Nongeniculate coralline red algae (Rhodophyta: Corallinales) in coral reefs from Northeastern Brazil and a description of Neogoniolithon atlanticum sp. nov.

FREDERICO T. S. TÂMEGA, Rafael Riosmena-Rodriguez, RODRIGO MARIATH, Marcia Figueiredo


A taxonomic reassessment of coralline algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) associated with reef environments in the Abrolhos Bank, northeastern Brazil, was developed based on extensive historical samples dating from 1999–2009 and a critical evaluation of type material. Our goal was to update the taxonomic status of the main nongeniculate coral reef-forming species. Our results show that four species are the main contributors to the living cover of coral reefs in the Abrolhos Bank: Lithophyllum stictaeforme, Neogoniolithon atlanticum sp. nov., Porolithon pachydermum and Spongites fructiculosus. Comparison of the type material to modern collections has shown that Lithophyllum congestum is a heterotypic synonym of L. stictaeforme. However, L. stictaeforme and P. pachydermum were the most abundant species at the studied sites, a finding consistent with other coral reefs in the region. This is the first record of S. fructiculosus in the southwestern Atlantic. This review provides the baseline data needed for the monitoring and management of the southernmost limits of coral reefs in the western Atlantic Ocean.


Lithophyllum stictaeforme, Porolithon pachydermum, Spongites fructiculosus

Full Text:

PDF/A (12.78 MB)


Adey, W.H. (1966) Distribution of saxicolous crustose corallines in the northwestern North Atlantic. Journal of Phycology 2: 49–54.

Adey, W.H. (1970a) The effects of light and temperature on growth rates in boreal-subartic crustose coralline algae. Journal of Phycology 6: 269–276.

Adey, W.H. (1970b) A revision of the Foslie crustose coralline herbarium. Det Kongelige Norske videnskabers selskabs skrifter 1: 1–46.

Adey, W.H. & Adey, P.J. (1973) Studies on the biosystematics and ecology of the epilithic crustose corallinaceae of the British Isles. European Journal of Phycology 8: 343–407.

Adey, W.H. & Lebednik, P.A. (1967) Catalog of the Foslie Herbarium. Det Kongelige Norske Vidensk abers Selskab Museet, Trondheim, Norway, 92 pp.

Adey, W.H., Townsend, R.A. & Boykins, W.T. (1982) The crustose coralline algae (Rhodophyta: Corallinaceae) of the Hawaiian Islands. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 15: 1–73.

Agardh, J.G. (1852) Species genera et ordines algarum, seu descriptiones succinctae specierum, generum et ordinum, quibus algarum regnum constituitur. Volumis secundi: Algas florideas complectens. Part 2, fasc. 2. C.W.K. Gleerup, Lund, pp. 577–700.

Athanasiadis, A. (1987) A survey of the seaweeds of the Aegean Sea with taxonomic studies on species of the tribe Antithamnieae (Rhodophyta). University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 174 pp.

Athanasiadis, A. (1999) The taxonomic status of Lithophyllum stictaeforme (Rhodophyta, Corallinales) and its generic position in light of phylogenetic considerations. Nordic Journal of Botany 19: 735–745.

Babbini, L. & Bressan, G. (1997) Recensement de Corallinacées de la mer Méditerranée et considérations phytogéographiques. Bibliotheca Phycologica 103: 1–421.

Bailey, J.C., Gabel, J.E. & Freshwater, D.W. (2004) Nuclear 18S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicate that the Mastophoroideae (Corallinaceae Rhodophyta) is a polyphyletic taxon. Phycologia 43: 3–12.

Ballantine, D.L., Ruiz, H. & Aponte, N.E. (2004) Notes on the benthic marine algae of Puerto Rico VIII. Additions to the flora. Botanica Marina 47: 335–340.

Basso, D. & Rodondi, G. (2006) A Mediterranean population of Spongites fruticulosus (Rhodophyta, Corallinales), the type species of Spongites, and the taxonomic status of S. stalactitica and S. racemosa. Phycologia 45(4): 403–416.

Ben Maiz, N., Boudouresque, C.F. & Quahchi, F. (1987) Inventaire des algues et phanérogames marines benthiques de la Tunise. Giornale Botanico Italiano 121: 259–304.

Betancourt, L. & Herrera-Moreno, A. (2001) Algas marinas bentónicas (Rhodophyta Phaeophyta y Chlorophyta) conocidas para la Hispaniola. Moscosoa 12: 105–134.

Bittner, L., Payri C.E., Maneveldt, G.W., Couloux, A., Cruaud, C., de Reviers, B. & Le Gall, L. (2011) Evolutionary history of the Corallinales (Corallinophycidae Rhodophyta) inferred from nuclear plastidial and mitochondrial genomes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 697–713.

Bostock, P.D. & Holland, A.E. (2010) Census of the Queensland flora. Queensland Herbarium Biodiversity and Ecosystem Sciences, Department of Environment and Resource Management, Brisbane, 320 pp.

Braga, J.C. & Aguirre, J. (2004) Coralline algae indicate Pleistocene evolution from deep open platform to outer barrier reef environments in the northern Great Barrier Reef margin. Coral Reefs 23: 547–558.

Broom, J.E.S., Hart, D.R., Farr, T.J., Nelson, W.A., Neill, K.F., Harvey, A.S. & Woelkerling, W.J. (2008) Utility of psbA and nSSU for phylogenetic reconstruction in the Corallinales based on New Zealand taxa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46: 958–973.

Cecere, E., Cormaci, M., Furnari, G., Petrocelli, A., Saracino, O. & Serio, D. (1996) Benthic algal flora of Cheradi Islands (Gulf of Taranto Mediterranean Sea). Nova Hedwigia 62: 191–214.

Chamberlain, Y.M. (1993) Observations on the crustose coralline red alga Spongites yendoi (Foslie) comb. nov. in South Africa and its relationship to S. decipiens (Foslie) comb. nov. and Lithophyllum natalense (Foslie). Phycologia 32(2): 100–115.

Cormaci, M., Lanfranco, E., Borg, J.A., Buttgieg, J.A., Furnari, G., Micallef, S.A., Mifsud, C., Pizzuto, F., Scammacca, B. & Serio, D. (1997) Contributions to the knowledge of benthic marine algae on rocky substrata of the Maltese Islands (Mediterranean Sea). Botanica Marina 40: 203–215.

Conde, F., Flores-Moya, A., Soto, J., Altamirano, M. & Sánchez, A. (1996) Check-list of Andalusia (S Spain) seaweeds III. Rhodophyceae. Acta Botanica Malacitana 21: 7–33.

Coppejans, E. (1979) Végétation marine de la Corse (Méditerranée) III. Documents pour la flore des algues. Botanica Marina 22: 257–266.

Creed, M., Fujii, M.T., Barreto, M.B.B., Guimarães, S.M.P.B., Cassano, V., Pereira, S.M.B. & Khader, S. (2010) Rhodophyceae. In: Forzza, R.C. (Ed.) Catálogo de plantas e fungos do Brasil. Andrea Jakobsson Estúdio, Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, pp. 416–436.

Dawson, E.Y. (1960) Marine red algae of Pacific Mexico. Part 3. Cryptonemiales, Corallinaceae subf. Melobesioideae. Pacific Naturalist 2: 3–125.

Decaisne, J. (1842) Mémoire sur les Corallines ou polypiers calcifères. Annales des Sciences Naturelles Botanique 2(18):96–128.

Díaz-Pulido, G. & Díaz-Ruíz, M. (2003) Diversity of benthic marine algae of the Colombian Atlantic. Biota Colombiana 4: 203–246.

Dufour, L. (1861) Quadro delle Melobesie del mare di Genova. Commentario della Società Crittogamologica Italiana 1: 37–40.

Duncan, E.J. & Lee Lum, L.M. (2006) A checklist of the marine macroalgae of the Republic of Trinadad and Tobago. Caribbean Marine Studies 7: 1–96.

Einav, R. (2007) Seaweeds of the Eastern Mediterranean coast. Gantner Verlag Press, Ruggell, 266 pp.

Fernández-García, C., Riosmena-Rodríguez, R., Wysor, B., Tejada, O.L. & Cortéz, J. (2011) Checklist of the Pacific marine macroalgae of Central America. Botanica Marina 54: 53–73.

Figueiredo, M.A.O. (1997) Colonization and growth of crustose coralline algae in Abrolhos Brazil. Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium Panama 1: 689–694.

Figueiredo, M.A.O. (2000) Recifes de corais ou recifes de algas. Ciência Hoje 28(166): 74–76.

Figueiredo, M.A.O. (2005) Diversity of macrophytes on the Abrolhos Bank Brazil. In: Dutra, G.F., Allen, G.R., Werner, T. & McKenna, S.A. (Eds.) A rapid marine biodiversity assessment of the Abrolhos bank Bahia Brazil. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 38 Conservation International, Washington DC pp. 67–74.

Figueiredo, M.A.O. & Steneck, R.S. (2002) Floristic and ecological studies of crustose coralline algae on Brazil’s Abrolhos reefs. Proceedings of the 9th International Coral Reef Symposium Bali 1: 493–498.

Foslie, M. (1895). The Norwegian forms of Lithothamnion. Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter 1894: 29–208.

Foslie, M. (1898) Systematical survey of the Lithothamnia. Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter 1898(2): 1–7.

Foslie, M. (1900) Revised systematical survey of the Melobesieae. Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter 1900(5): 1–22.

Foslie, M. (1901). New Melobesieae. Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter 1900(6): 1–24.

Foslie, M. (1904) Algologiske notiser. Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter 1904(2): 1–9.

Foslie, M. (1905) New lithothamnia and systematical remarks. Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter 1905(5): 1–9.

Foslie, M. (1909) Algologiske notiser VI. Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter 1909(2): 1–63.

Foslie, M. & Howe, M.A. (1906) New American coralline algae. Bulletin of the New York Botanica Gardens 4: 128–136, plates 80–93.

Furnari, G., Cormaci, M. & Alongi, G. (1996) Lithophyllum frondosum (Dufour) comb. nov. (Corallinaceae Rhodophyta): the species to with Mediterranean “Pseudolithophyllum expansum” shold be referred. European Journal of Phycology 31: 117–122.

Furnari, G., Cormaci, M. & Serio, D. (1999) Catalogue of the benthic marine macroalgae of the Italian coast of the Adriatic Sea. Bocconea 12: 1–214.

Furnari, G., Giaccone, G., Cormaci, M., Alongi, G. & Serio, D. (2003) Biodiversità marina delle coste italiane: catalogo del macrofitobenthos. Biologia Marina Mediterranea 10(1): 1–482.

Gallardo, T., Gómez Garreta, A., Ribera, M.A., Alvarez, M. & Conde, F. (1985) A preliminary checklist of Iberian benthic marine algae. Real Jardín Botánico, Madrid, 83 pp.

Gerloff, J. & Geissler, U. (1974) Eine revidierte Liste der Meeresalgen Griechenlands. Nova Hedwigia 22: 721–793.

Gherardi, D.F.M. & Bosence, D.W. (1999) Modeling of the ecological succession of encrusting organisms in recent coralline–algal frameworks from Atol das Rocas Brazil. Palaios 14: 145–158.

Gherardi, D.F.M. & Bosence, D.W.J. (2001) Composition and community structure of the coralline algal reefs from Atol das Rocas South Atlantic Brazil. Coral Reefs 19: 205–219.

Giaccone, G. (1969) Raccolte di fitobenthos sulla banchina continentale Italiana. Giornale Botanico Italiano 103: 485–514.

Guiry, M.D. (1978) A consensus and bibliography of Irish Seaweeds. J. Cramer, Vaduz, 287 pp.

Hackett, H.E. (1977) Marine algae known from the Maldive Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin 210: 1–30.

Harvey, W.H. (1849) Nereis australis, or algae of the southern ocean: being figures and descriptions of marine plants, collected on the shores of the Cape of Good Hope, the extra-tropical Australian colonies, Tasmania, New Zealand, and the Antarctic regions; deposited in the Herbarium of the Dublin University. Part 2. Reeve Brothers, London, pp. 65–124.

Harvey, A.S., Woelkerling, W.J., Farr, T., Neill, K. & Nelson, W. (2005) Coralline algae of central New Zealand an identification guide to common crustose species. NIWA Information Series Press No. 57, Wellington, 145 pp.

Hauck, F. (1877). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Adriatischen Algen. V. Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 27: 292–293.

Hauck, F. (1883). Die Meeresalgen Deutschlands und Österreichs. In: Rabenhorst, L. (Ed.) Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Zweite Auflage. Vol. 2, Eduard Kummer, Leipzig, pp. 113–320.

Hauck, F. (1885) Die Meeresalgen Deutschlands und Österreichs. In: Rabenhorst, L. (Ed.) Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Zweite Auflage. Vol. 2, Eduard Kummer, Leipzig, pp. 513–575.

Heydrich, F. (1897) Neue Kalkalgen von Deutsch-Neu-Guinea (Kaiser Wilhelms-Land). Bibliotheca Botanica 7(41): 1–11.

Heydrich, F. (1900). Weitere Ausbau des Corallineensystems. Berichte der Deutsche Botanischen Gesellschaft 18: 310–317.

Horta, P.A. (2002) Bases para a identificação das Coralináceas não articuladas - uma revisão. Biotemas 15(1): 7–44.

Huisman, J.M. (2000) Marine plants of Australia. University of Western Australia Press, Nedlands, Western Australia, 300 pp.

Irvine, L.M. & Chamberlain, Y.M. (1994) Seaweeds of the British Isles: Rhodophyta, Part 2B. Corallinales, Hildenbrandiales. The Natural History Museum, London, 276 pp.

John, D.M., Prud’homme van Reine, W.F., Lawson, G.W., Kostermans, T.B. & Price, J.H. (2004) A taxonomic and geographical catalogue of the seaweeds of the western coast of Africa and adjacent islands. Nova Hedwigia 127: 1–339.

Kato, A., Baba, M. & Suda, S. (2011) Revision of the Mastophoroideae (Corallinales Rhodophyta) and polyphyly in nongeniculate species widely distributed on pacific coral reefs. Journal of Phycology 47: 662–672.

Kato, A., Baba, M. & Suda, S. (2013) Taxonomic circumscription of heterogeneous species Neogoniolithon brassica-florida (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) in Japan. Phycological Research 61: 15–26. 10.1111/j.1440-1835.2012.00665.x

Keats, D.W. & Chamberlain, Y.M. (1994) Three species of Hydrolithon (Rodophyta Corallinaceae): Hydrolithon onkodes (Heydrich) Penrose and Woelkerling Hydrolithon superficiale sp. nov. and H. samoënse (Foslie) comb. nov. from South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 60(1): 8–21.

Kikuchi, R.K.P. & Leão, Z.M.A.N. (1997) Rocas (Southwestern Equatorial Atlantic Brazil): an atoll built primarily by coralline algae. Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium Panama 1: 731–736.

Kützing, F.T. (1841) Über die “Polypieres calciféres” des Lamouroux. In: Kützing, F.T. (Ed.) Zu der öffentlichen Prüfung sämmtlicher Classen der Realschule zu Nordhausen welche den 2. April 1841 veranstaltet werden soll, ladet erherbietigst ein Dr. Karl Christian Friedrich Fischer, Director der Realschule. Realschule, Nordhausen, pp. 3–34.

Kützing, F.T. (1843) Phycologia generalis. Part 2. F.A. Brockhaus, Leipzig, pp. 143–458.

Kützing, F.T. (1869) Tabulae phycologicae; oder, Abbildungen der Tange. Nordhausen: Gedruckt auf kosten des Verfassers (in commission bei W. Köhne) 19: 1–36.

Lawson, G.W. & John, D.M. (1982) The marine algae and coastal environment of tropical West Africa. Nova Hedwigia 70: 1–455.

Lee, Y. & Kang, S. (2001) A catalogue of the seaweeds in Korea. Cheju National University Press, Jeju, 662 pp.

Littler, M.M. & Littler, D.S. (1980) The evolution of thallus form and survival strategies in benthic marine macroalgae: field and laboratory tests of a functional form model. American Naturalist 116: 25–44.

Littler, M.M. & Littler, D.S. (1984) Relationships between macroalgal functional form groups and substrata stability in a subtropical rocky intertidal system. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 74: 13–34.

Littler, M.M. & Littler, D.S. (2000) Caribbean reef plants: an identification guide to the reef plants of the Caribbean Bahamas Florida and Gulf of Mexico. Off Shore Grafics Inc, Washington, 542 pp.

Macintyre, I.G. (1997) Reevaluating the role of crustose coralline algae in the construction of the coral reefs. Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium Panama 1: 725–730.

Mateo-Cid, L.E. & Pedroche, F.F. (2004) The ocurrence of Neogoniolithon fosliei (Heydrich) Setchell et Mason in the Mexican Caribbean and the relationship of this species to N. solubile (Foslie et Howe) Setchell et Mason (Corallinales Rhodophyta). Caribbean Journal of Science 40(2): 182–191.

McNeill, J., Barrie, F.R., Buck, W.R., Demoulin, V., Greuter, W., Hawksworth, D.L., Herendeen, P.S., Knapp, S., Marhold, K., Prado, J., Prud´Homme Van Reine, W.F., Smith, G.F., Wiersema, J.H. & Turland, N.J. (2011) International code of nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress, Melbourne, Australia. Gantner Verlag, Ruggell, 240 pp.

Mendoza-González, C. & Mateo-Cid, L.E. (1985) Contribución al estudio florístico ficológico de la costa occidental de Baja California Mexico. Phytologia 59:17–33.

Mendoza-González, C., Pedroche, F.F. & Mateo-Cid, L.E. (2009) The genus Hydrolithon Foslie (Corallinales Rhodophyta) along the Atlantic and Caribbean coasts of Mexico. Gayana Botánica 66(2): 218–238.

Montagne, C. (1846) Algues. In: Durieu de Maisonneuve, M.C. (Ed.) Exploration scientifique de l'Algérie. Bot. I. Imprimerie Imperiale, Paris, pp. 121–160.

Morais e Silva, J.A., Lavelli, L. & Rull Lluch, J. (2008) Estudio de la comunidad de Lithophyllum stictaeforme (J. E. Areschoug) Hauck en Arenys de Mar (Barcelona). ALGAS. Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Ficología 39: 8–13.

Moura, C.W.N., Kraus, J.E. & Cordeiro-Marino, M. (1997) Metodologia para obtenção de cortes histológicos com historresina e coloração com azul de toluidina O para algas coralináceas (Rhodophyta Corallinales). Hoehnea 24(2): 17–27.

Munda, I.M. (1979) Some Fucacean associations from the vicinity of Rovinj Istrian Coast Northern Adriatic. Nova Hedwigia 31: 607–666.

Neto, A.I., Cravo, D.C. & Haroun, R.T. (2001) Checklist of the benthic marine plants of the Madeira Archipelago. Botanica Marina 44: 391–414.

Norris, J.N. & Bucher, K.E. (1982) Marine algae and seagrasses from Carrie Bow Cay Belize. In: Rützler, K. & Macintyre, I.G. (Eds.) The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay Belize, I. Structure and Communities. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 12: 167–223.

Nunes, M.C., Guimarães, S.M.P.B., Donnangelo, A., Farias, J. & Horta, P.A. (2008) Aspectos taxonômicos de três espécies de coralináceas não geniculadas do litoral do Estado da Bahia Brasil. Rodriguésia 59(1): 75–86.

Oliveira, E., Österlund, K. & Mtolera, M.S.P. (2005) Marine plants of Tanzania. A field guide to the seaweeds and seagrasses. Numerous coloured illustrations and line drawings. Botany Department, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 267 pp.

Penrose, D. (1991) Spongites fructiculosa (Corallinaceae Rhodophyta) the type species of Spongites in southern Australia. Phycologia 30(5): 438–448.

Penrose, D. (1992) Neogoniolithon fosliei (Corallinaceae Rhodophyta) the type species of Neogoniolithon in southern Australia. Phycologia 31(3/4): 338–350.

Penrose, D.L. (1996) Genus Spongites Kützing. In: Womersley, H.B.S. (Ed.) The Marine Benthic Flora of South Australia Rhodophyta Part III Gracilariales Rhodymeniales. Australian Biological Resources Study, Camberra, pp. 273–280.

Penrose, D. & Woelkerling, W.J. (1988) A taxonomic reassessment of Hydrolithon Foslie Porolithon Foslie and Pseudolithophyllum Lemoine emend Adey (Corallinaceae Rhodophyta) and their relationships to Spongites Kützing. Phycologia 26: 159–176.

Penrose, D. & Woelkerling, W.J. (1992) A reappraisal of Hydrolithon and its relationship to Spongites (Corallinaceae Rhodophyta). Phycologia 31: 81–88.

Philippi, R.A. (1837) Beweis, dass die Nulliporen Pflanzen sind. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 3: 387–393.

Phillips, J.A. (2002) Algae. In: Henderson, R.J.F. (Ed.) Names and distribution of Queensland plants algae and lichens. Queensland Government Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane, pp. 228–244.

Ramírez, M.E. & Santelices, B. (1991) Catálogo de las algas marinas bentónicas de la costa temperada del Pacífico de Sudamérica. Monografías Biológicas 5: 1–437.

Ramos Esplá, A.A. (1985) Contribución al conocimiento de las biocenosis bentónicas litorales de la Isla Plana o Nueva Tabarca (Alicante). In: Ramos Esplá, A.A. (Ed.) La Reserva Marina de la Isla Plana o Nueva Tabarca (Alicante). Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, pp. 111–147.

Richardson, W.D. (1975) The marine algae of Trinidad, West Indies. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Botany 5(3): 1–143.

Rindi, F., Sartoni, G. & Cinelli, F. (2002) A floristic account of the benthic marine algae of Tuscany (Western Mediterranean Sea). Nova Hedwigia 74(1–2): 201–250.

Ringeltaube, P. & Harvey, A. (2000) Non-geniculate coralline algae (Corallinales Rhodophyta) on Heron Reef Great Barrier Reef (Australia). Botanica Marina 43: 431–454.

Rodríguez Prieto, C., Boudouresque, C.F. & Marcot-Coqueugniot, J. (1993) Nouvelles observations sur les algues marines du Parc Naturel regional de Corse. Travail Scientifique par le Parc Naturel Régional Réserve Naturelle de Corse 41: 53–61.

Sahoo, D, Nivedita & Debasish, (2001) Seaweeds of Indian coast. APH Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, 283 pp.

Setchell, W.A. (1943) Mastophora and the Mastophoreae: genus and subfamily of Corallinaceae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America 29: 127–135.

Setchell, W.A. & Mason, L.R. (1943) Goniolithon and Neogoniolithon: two genera of crustaceous coralline algae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America 29: 87–92.

Serio, D., Alongi, G., Catra, M., Cormaci, M. & Furnari, G. (2006) Changes in the benthic algal flora of Linosa Island (Straits of Sicily Mediterranean Sea). Botanica Marina 49: 135–144.

Silva, P.C., Basson, P.W. & Moe, R.L. (1996) Catalogue of the benthic marine algae of the Indian Ocean. University of California Publications in Botany 79: 1–1259.

Steneck, R.S. (1986) The ecology of coralline algal crusts: convergent patterns and adaptive strategies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 17: 273–303.

Steneck, R.S. (1990) Herbivory and the evolution of nongeniculate coralline algae (Rhodophyta Corallinales) in the North Atlantic and North Pacific. In: Garbary, D.J. & South, G.R. (Eds.) Evolutionary Biogeography of the Marine Algae of the North Atlantic. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 107–129.

Steneck, R.S. & Adey, W.H. (1976) The role of environment in control of morphology in Lithophyllum congestum a Caribbean algal ridge builder. Botanica Marina 19: 197–215.

Steneck, R.S. & Dethier, M.N. (1994) A functional group approach to the structure of algal-dominated communities. Oikos 69: 476–498.

Steneck, R.S. & Paine, R.T. (1986) Ecological and taxonomic studies of shallow-water encrusting Corallinaceae (Rhodophyta) of the boreal northeastern Pacific. Phycologia 25: 221–240.

Suárez, A.M. (2005) Lista de las macroalgas marinas cubanas. Revista de Investigaciones Marinas 26: 93–148.

Tâmega, F.T.S. & Figueiredo, M.A.O. (2005) Distribuição das algas calcárias incrustantes (Corallinales Rhodophyta) em diferentes habitats na Praia do Forno Armação dos Búzios Rio de Janeiro. Rodriguésia 56(87): 123–132.

Tâmega, F.T.S. & Figueiredo, M.A.O. (2007) Distribution of crustose coralline algae (Corallinales Rhodophyta) in the Abrolhos reefs Bahia Brazil. Rodriguésia 58(4): 941–947.

Taskin, E., Öztürk, M., Kurt, O. & Öztürk, M. (2008) The check-list of the marine flora of Turkey. Ecem Kirtasiye, Manisa, 87 pp.

Taylor, W.R. (1960) Marine algae of the eastern tropical and subtropical coasts of the America. The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 870 pp.

Tsirika, A. & Haritonidis, S. (2005) A survey of the benthic flora in the National Marine Park of Zakynthos (Greece). Botanica Marina 48: 38–45.

Unger, F. (1858) Beiträge zur näheren Kenntniss des Leithakalkes, namentlich der vegetabilischen Einschlüsse und der Bildungsgeschichte desselben. Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften [Wein], Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 14: 13–35.

Verheij, E. (1994) Nongeniculate Corallinaceae (Corallinales Rhodophyta) from the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia. Blumea 39: 95–137.

Villaça, R., Pitombo, F.B. (1997) Benthic communities of shallow-water reefs of Abrolhos Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Oceangrafia 45: 35–43.

Villas-Bôas, A.B., Figueiredo, M.A.O. & Villaça, R.C. (2005) Colonization and growth of crustose coralline algae (Corallinales Rhodophyta) on the Rocas Atoll. Brazilian Journal of Oceangraphy 53(3/4): 147–156.

Villas-Bôas, A.B., Riosmena-Rodriguez, R., Amado-Filho, G.M., Maneveldt, G.W., Figueiredo, M.A.O. (2009) Rhodolith-forming species of Lithophyllum (Corallinales Rhodophyta) from Espírito Santo State Brazil including the description of L. depressum sp. nov. Phycologia 48(4): 237–248.

Vinassa P.E. (1892) Nuove Coralline mediterranae. Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali Residente in Pisa. Processi Verbali 8: 55–58.

Woelkerling, W.J. (1985) A taxonomic reassessment of Spongites (Corallinaceae Rhodophyta) based on studies of Kutzing’s original collections. British Phycological Journal 20: 123–153.

Woelkerling, W.J., Chamberlain, Y.M. & Silva, P.C. (1985) A taxonomic and nomenclatural reassessment of Tenarea, Titanoderma and Dermatolithon (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta) based on studies of type and other critical specimens. Phycologia 24: 317–337.

Woelkerling, W.J. (1988) The coralline red algae: an analysis of the genera and sub-families of nongeniculate Corallinaceae. British Museum (Natural History) and Oxford University Press, London and Oxford, 268 pp.

Woelkerling, W.J. (1996) Non-geniculate Corallinales. In: Womersley, H.B.S. (ed.) The marine benthic flora of south Australia Rhodophyta Part III Gracilariales, Rhodymeniales, Corallinales and Bonnemaisoniales. Australian Biological Resources Study, Camberra, pp. 146–323.

Woelkerling, W.J. (1998) Lamarck’s nullipores. In: Woelkerling, W.J. & Lamy, D. (Eds.) Non-geniculate coralline red algae and the Paris muséum: systematics and scientific history. Publications Scientifiques du Muséum/ADAC, Paris, pp. 101–404.

Woelkerling, W.J. & Campbell, S.J. (1992) An account of southern Australian species of Lithophyllum (Corallinaceae Rhodophyta). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Botany Series 22(1): 1–107.

Woelkerling, W.J., Irvine, L.M. & Harvey, A.S. (1993a) Growth-forms in non-geniculate coralline red algae (Corallinales Rhodophyta). Australian Systematic Botany 6: 277–293.

Woelkerling, W.J., Penrose, D. & Chamberlain, Y.M. (1993b) A reassessment of type collections of non-geniculate Corallinaceae (Corallinales Rhodophyta) described by C. Montagne and L. Dufour and of Melobesia brassica-florida Harvey. Phycologia 32(5): 323–331.

Woelkerling, W.J., Lawson, G.W., Price, J.H., John, D.M. & Prud’homme van Reine, W.F. (1998) Seaweeds of the western coast of tropical Africa and adjacent islands: a critical assessment IV Rhodophyta (Florideae) 6 Genera (Q) R-Z and an update of current names for non-geniculate Corallinales. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany 28: 115–150.

Womersley, H.B.S. (1996) The marine benthic flora of southern Australia – Part IIIB – Gracilariales, Rhodymeniales, Corallinales and Bonnemaisoniales. Australian Biological Resources Study and The State Herbarium of South Australia, Canberra and Adelaide, 392 pp.

Yoshida, T. (1998) Marine algae of Japan. Uchida Rokakuho Publishing Co. Ltd, Tokyo, 1222 pp.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand