Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.214.1.1

A revision of Smallanthus (Asteraceae, Millerieae), the “yacón” genus

Maira Soledad Vitali, GISELA SANCHO, LILIANA KATINAS

Abstract


Smallanthus (Asteraceae, Millerieae), the “yacón” genus, comprises 23 species ranging from southeastern United States to central Argentina, with the greatest diversity in Peru and Mexico. Species of Smallanthus are herbs, shrubs or small trees with tuberous roots, opposite, trinerved or triplinerved leaves, paleate receptacle, ray corollas externally hairy at the base, pappus lacking, and marginal cypselae partially embraced by the inner phyllaries of the involucre. As a result of this revision: Smallanthus araucariophilus and S. riograndesis are considered synonyms of S. macroscyphus; lectotypes are designated for nine names; and the geographical distribution of S. latisquamus, S. lundelli, S. riparius, and S. siegesbeckia is extended. A comprehensive key to the species and detailed descriptions, geographical distribution, phenology, illustrations and distribution maps are provided for all taxa.


Keywords


Smallanthus, Asteraceae, Millerieae, United States, Argentina, Magnoliids

Full Text:

PDF/A (16.06 MB)

References


APSA Members (2007) Australasian pollen and spore atlas V 1.0. Australian Nation University, Canberra. Available from: http://apsa.anu.edu.au (accessed 7 November 2014)

Arechavaleta, J. (1925) Apuntes botánicos. Anales del Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo, Segunda Serie 1: 17–45.

Asami, T., Kubota, M., Minamisawa, K. & Tsukihashi, T. (1989) Chemical composition of yacon, a new root crop from the Andean Highlands. Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 60: 122–126.

Aybar, M.J., Sánchez Riera, A.N., Grau, A. & Sánchez, S.S. (2001) Hypoglycemic effect of the water extract of Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacón) leaves in normal and diabetic rats. Journal of Etnopharmacology 74: 125–132.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00351-2

Bach, S.M., Schuff, C., Grau, A. & Catalán, C.A.N. (2007) Melampolides and other constituents from Smallanthus connatus. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 35: 785–789.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bse.2007.03.015

Badillo, V.M. (1946) Contribución al conocimiento de la sistemática y distribución geográfica de las Compuestas en Venezuela. Boletín de la Sociedad Venezolana de Ciencias Naturales 10: 277–320.

Baker, J.G. (1884) Compositae IV. Helianthoideae. In: Martius, C.F.P. (Ed.) Flora Brasiliensis 6 (3). In typographia regia C. Wolf et fil. et in offic. lithograph. Keller, München, pp. 138–268.

Bentham, G. (1845) Plantas Hartwegianas imprimis Mexicanas adjectis nonnullis Grahamianis enumerat novasque describit. Gulielmus Pamplin, London, 393 pp.

Bettfreund, C., Burmeister, F. & Napp, E. (1899) Flora Argentina: Recolección y descripción de plantas vivas. Vol. 2. Librería alemana de Gmo. van Woerden & Cia., Buenos Aires, 84 pp.

Blackmore, S., Wortley, A.H., Skvarla, J.J. & Robinson, H. (2009) Evolution of pollen in Compositae. In: Funk, V.A., Susanna, A., Stuessy, T.F. & Bayer, R.J. (Eds.) Systematics, evolution and biogeography of Compositae. Sheridan Books, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp. 101–130.

Blake, S.F. (1917a) Polymnia uvedalia and its varieties. Rhodora 19: 46–48.

Blake, S.F. (1917b) III. New and notewhorthy Compositae, chiefly Mexican. Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 52: 16–59.

Blake, S.F. (1918) Notes on the Clayton herbarium. Rhodora 20: 21–28.

Blake, S.F. (1922) New South American Asteraceae collected by E. W. D. Holway. Botanical Gazette 74: 414–430.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/333127

Blake, S.F. (1924) New American Asteraceae. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 22: 587–661.

Blake, S.F. (1926) Five new American Melampodiinae. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 16: 418–422.

Blake, S.F. (1930) Notes on certain type specimens of American Asteraceae in European herbaria. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 26: 227–263.

Blake, S.F. (1935) New Asteraceae from the United States, Mexico, and South America. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 25: 311–325.

Cabrera, W., de Pedro, A., Perotti, M.E., Grau, A., Catalán, C., Genta, S. & Sánchez, S.S. (2007) Hypoglycemic effect of Smallanthus macroscyphus leaves: identification of the active principle. Biocell 31: 311.

Candolle, A.P. (1836) Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis. Vol. 5. Treuttel and Würtz, Paris, 706 pp.

Carr, G.D., King, R.M., Powel, A.M. & Robinson, H. (1999) Chromosome numbers in Compositae. XVIII. American Journal of Botany 86: 1003–1013.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2656618

Cassini, H. (1829) Polymniastrum. In: Cuvier, F. (Ed.) Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles. Vol. 59. F. G. Levrault, Strasbourg; Le Normant, Paris, pp. 246–247.

Castro L., A.J., Felix V., L.M. & Rojas M., N. (2006) Estudio comparativo de la glibenclamida, clorpropamida y metformina como hipoglicemiantes orales y el extracto acuoso de las hojas de Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp.) Rob. “yacón” por hiperglicemia experimental en Rattus norvegicus var. albina. Ciencia e Investigación 9: 41–46.

Cavanilles, A.J. (1794 [1795]) Icones et Descriptiones Plantarum quae aut sponte in Hispania crescunt aut in hortis hospitantur. Vol. 3. Ex Regia typographia eius operas dirigente Lazaro Gayguer, Madrid, 58 pp. + 100 pl.

Choque Delgado, G.T., Tamashiro, W.M.C., Maróstica Junior, M.R. & Pastore, G.M. (2013) Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius): a functional food. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 68: 222–228.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-013-0362-0

Coll Aráoz, M.V., Mercado, M.I., Grau, A. & Ponessa, G.I. (2008) Morfología y anatomía foliar, caulinar y radicular de Smallanthus macroscyphus (Asteraceae). Lilloa 45: 23–33.

Coulter, J.M. (1895) New or noteworthy Compositae from Guatemala. Botanical Gazette 20: 41–53.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/327149

Cuatrecasas, J. (1954) Notas de la flora de Colombia, XIII. Revista Académica Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 9: 233–249.

Erdtman, G. (1960) The acetolysis method, revised description. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 54: 561–564.

Erdtman, G. (1969) Handbook of palynology. An introduction to the study of pollen grains and Spores. Hafner, Munksgaard, Copenhagen, and New York, 486 pp.

Grau, A. & Rea, J. (1997) Yacón, Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Endl.) H. Robinson. In: Hermann, M. & Heller, J. (Eds.) Andean roots and tubers: Ahipa, arracacha, maca and yacon. Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben/International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, pp. 199–242.

Greenman, J.M. (1903) New and otherwise noteworthy Angiosperms from México and Central América. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 39: 69–120.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/20021858

Gronovius, J.F. (1743) Flora Virginica Exhibens Plantas Quas V. C. Johannes Clayton in Virginia Observavit atque Collegit. Apud Cornelius Haak, Leiden, 206 pp. + index.

Guzmán Avendaño, A.J. & Barrera Adame, D.A. (2010) Estudio fitoquímico de hojas y flores de Smallanthus pyramidalis (Triana) H. Rob. (arboloco) y su uso en la recuperación de los humedales de Bogotá. Colombia Forestal 14: 41–50.

http://dx.doi.org/10.14483/udistrital.jour.colomb.for.2011.1.a04

Harris, J.G. & Wolf Harris, M. (1994) Plant identification terminology. An illustrated glossary. Spring Lake Publishing, Spring Lake, Utah, 206 pp.

Hiepko, P. (1987) The collections of the Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem (B) and their history. Englera 7: 219–252.

Hieronymus, G. (1900) Aloysius Sodiro, S. J.: Plantae ecuadorenses II. Compositae. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 29: 1–85.

Hieronymus, G. (1901) Plantae Lehmannianae praesertim in Columbia et Ecuador collectae, additis quibusdam ab aliis collectoribus ex iisdem regionibus allatis determinatae et descriptae. Compositae II. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 28: 558–659.

Hieronymus, G. (1905) Plantae peruvianae a claro Constantino de Jelski collectae. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 36: 458–513.

Holmgren, P.K., Holmgren, N.H. & Barnett, L.C. (1990) Index Herbariorum, Part I: The herbaria of the world. 8th Edition. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York, 693 pp.

Humboldt, A. de, Bonpland, A. & Kunth, C.S. (1818 [1820]) Nova genera et species plantarum quas in peregrinatione ad plagam aequinoctialem orbis novi collegerunt, descripserunt, partim adumbraverunt (folio ed.), Vol. 4. Apud N. Maze, Bibliopolam, Paris, 247 pp. +111 pls.

Karis, P.O. (1993) The Heliantheae sensu lato (Asteraceae) clades and classification. Plant Systematics and Evolution 188: 139–195.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00937727

Klatt, F.W. (1887) Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Compositen. Leopoldina 23: 88–91.

Lachman, J., Fernández, E.C. & Orsák, M. (2003) Yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolia (Poepp. et Endl.) H. Robinson ] chemical composition and use – a review. Plant, Soil and Environment 49: 283–290.

Lamarck, J.B.A.P.M. de (1823) Polymniastrum. In: Lamarck, J.B.A.P.M. de & Poiret, J. L.M. (Eds.) Tableau Encyclopédique et Methodique des Trois Règnes de la Nature, Botanique. Recueil des planches de Botanique de l’Encyclopédie. Vol. 3. planche 501 a 750. Mme. Agasse, Imprimeur Libraire, Paris, pl. 712.

Linné, C. von (1737) Hortus cliffortianus. Amstelaedami [Amsterdam], 518 pp.

Linné, C. von (1748) Hortus upsaliensis. Vol. 1. Sumptu & literis Laurentii Salvii, Stockholmiae [Stockholm], 306 pp. + nomina botanica.

Linné, C. von (1753) Species plantarum. L. Salvius, Holmiae [Stockholm], 1200 pp.

Linné, C. von (1763) Species plantarum. Editio secunda, aucta. Vol. 2. Impensis direct L. Salvii, Holmiae [Stockholm], 1684 pp. + indices.

Mackenzie, K.K. (1933) Family 2. Carduaceae Neck. Smallanthus. In: Small, J.K. (Ed.) Manual of the Southeastern Flora. The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, p. 1406.

Mayta, P., Payano, J., Peláez, J., Pérez, M., Pichardo, L. & Puycán, L. (2004) Reducción de la respuesta glicémica posprandial post-ingesta de raíz fresca de yacón en sujetos sanos. Ciencia e Investigación Médica Estudiantil Latinoamericana 9: 7–11.

McNeill, J., Barrie, F.R., Buck, W.R., Demoulin, V., Greuter, W., Hawksworth, D.L., Herenden, P.S., Knapp, S., Marhold, K., Prado, J., Prud’Homme van Reine, W.F., Smith, G.F., Wiersema, J.H. & Turland, N.J. (Eds.) (2012) International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress, Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. Regnum Vegetabile 154. International Association for Plant Taxonomy, c/o Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, 208 pp.

Metcalfe, C.R. & Chalk, L. (1979) Anatomy of the Dicotyledons. Clarendon, Oxford, 293 pp.

Mondin, C.A. (2004) Two new species of Smallanthus (Asteraceae: Heliantheae) from Brasil. Compositae Newsletter 41: 1–5.

Ohyama, T., Ito, O., Yasuyoshi, S., Ikarashi, T., Minamisawa, K., Kubota, M., Tsukihashi, T. & Asami, T. (1990) Composition of storage carbohydrate in tubers of yacon (Polymnia sonchifolia). Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 36: 167–171.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00380768.1990.10415724

Panero, J.L., Jansen, R.K. & Clevinger, J.A. (1999) Phylogenetic relationships of subtribe Ecliptinae (Asteraceae: Heliantheae) based on chloroplast DNA restriction site data. American Journal of Botany 86: 413–427.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2656762

Poeppig, E.F. (1843) Nova genera ac species plantarum, quas in regno Chilensi Peruviano et in terra Amazonica: annis MDCCCXXVII ad MDCCCXXXII, legit descripsit iconibusque illustravit. Vol. 3. Sumptibus Frederici Hofmeister, Leipzig, 91 pp. + 99 pl.

Poiret, J.L.M. (1804) Polymnia variabilis. In: Lamarck, J.B.A.P.M. de & Poiret, J.L.M. (Eds.) Tableau Encyclopédique et Methodique des Trois Règnes de la Nature, Botanique. Vol. 5. Mme. Agasse, Imprimeur Libraire, Paris, pp. 1–505.

Poiret, J.L.M. (1823) Polymniastrum variabile. In: Lamarck, J.B.A.P.M. de & Poiret, J.L.M. (Eds.) Tableau Encyclopédique et Methodique des Trois Règnes de la Nature, Botanique. Vol. 3. Mme. Agasse, Imprimeur Libraire, Paris, pp. 1–287.

Pruski, J.F. (2013) Tribe Millerieae. In: Davidse, G., Sousa Sánchez, M., Knapp, S. & Chiang Cabrera, F. (Eds.) Flora Mesoamericana. Vol. 5. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, pp. 682–791.

Punt, W., Blackmore, S., Nilsson, S. & Le Thomas, A. (2007) Glossary of pollen and spore terminology. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 143: 1–81.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2006.06.008

Rafinesque, C.S. (1817) Florula Ludoviciana; or, a flora of the state of Louisiana. C. Wiley & Co., New York, 178 pp.

Ramayya, N. (1962) Studies on the trichomes of some Compositae I. General structure. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 4: 177–188.

Rauscher, J.T. (2002) Molecular phylogenetics of the Espeletia complex (Asteraceae): evidence from nrDNA ITS sequences on the closest relatives of an Andean adaptive radiation. American Journal of Botany 89: 1074–1084.

http://dx.doi.org/10.3732/ajb.89.7.1074

Reiche, C. (1905) Flora de Chile. Familia 59. Vol. 4. Imprenta Cervantes, Santiago de Chile, 217 pp.

Robinson, H. (1978) Studies in the Heliantheae (Asteraceae). XII. Re-establishment of the genus Smallanthus. Phytologia 39: 47–53.

Robinson, H., Powell, A.M., King, R.M. & Weedin, J.F. (1981) Chromosome numbers in Compositae, XII: Heliantheae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 52: 1–28.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.0081024X.52

Royen, A. van (1740) Florae Leydensis Prodromus: exhibens plantas quae in Horto academico Lugudno-Batavo aluntur. Apud Samuelen Luchtmans academiae typographum, Lugduni Batavorum [Leiden], 538 pp. + index.

Sanders, R.W. (1977) Taxonomy of Rumfordia (Asteraceae). Systematic Botany 2: 302–316.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2418465

Seminario, J., Valderrama, M. & Manrique, I. (2003) El yacón: fundamentos para el aprovechamiento de un recurso promisorio. Centro Internacional de la Papa (CIP), Universidad Nacional de Cajamarca. Agencia Suiza para el desarrollo y la Cooperación (COSUDE), Lima, 60 pp.

Skvarla, J.J. & Turner, B.L. (1966) Systematic implications from electron microscopic studies of Compositae pollen: a review. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 53: 220–256.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2394944

Small, J.K. (1913) Polymniastrum. In: Small, J.K. & Carter, J.J. (Eds.) Flora of Lancaster county; being descriptions of the seed- plants growing naturally in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Published by the authors, New York, 336 pp.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.28829

Solbrig, O.T. (1965) The Klatt Herbarium of Compositae at Harvard. Taxon 14: 188–191.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1217143

Sprengel, C. (1826) Systema Vegetabilium. 16th Edition. Vol. 3. Sumbtibus Librariae Dieterichianae, Gottingae, 936 pp.

Stafleu, F.A. & Cowan, R.S. (1976) Taxonomic literature. A selective guide to botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types. Vol. 1. 2nd Edition. Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema, Utrecht, 1136 pp.

Stafleu, F.A. & Cowan, R.S. (1979) Taxonomic literature. A selective guide to botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types. Vol. 2. 2nd Edition. Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema, Utrecht dr. W. Junk b.v., Publishers, The Hague, 991 pp.

Steyermark, J.A. (1953) Contributions to the flora of Venezuela: from Ericaceae through Compositae. Fieldiana Botany 28: 449–678.

Stix, E. (1960) Pollenmorphologische Untersuchungen an Compositen. Grana Palynologica 2: 41–104.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00173136009429443

Stuessy, T.F. (1969) Re-establishment of the genus Unxia (Compositae-Heliantheae). Brittonia 21: 314–321.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2805758

Triana, M.J. (1858) Choix de plantes de la Nouvelle-Grenade. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Botanique, Série 4 9: 36–52.

Turner, B.L. (1988) A new species of, and observations on, the genus Smallanthus (Asteraceae-Heliantheae). Phytologia 64: 405–407.

Turner, B.L. (2010) Smallanthus putlanus (Asteraceae: Heliantheae), a new species from Oaxaca, México. Phytologia 92: 358–361.

Vitali, M.S. (2014) Revisión sistemática, análisis cladístico y biogeográfico del género Smallanthus Mack. (Asteraceae, Millerieae). PhD thesis, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, 189 pp.

Vitali, M.S. (2015) Lectotypification of the Cavanilles name Polymnia maculata Cav. (Asteraceae: Millerieae). Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid. [in press]

Vitali, M.S. & Viera Barreto, J.N. (2014) Phylogenetic studies in Smallanthus (Millerieae, Asteraceae): a contribution from morphology. Phytotaxa 159(2): 77–94.

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.159.2.2

Weddell, H.A. (1857) Notice sur l’ahipa et l’aricoma, plantes alimentaires du haut-Pérou. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Botanique, Série 4 7: 111–115.

Wells, J.R. (1965) A taxonomic study of Polymnia (Compositae). Brittonia 17: 144–159.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2805240

Wells, J.R. (1967) A new species of Polymnia (Compositae: Heliantheae) from México. Brittonia 19: 391–394.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2805536

Wells, J.R. (1971) Variation in Polymnia pollen. American Journal of Botany 38:124–130.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2441455

Zardini, E. (1991) Ethnobotanical notes on yacon. Economic Botany 45: 72–85.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02860051

Zuloaga, F.O. & Morrone, O. (Eds.) (1999) Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de la República Argentina. II. Fabaceae-Zygophyllaceae (Dicotyledoneae). Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 74: 623–1269.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand