Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


A new species of Kali (Salsoloideae, Chenopodiaceae) from Sicily, supported by molecular analysis



Nomenclatural and taxonomical considerations on Kali, a controversial genus recently segregated from the polyphyletic Salsola s. lat. (Chenopodiaceae), are provided. The Kali group includes annual plants with leaves ending in a spine and lacking hypodermis, having also a cortex alternate to longitudinal chlorenchymatous striae. The species belonging to this genus mainly have a paleotemperate distribution (Europe, Asia and North Africa), occurring as aliens in North America, Australia and South Africa. A new species collected on Mt. Etna (Sicily), and closely related to K. australe, is described and illustrated as K. basalticum Its morphological and molecular features, karyology (2n=54), ecology, distribution, phylogeny and conservation status are examined. In addition, a list of the currently known species of Kali is provided, with some new combinations: Kali nepalense (Grubov) comb. nov., Kali pellucidum (Litvinov) comb. nov., Kali sinkiangense (A.J. Li) comb. nov., Kali gobicolum (Iljin) comb. nov., and Kali ryanii (G.F. Hrusa & Gaskin) comb. nov.


Chenopodiaceae, haplotype, ITS, Kali, karyology, new species, phylogeny, Sicily,taxonomy

Full Text:

PDF/A (9.09 MB)


Aellen, P. & Townsend, C.C. (1972) Fadenia - a new genus of Chenopodiaceae from Tropical Africa. Kew Bulletin 27: 501–503.

Akhani, H., Edwards, G. & Roalson, E.H. (2007) Diversifiation of the old world Salsoleae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae): Molecular phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and chloroplast data set and a revised classification. International Journal of Plant Sciences 168: 931–956.

Akhani, H., Greuter, W. & Roalson, E. (2014) Notes on the typification and nomenclature of Salsola and Kali (Chenopodiaceae). Taxon 63(3): 647–650.

Akopian, J.A. (2011) Genus Salsola L. sensu lato (Chenopodiaceae) in South Transcaucasia. Takhtajania 1: 124–132.

Ayers, D., Ryan, F.J., Grotkoo, E., Bailey, J. & Gaskin, J. (2009) Tumbleweed (Salsola section Kali) species and speciation in California. Biological Invasions 1: 1175–1187.

Bailey, J.P. (1992) Contribution to a cytological catalogue of the British and Irish flora, 2. Watsonia 19: 134–137.

Béguinot, A. (1913) Il polimorfismo nel ciclo di Salsola kali L. ed i suoi fattori. [ser. 3] Atti Accademia delle Scienze Veneto-Trentino-Istriana 4: 90–126.

Bòlos, O. de & Vigo, J. (1974) Notes sobre taxonomia i nomenclatura de plantes, I. [Sec. Bot.] Bulletì Instituciò Catalana d’ Història Natural 38(1): 61–89.

Borger, C.P.D., Yan, G., Scott, J.R., Walsh, M. & Powles, S.B. (2008) Salsola tragus or S. australis (Chenopodiaceae) in Australia – Untangling the taxonomic confusion through random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMP) and cyological analysis. Australian Journal of Botany 56: 600–608.

Botschantzev, V.P. (1956) Dva novych rody iz semeistva Marevych. Sbornik Rabot Po Geobotanike Lesovedenio Paleogeografii j Florjstike: 108–118.

Botschantzev, V.P. (1969a) The genus Salsola: a concise history of its development and dispersial. Botanicheskii Zhurnal (Moscow & Leningrad) 54(7): 989–1001.

Botschantzev,V.P. (1969b) Malpigipila Botsch.: generis Salsola L. secto nova. Novosti Sistematiki Vysshikh Rastenii 6: 45–52.

Botschantzev, V.P. (1970) Sectionis Caroxylon (Thunbg.) Fenzl generis Salsola L. species annuae. Novosti Sistematiki Vysshikh Rastenii 7: 142–145.

Botschantzev, V.P. (1974a) Species subsectionis Caroxylon sectionis Caroxylon (Thunbg.) Fenzl generis Salsola. Novosti Sistematiki Vysshikh Rastenii 11: 110–174.

Botschantzev, V.P. (1974b) A synopsis of Salsola (Chenopodiaceae) from South and South-West Africa. Kew Bulletin 29: 597–614.

Botschantzev, V.P. (1981) Revisio generis Halothamnus Jaub. et Spach (Chenopodiaceae). Novosti Sistematiki Vysshikh Rastenii 18: 146–176.

Brown, R. (1810) Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandie et Insulae van Diemen 1. Richard Taylor & Soch, London, 590 pp.

Brullo, S. (1984) Taxonomic considerations on the genus Darniella (Chenopodiaceae). Webbia 38: 301–328.

Brullo, S. & Pavone, P. (1987) Cremnophyton lanfrancoi: a new genus and species of Chenopodiaceae from Malta. Candollea 42: 621–625.

Brullo, S. & Siracusa, G. (1994) Crassula basaltica (Crassulaceae), a new species from Mt. Etna (Sicily). Flora Mediterranea 4: 175–178

Brullo, C., Brullo, S., Giusso del Galdo, G., Guarino, R. & Iamonico, D. (2013) Il genere Salsola s.l. (Chenopodiaceae) in Italia. In: Peccenini, S. & Domina, G. (Eds.) Contributi alla ricerca floristica in Italia, Euroservice Punto Grafica, Palermo, pp. 35–38.

Bunge, A. (1862) Anabasearum revisio. [sér. 6] Mémoires présentés a l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg 4(11): 11–102.

Bunge, A. (1879) Enumeratio Salsolacearum omnium in Mongalia hucusque collectaru. Bulletin de l’Academie Imperiale des Sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg 25: 350–366.

Čelakovsky, L. (1871) Prodromus der Flora von Böhmen 2. Selbstverlag, Prag, 275 pp.

Chinnock, R.J. (2010) Some observations on Salsola L. (Chenopodiaceae) in Australia. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens 24: 75–79.

Crompton, C.V. & Bassett, I.J. (1985) The biology of Canadian weeds. 65. Salsola pestifer A. Nels. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 65: 379–388.

Czerepanov, S.H. (1973) Svod dopolnenii i izmenenii k Flore SSSR. Nauka, Leningrad, 667 pp.

Degen A. von (1937) Flora Velebitica.2. Ungarischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Budapest, 667 pp.

Delile, A..R. (1813) Flore d’Egypte. Imprimerie Impériale, Paris, 355 pp.

Dumortier, B.C. (1827) Florula Belgica, Operi Majoris Prodromus. Staminacia. J. Caterman, Tornaci Nerviorum, 172 pp.

Fëderova, T.A. (2011) Phylogenetic relations of the South African species of Caroxylon sect. Caroxilon and Tetragonae (Chenopodiaceae) based on the morphology and nrITS seguences. Turczaninowia 14(3) : 69–76

Freitag, H. (1997) Salsola L. In: Rechinger, K.H. (Ed.) Flora Iranica 172. Akademische Druck und Verlagsandstalt, Graz, pp. 154–255.

Freitag, H. & Kani, K. (1987) Salsola griffithii (Chenopodiaceae) comb. nova –a remarkable species from the sand deserts of SW. Asia. Plant Systematic and Evolution 155 (1–4): 49–54.

Gandoger, M. (1913) L’herbier africain de Sonder. Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 60: 414–422.

Garcke, A. (1869) Flora von Nord- und Mittel-Deutschland: Zum Gebrauche auf Excursionen, in Schulen und beim Selbstunterricht. Ed. 9. Wiegandt und Hempel, Berlin, 520 pp.

Gaskin, J., Ryan, F., Hrusa, G.F. & Londo, J.P. (2006) Genotype diversity of Salsola tragus and potential origins of a previously unidentified invasive Salsola from California and Arizona. Madroño 53: 244–251.[244:GDOSTA]2.0.CO;2

Grubov, V.I. (1961) Duae species novae e familia Chenopodiaceae. Botanicheskie Materialy Gerbariya Botanicheskogo Instituta Imeni V. L. Komarova Akademii Nauk SSSR, Leningrad 21: 125–129.

Grubov, V.I. (2000) Plants of Central Asia – Plant Collection from China and Mongolia. Chenopodiaceae 2. Science Publisher, Enfield, 198 pp.

Gussone, G. (1825) Index Seminum anni 1825 quae ab Horto Regio in Boccadifalco pro mutua commutatione exhibentur. Ex Regia Typografia, Napoli, 12 pp.

Gutermann, W. (2011) Notulae nomenclaturales 41-45. (New names in Cruciata, Kali, and some small corrections). Phyton (Horn) 51(1): 95–102.

Hedge, I.C., Akhani, H., Freitag, H., Kothe-Heinrich, G., Podlech, D., Rilke, S. & Uotila, P. (1997) Chenopodiaceae. In: Rechinger, K.H. (Ed.) Flora Iranica 172. Akademische Druck und Verlagsanstalt, Graz, pp. 1–370.

Hrusa, G.F. (2012) Salsola. In: Baldwin, B.G., Goldman, D.H., Keil, D.J., Patterson, R., Rosatti, T.J. & Wilken, D.H. (Eds.) The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California 2nd edition. University California Press, Berkeley. Available from (accessed 29 January 2014).

Hrusa, G.F. & Gaskin, J.F. (2008) The Salsola tragus complex in California (Chenopodiaceae): Characterization and Status of Salsola australis and the autochthonous alllopolyploid Salsola ryanii sp. nov. Madroño 55(2): 113–131.[113:TSTCIC]2.0.CO;2

Iljin, M.M. (1932) Novye vidy roda Salsola L.. Izvestiya Botanicheskogo Sada, Akademii Nauk SSSR 30: 747–748.

Iljin, M.M. (1933) Novye vidy roda Salsola L. kak predpoagaemyi mezhdurodovoj gibrid. Botanicheskii Zhurnal (Moscow & Leningrad) 18(4): 274–277,

Iljin, M.M. (1934) Chenopodiaceae. In: Keller, B.A. (Ed.) Sornye Rasteniya SSSR 2. Tbilisi State University, Leningrad, pp. 90–146.

Iljin, M.M. (1936) Chenopodiaceae. In: Komarov, V.L. (Ed.) Flora of the URSS, 6. Izdatel’stvo Akademii Nauk S.S.S.R., Leningrad, pp. 2–354.

Iljin, M.M. (1955) Novye vidy sem. Marevych iz Central’noj Azii. Botanicheskie Materialy Gerbariya Botanicheskogo Instituta imeni V. L. Komarova, Akademii Nauk SSSR 17: 122–140.

IUCN (2014) Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 11. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee, Cambridge U.K. Available from: (accessed 10 October 2014).

Jaubert, C. & Spach, E. (1846) Illustrationes Plantarum Orientalium 2. Roret Bibliopolam, Paris, 50 pp.

Jonsell, B. & Jarvis, C.F. (1994) Lectotypifications of Linnean names for Flora Nordica Vol. 1 (Lycopodiaceae – Papaveraceae). Nordic Journal of Botany 14: 143–164.

Kadereit, G. & Freitag, H. (2011) Molecular phylogeny of Camphorosmeae (Camphorosmoideae, Chenopodiaceae): Implications fro biogeography, evolution of C4-photosynthesis and taxonomy. Taxon 60(1): 51–78.

Kadereit, G., Borsch, T., Weising, K. & Freitag, H. (2003) Phylogeny of Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae and the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. International Journal of Plant Sciences 164: 959–986.

Kadereit, G., Gotzek, D., Jakobs, S. & Freitag, H. (2005) Origin and age of Australian Chenopodiaeae. Organisms Diversity & Evolution 5: 59–80.

Kapralov, M.V., Akhani, H., Voznesenskaya, E.V., Edwards, G., Franceschi, V. & Roalson E.H. (2006) Phylogenetic relationships in the Salicornioideae/Suaeoideae/Salsoloideae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae) clade and a clarification of the phylogenetic position of Bienertia and Alexandra using multiple DNA sequence datasets. Systematic Botany 31: 571–585.

Khatoon, S. & Ali, S.I. (1993) Chromosome Atlas of the Angiosperms of Pakistan. Department of Botany, University of Karachi. Karachi. BCC & T. Press, Karachi, 232 pp.

Kockx van Roon, M. & Wieffering, J.H. (1982) In IOPB chromosome number reports LXXV. Taxon 31: 367.

Kothe-Heinrich, G. (1993) Revision der Gattung Halothamnus (Chenopodiaceae). Bibliotheca Botanica 143: 1–180.

Kung, H.-W., Chu, G.-L., Tsien, C.-P., Li, A.-J. & Ma, C.-G. (1978) The Chenopodiaceae in China. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 16(1): 99–123.

Lago Canzobre, E. (1989) Numeros cromosomaticos de plantas occidentales, 521-526. Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 45: 501–504.

Lamarck de, M. (1779) Flore Françoise 3. L’Imprimerie Royale, Paris, pp. 16–54

Lessing, G.F. (1834) Beitrag zur Flora des südlichen Urals und der Steppen. Linnaea 9: 145–213.

Linnaeus, C. (1753) Species Plantarum 1. Imprensis Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae, 560 pp.

Linnaeus, C. (1756) Centuria II. Plantarum. L.M. Hojer Reg. Acad. Typogr., Upsaliae, 38 pp.

Litvinov, D. (1902) Schedae ad Herbarium Florae Rossicae 4. St. Petersburg, without pagination.

Litvinov, D. (1905) Rasteniya beregov Aral’skago morya i Syr-Dar’inskoi oblasti, sobrannyya L.S.Bergom. Izvestiya Turkestanskago Otdela Imperatorskago Geograficheskago Obshchestva (St. Petersburg) 4(5): 1–40.

Litvinov, D. (1922) Schedae ad Herbarium Florae Rossicae, 8. St. Petersburg, without pagination.

Lomonosova, M.N. (2005) Chromosome numbers of Chenopodiaceae species from Russia and Kazakhstan. Botanicheskii Zhurnal (Moscow & Leningrad) 90(2): 1132–1134.

Lomonosova, M.N. (2012) Konspekt Flory Aziatskoi Rossii: sosudistye rastenilia. Sibirskoe oldelenie RAN, Novosibirsk, 630 pp.

Lomonosova, M.N. & Krasnikov, A.A. (1993) Chromosome numbers in some members of the Chenopodiaceae. Botanicheskii Zhurnal (Moscow & Leningrad) 78(3): 158–159.

Lomonosova, M.N., Krasnikov, A.A. & Krasnikova, S.A. (2001) Chromosome numbers of Chenopodiaceae from Siberia. Botanicheskii Zhurnal (Moscow & Leningrad) 86(9): 145–146.

Lomonosova, M.N., Krasnikova, S.A., Krasnikov, A.A., Ebel A.L. & Rudaja, N.A. (2003) Chromosome numbers of the family members Chenopodiaceae representatives from Mongolia and Kazakhstan. Botanicheskii Zhurnal (Moscow & Leningrad) 88(8): 113–115.

Lövkvist, B. & Hultgård, U.M. (1999) Chromosome numbers of South Swedish vascular plants. Opera Botanica 137: 1–42.

Maire, R. & Weiller, M. (1939) Contributions à l’étude de la Flore de l’Afrique du Nord. Fascicule 27. Contributions à l’étude de la Flore de la Libye. Bulletin de la Société d* Histoire Naturelle de l* Afrique du Nord 30: 255–314.

McNeill, J., Barrie, F.R., Buck, W.R., Demoulin, V., Greuter, D.L., Hawksworth, D.L., Herendeen, P.S., Knapp, S., Marhold, K., Prado, J., Proud’Homme van Reine, W.F., Smith, J.F. & Wiersema, J.H. (Eds.) (2012) International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (Melbourne Code): Adopted by the Eichteenth International Botanical Congress, Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. [Regnum Vegetabile 154.] Ruggell.

Meyer, C.A. (1829) Salsola. In: Ledebour, C.F. (Ed.) Flora Altaica 1. G. Reimer, Berolini, pp. 387–397.

Miller, P. (1754) The Gardeners Dictionary. Abridged, ed. 4, 2. Revigton, London, without pagination.

Moench, C. (1794) Methodus Plantas Horti Botanici et Agri Marburgensis, a staminum situ describendi. Officina nova libraria academiae, Marburgi Cattorum, 780 pp.

Moquin-Tandon, A. (1840) Chenopodearum Monographica Enumeratio. P.J. Loss, Paris, 182 pp.

Moquin-Tandon, A. (1949) Salsolaceae. In: Candolle, A.P. de (Ed.) Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 13(2). Subtibus Victoris Masson, Parisiis, pp. 43–219.

Mosyakin, S.L. (1996) A taxonomic synopsis of the genus Salsola (Chenopodiaceae) in North America. Annales of the Missouri Botanical Garden 83: 387–395.

Mosyakin, S.L. (2003) Salsola. In: Morin, N. (Ed.) Flora of North America 4. Oxford Univerty Press, Oxford & New York, pp. 398–403.

Nishikawa, I. (1985) Chromosome counts of flowering plants of Hokkaido (8). [sect. 2B] Journal of Hokkaido University of Education 35: 97–111.

Pallas, P.S. (1803) Illustrationes Plantarum. Subtybus Godofredi Matini, Lipsiae, 129 pp.

Pignatti, S. (1973) Note critiche sulla flora d’Italia. 1. Giornale Botanico Italiano 107(5): 207–221.

Pratov UP (1985) Obzor roda Nanophyton Less. (Chenopodiaceae). Novosti Sistematiki Vysshikh Rastenii 22: 81–88.

Pratov, U.P. (1986) Rod Climacoptera Botsch.: sistematuca, geografiya, filogeniya i voprocy okhrany. Izdatel’stvo Fan Uzbekskoi, Tashkent, 65 pp.

Probatova, N.S. (2005) Chromosome numbers of some dicotyledons of the flora of the Amur Region. Botanicheskii Zhurnal (Moscow & Leningrad) 90(5): 779–792.

Probatova, N.S., Seledets, V.P., Rudyka, E.G., Gnutikov, A.A., Kuzhevnikova, Z.V. & Barkalov, V.Y. (2009) IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 8. Taxon 58(4): 1284–1288.

Pyankov, V.I., Ziegler, H., Kuz’min, A. & Edwards, G.E. (2001) Origin and evolution of C4 photosynthesis in the tribe Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae) based on anatomical and biochemical types in leaves and cotyledons. Plant Systematic and Evolution 230: 43–74.

Rilke, S. (1997) Salsola sect. Salsola. In: Rechinger, K.H. (Ed.) Flora Iranica 173. Akademische Druck und Verlagsanstalt, Graz, pp. 178–191

Rilke, S. (1999) Revision der Section Salsola s.l. del Gattung Salsola (Chenopodiaceae). Bibliotheca Botanica 149: 1–190.

Salisbury, R.A. (1796) Prodromus Stirpium in Horto ad Chapel Allerton Vigentium. Londini, 442 pp.

Schrader, H.A. (1834) Index Seminum Horti Academici Gottingensis 5. Publisher, Gottingae.

Scopoli, I.A. (1772) Flora Carniolica, ed. 2, 1. Ioannis Pauli Krauss, Viennae, 448 pp.

Sennen, F. (1908) Plantes d’ Espagne: Années 1906 & 1907. Bulletin de l’Académie Internationale de Géographie Botanique 18: 449–480.

Soó, R. & Jávorka, S. (1951) A magyar növényvilág kézikönyve. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1120 pp.

Strobl, G. (1881) Flora des Etna. Oesterreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 31(12): 396–400.

Strobl, G. (1885) Flora des Etna. Oesterreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 35(10): 360–364.

Sukhorukov, A.P. (2011) On some new and critical taxa of the Family Chenopodiaceae in the flora of the Caucasus. Novosti Sistematiki Vysshikh Rastenii (Moscow & Leningrad) 42: 106–110.

Swofford, D.L. (2000) PAUP* Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (* and other methods). Version 4. Sunderland, Sinauer Associates.

Tamura, K., Steche., G, Peterson. D, Filipski. A, Kumar. S (2013) MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30(12): 2725–2729.

Thunberg, C. P. (1782) Nova genera Plantarum, quorum partem secundam. Johan Edman, Upsaliae, 11 pp.

Toderich, K.N., Li, V.V., Black, C.C., Yunusov, T.R., Shuiskay, E.V., Mardonova, G.R. & Gismatullina, L.G. (2006) Linkage studies of structure, isoenzymatic diversity and some biotechnological procedure for Salsola species under desert saline environments. In: Öztürk, M., Waisel, Y., Khan, M.A. & Görk, G. (Eds.) Biosaline agriculture and salinity tolerance in plants. Birkhäuser, Basel, pp. 73–82.

Tornabene, F. (1855) Sopra un nuovo albero indigeno dell’Etna del genere Celtis. [ser. 2] Atti Accademia Gioenia Scienze Naturali, Catania 11: 187–200.

Tournefort, J.P. (1719) Istitutiones rei Herbariae 1. Typographia Regia, Parisiis, 697 pp.

Tzvelev, N.N. (1993) Zametki o marevykh (Chenopodiaceae) Vostochnoy Evropy. Ukrayins’kyi Botanicnyi Zhurnal, Kiev 50(1): 78–85.

Ulbrich, E. (1934) Chenopodiaceae. In: Engler, A. & Harms, A. (Eds.) Die natüralichen Pflanzenfamilien, 2., 16c. Engelmann, Leipzig, Berlin, pp. 379–584.

Volkens, G. (1893) Chenopodiaceae. In: Engler, A & Prantl, K. (Eds.) Die natüralichen Pflanzenfamilien 3. Ia. Engelmann, Leipzig, Berlin, pp. 36–91.

Walter, T. (1788) Flora Caroliniana. J. Fraser, Londini, 263 pp.

Wen, Z.-B., Zhang, M.-L., Zhu, G.-L. & Sanderson, S.C. (2010) Phylogeny of Salsoleae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae) based on DNA sequence data fron ITS, psbB-psbH, and rbcL., with emphasis on taxa of northwestern China. Plant Systematic and Evolution 288: 25–42.

Wilson, B. (2009) Salsola of the Pacific Coast States. Available from (accessed 10 November 2014).

Zhu, G.-L., Mosyankin, S.L. & Clemants, S.E. (2003) Chenopodiaceae. In: Wu, Z.Y & Raven, P.H. (Eds.) Flora of China 5. Science Presss, Beijng, pp. 354–414.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand