (Eds.) Funga Nordica, 2nd edition (2-volume set). Agaricoid, boletoid, clavarioid, cyphelloid and gastroid genera. Nordsvamp, Copenhagen, 217–222 pp.
Kornerup, A. & Wanscher, J.H. (1981) Taschenlexikon der Farben 3. Aufl. Muster-Schmidt Verlag, Göttingen, 242 pp.
Kretz, O., Creppy, E.E. & Dirheimer, G. (1991) Characterization of bolesatine, a toxic protein from the mushroom Boletus satanas Lenz and its effects on kidney cells. Toxicology 66 (2): 213–24.
Lannoy, G. & Estades, A. (2001) Les Bolets. Flore mycologique d’Europe. Documents Mycologique Mémoire Hors série 6: 1–163. Association d’Écologie et de Mycologie, Lille.
Li, T.H. & Song, B. (2000) Chinese boletes: a comparison of boreal and tropical elements. In: Walley, A.J.S. (Ed.) Tropical mycology 2000, the millenium meeting on tropical mycology (main meeting 2000). British Mycological Society & Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, pp. 1–9.
Li, Y.C., Feng, B. & Yang, Z.L. (2011) Zangia, a new genus of Boletaceae supported by molecular and morphological evidence. Fungal Diversity 49(1): 125–143.
Li, Y.C., Li, F., Zeng, N.K., Cui, Y.Y. & Yang, Z.L. (2014) A new genus Pseudoaustroboletus (Boletaceae, Boletales) from Asia as inferred from molecular and morphological data. Mycological Progress 13: 1207–1216.
Li, Y.C., Yang, Z.L. & Tolgor, B. (2009) Phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of Chroogomphus species as inferred from molecular and morphological data. Fungal Diversity 38: 85–104.
Linnaeus, C. (1753) Species plantarum 2. Holmiae (Stockholm), Sweden, 1121 pp.
Marques, G.M., Pinto, C.C. & Muñoz, J.A. (2010) DNA barcoding Mediterranean Boletales. ECBOL 2, 2010 International Year of Biodiversity, 2 Conference of the European Consortium for the Barcode of Life, 2–4 June 2010, Braga, Portugal, Book of Abstracts: S4P4, 74 pp.
Martin, M.P. & Raidl, S. (2002) The taxonomic position of Rhizopogon melanogastroides (Boletales). Mycotaxon 84: 221–228.
Massee, G.E. (1909) Fungi exotici, IX. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Informations of the Royal Botanical Gardens Kew 1909: 204–209.
Mello, A., Ghignone, S., Vizzini, A., Sechi, C., Ruiu, P. & Bonfante, P. (2006) ITS primers for the identification of marketable Boletus. Journal of Biotechnology 121 (3): 318–329.
Muñoz, J.A. (2005) Boletus s.l. (excl. Xerocomus). Fungi Europaei 2. Edizioni Candusso, Alassio.
Morris, M.H., Perez-Perez, M.A., Smith, M.E. & Bledsoe, C.S. (2008) Multiple species of ectomycorrhizal fungi are frequently detected on individual oak root tips in a tropical cloud forest. Mycorrhiza 18 (8): 375–383.
Murrill, W.A. (1909) The Boletaceae of North America-I. Mycologia 1: 4–18.
Murrill, W.A. (1940) Additions to Florida Fungi: 2. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 67(1): 57–66.
Murrill, W.A. (1948) Florida boletes. Lloydia 11: 21–35.
Nilson, S. & Persson, O. (1977) Fungi of Northern Europe 1: Larger fungi (excluding gill-fungi). Penguin, Harmondsworth, 128 pp.
Nuhn, M.E., Binder, M., Taylor, A.F.S., Halling, R.E. & Hibbett, D.S. (2013) Phylogenetic overview of the Boletineae. Fungal Biology 117(7): 479–511.
Nylander, J.A.A. (2004) MrModeltest v2. Program distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.
Ortiz-Santana, B., Lodge, J.D., Baroni, T. & Both, E.E. (2007) Boletes from Belize and the Dominican Republic. Fungal Diversity 27: 247–416.
Osmundson, T.W., Robert, V.A., Schoch, C.L., Baker, L.J., Smith, A., Robich, G., Mizzan, L. & Garbelotto, M.M. (2013) Filling gaps in biodiversity knowledge for macrofungi: contributions and assessment of an herbarium collection DNA barcode sequencing project. PLoS One 8 (4): e62419.
Peck, C.H. (1885) New species of fungi. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 12: 33–36.
Pegler, D. & Young, T. (1981) A natural arrangement of the Boletales, with reference to spore morphology. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 76: 103–146.
Persoon, C.H. (1796) Observationes mycologicae. Annalen der Botanik (Usteri) 15 (1): 1–39.
Persoon, C.H. (1801) Synopsis methodica fungorum (in Latin). Henricum Dieterich, Göttingen, 129 pp.
Ronquist, F. & Huelsenbec, J.P. (2003) MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19: 1572–1574.
Rostkovius, F.W.T. (1844) Deutschlands Flora, Abt. III. Die Pilze Deutschlands 5: 85–132.
Rumack, B.H. & Spoerke, D.G. (1994) Handbook of mushroom poisoning: diagnosis and treatment. Chemical Rubber Company Press, Boca Raton, 464 pp.
Saccardo, P.A. (1888) Sylloge Hymenomycetum, Vol. II. Polyporeae, Hydneae, Thelephoreae, Clavarieae, Tremellineae. Sylloge Fungorum 6: 1–928.
Schweinitz, L.D.von. (1832) Synopsis fungorum in America boreali media degentium. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 4(2): 141–316.
Singer, R. (1942) Das System der Agaricales. II. Annales Mycologici 40: 1–132.
Singer, R. (1945) The Boletineae of Florida with notes on extralimital species I. The Strobilomycetaceae. Farlowia 2: 97–141.
Singer, R. (1947) The Boletoideae of Florida with notes on extralimital species III. American Midland Naturalist 37: 1–135.
Singer, R. (1986) The Agaricales in the modern taxonomy. 4th ed. Koeltz Scientific Books, Koenigstein, 982 pp.
Singer, R. & Kuthan, J. (1976) Notes on boletes. Česká Mykologie 30: 143–155.
Smith, A.H. & Thiers, H.D. (1971) The boletes of Michigan. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 428 pp.
Stamatakis, A. (2006) RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses withthousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics 22: 2688–2690.
Swofford, D.L. (2002) Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods), version 4.0b10. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland.
Thiers, H.D. (1975) California mushrooms: a field guide to the boletes. Hafner Press, New York, 261 pp.
Vilgalys, R. & Hester, M. (1990) Rapid genetic identification and mapping of enzymatically amplified ribosomal DNA from several Cryptococcus species. Journal of Bacteriology 172: 4238–4246.
Vizzini, A. (2014a) Boletus mendax, a new species of Boletus sect. Luridi from Italy and insights on the B. luridus complex. Mycological Progress 13: 95–109.
Vizzini, A. (2014b) Nomenclatural novelties. Index fungorum 146: 1–2.
Vizzini, A. (2014c) Nomenclatural novelties. Index fungorum 183: 1.
Vizzini, A. (2014d) Nomenclatural novelties. Index fungorum 192: 1.
Taylor, J.W., Jacobson, D.J., Kroken, S., Kasuga, T., Geiser, D.M., Hibbett, D.S. & Fisher, M.C. (2000) Phylogenetic species recognition and species concepts in fungi. Fungal Genetics and Biology 31: 21–32.
Troschinski, S., Di Lellis, M.A., Sereda, S., Hauffe, T., Wilke, T., Triebskorn, R. & Kohler, H.R. (2014) Intraspecific variation in cellular and biochemical heat response strategies of Mediterranean Xeropicta derbentina [Pulmonata, Hygromiidae]. PLoS One 9(1): e86613.
Wang, X.H., Yu F.Q. & Liu P.G. (2004) Color atlas of wild commercial mushrooms in Yunnan. Yunnan Science and Technology Press, Kunming, 136 pp.
Watling, R. (1969) New fungi from Michigan. Notes from the Royal Botanical Garden Edinburgh 29(1): 59–66.
Watling, R. & Li, T. (1999) Australian boletes: a preliminary survey. Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, 71 pp.
Weiss, M. (2010) Molecular phylogenetic reconstruction. Tübingen University, Tübingen.
White, T.J., Bruns, T., Lee, S. & Taylor, J.W. (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis, M.A., Gelfand, D.H., Sninsky, J.J. & White, T.J. (Eds.) PCR Protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic, San Diego, pp. 315–322.
Wu, G., Feng, B., Xu, J., Zhu, X.T,. Li, Y.C., Zeng, N.K., Hosen, M.I. & Yang, Z.L. (2014) Molecular phylogenetic analyses redefine seven major clades and reveal 22 new generic lineages in the fungal family Boletaceae. Fungal Diversity.
Yang, Z.L. (2011) Molecular techniques revolutionize knowledge of basidiomycete evolution. Fungal Diversity 50: 47–58.
Zang, M. (1983) A tentative subdivision and two new species of Boletus from Yunnan, China. Acta Mycologica Sinica 2(1): 12–17. [in Chinese]
Zang, M. (2006) Flora fungorum sinicorum. Boletaceae (I), vol 22. Science Press, Beijing, 215 pp. [in Chinese]
Zeng, N.K., Cai, Q. & Yang, Z.L. (2012) Corneroboletus, a new genus to accommodate the southeast Asian Boletus indecorus. Mycologia 104: 1420–1432.
Zeng, N.K., Tang, L.P., Li, Y.C., Tolgor, B., Zhu, X.T., Zhao, Q. & Yang, Z.L. (2013) The genus Phylloporus (Boletaceae, Boletales) from China: morphological and multilocus DNA sequence analyses. Fungal Diversity 58: 73–101
Zeng, N.K., Wu, G., Li, Y.C., Liang, Z.Q. & Yang, Z.L. (2014) Crocinoboletus, a new genus of Boletaceae (Boletales) with unusual boletocrocin polyene pigments. Phytotaxa 175(3): 133–140.
Zhao, K., Wu, G., Feng, B. & Yang, Z.L. (2014) Molecular phylogeny of Caloboletus (Boletaceae) and a new species in East Asia. Mycological Progress 13: 1127–1136.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand