Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


Taxonomic reexamination of Portulaca boninensis (Portulacaceae) in the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands of Japan using molecular and morphological data

Goro KOKUBUGATA, Hidetoshi Kato, DUILIO IAMONICO, Hana Umemoto, Takuro Ito, Koh Nakamura, Noriaki Murakami, Masatsugu Yokota


Molecular phylogenetic analyses, morphological observations, and nomenclatural studies were carried out to investigate the taxonomic status of Portulaca boninensis, endemic species from the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands (Japan). The results addressed controversy between the widely naturalized P. boninensis and P. pilosa, indicating that they are phylogenetically and morphologically distinct. Furthermore, P. boninensis was showed to be conspecific to P. psammotropha which is until now recorded in southern China, Taiwan, and the northern Philippines, but not in the Ryukyus. The name of P. psammotropha was lectotypified on a specimen preserved at K. Based on phylogeography, P. psammotropha likely migrated to the Oceanic Bonin Islands oversea by sea-current dispersal or by exo- and/or end ozoochory through migratory birds without passing through Ryukyus.


Biogeography, ITS, lectotype, Philippines, Portulaca psammotropha, Taiwan, Taxonomic revision, Magnoliids, Japan

Full Text:

PDF/A (1.30 MB)


Chung, S., Madulid, D.A. & Hsu, T. (2008) Portulaca psammotropha Hance (Portulacaceae), a neglected species in the flora of Taiwan and the Philippines. Taiwania 53: 90–95.

Douzery, E.J.P., Pridgeon, A.M., Kores, P., Linder, H.P., Kurzweil, H. & Chase, M.W. (1999) Molecular phylogenetics of Diseae (Orchidaceae): a contribution from nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences. American Journal of Botany 86: 887–899.

Drummond, A.J. & Rambaut, A. (2007) BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 214.

Felsenstein, J. (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39: 783–791.

Fujita, T., Takayama, K., Shumiya, T. & Kato, H. (2008) Overview of expedition of nature environment on Minami-iwo-to Island. Ogasawara Research 33: 49–62. [in Japanese with English abstract]

Geesink, T. (1969) An account of the genus Portulaca in Indo-Australia and the Pacific (Portulacaceae). Blumea 17: 276–301.

Hance, H.F. (1851) Portulac psammotropha. In: Walpers, G.G. (Ed.) Annales Botanices Systematicae, vol. 2. Friedrich Hofmeister, Leipzig, pp. 1–660.

Hara, H. (1959) An outline of the phytogeography of Japan. In: Hara, H. & Kanai, H. (Eds.) Distribution maps of flowering plants in Japan, vol. 2. Inoue Book Co., Tokyo, pp. 1–96.

Imaizumi, T. & Tamura, T. (1984) Geomorphology of the Chichijima and Hahajima Islands. Ogasawara-Kenkyu-Nenpo 7: 3–11. [in Japanese]

Kato, H., Horikoshi, K., Shumiya, T., Amano, K., Munakata, M., Katoh, S., Karube, H., Nakano, H. & Kachi, N. (2008) Overview of expedition of nature environment on Minami-iwo-to Island. Ogasawara Research 33: 1–29. [in Japanese with English abstract]

Kato, H. & Ohba, H. (2014) Portulaca boninensis. In: Tokyo Metropolitan Government (Eds.) Red List Book Tokyo 2014, Island Version. Tokyo Metropolitan Government, Tokyo, 239 pp. [in Japanese]

Kaizuka, S. (1977) Geology and geomorphology of the Bonin Islands. Ogasawara-Kenkyu-Nenpo 1: 29–34. [in Japanese]

Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987) A revised list of vascular plants indigenous and introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands. Ogasawara Research 13: 1–55.

Kokubugata, G., Nakamura, K., Hirayama, Y. & Yokota, M. (2013) Taxonomic reconsideration of Portulaca okinawensis (Portulacaceae) in the Ryukyus Archipelago based on morphological and molecular data. Phytotaxa 117 (1): 11–22.

Linnaeus, C. (1753) Species Plantarum, vols. 1–2. Laurentii Salvii, Holmia, 1200 pp.

McNeill, J., Barrie, F.R., Buck, W.R., Demoulin, V., Greuter, D.L., Hawksworth, D.L., Herendeen, P.S., Knapp, S., Marhold, K., Prado, J., Proud’Homme van Reine, W.F., Smith, J.F. & Wiersema, J.H. (Eds.) (2012) International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (Melbourne Code): Adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress, Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. Regnum Vegetabile 154: 1−274.

Nylander, J.A.A. (2004) MrModeltest ver2. Program distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.

Nyffeler, R. & Eggli, U. (2010) Disintegrating Portulacaceae: a new familial classification of the suborder Portulacineae (Caryophyllales) based on molecular and morphological data. Taxon 59: 227–240.

Ocampo, G. & Columbus, J.T. (2012) Molecular phylogenetics, historical biogeography, and chromosome number evolution of Portulaca (Portulacaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 63: 97–112.

Ohwi, J. (1934) Plantae novae Japonicae. Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 36: 39–58.

Ono, M., Kobayashi, S. & Kawakubo, N. (1986) Present situation of endangered plants species in the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands. Ogasawara Research 12: 1–32.

Page, R.D.M (1996) TREEVIEW: An application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers. Computer Applications in the Bioscience 12: 357–358.

PIER-Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (2008) Portulaca pilosa. US Forest Service, Washington, DC. Available from: (accessed 19 February 2013)

Puy, D.J.D., Telford, I.R.H. & Orchard, A.E. (1993) Portulacaceae. In: George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (Eds.) Flora of Australia, vol. 50. AGPS Press Publication, Canberra, pp.118–121.

Ridley, H.N. (1930) The Dispersal of Plants Throughout the World. L. Reeve and Co.,Ashford, Kent, 744 pp.

Rohrbach, P. (1872) Portulaca elatior. In: Martius, C.F.P. (Ed.) Flora Brasiliensis, vol. 14 (2). Alemania Press, Leipzig, 302 pp.

Ronquist, F. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. (2003) MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19: 1572–1574.

Roxburgh, W. (1814) Hortus Bengalensis. Mission Press, Serampore, 434 pp.

Swofford, D.L. (2002) PAUP: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony, version 4.0b10. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.

Takahashi, H. (2003) Portulacaceae Juss. In: Shimizu, T. (Ed.) Naturalized plants of Japan. Heibonsha, Tokyo, pp. 52–53. [in Japanese]

Thiers, B. (2014) [continuously updated] Index herbariorum: a global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden. Available from: (accessed 12 February 2014)

Thompson, J.D., Higgins, D.G. & Gibson, T.J. (1994) CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Research 22: 4673–4680.

Toyoda, T. (2003) Illustrated Book of the Bonin Islands Plants rev. ed. Aboc-sha, Kamakura, 522 pp. (in Japanese).

Toyoda, T. (2014) The endemic Plants of the Bonin Islands. Aboc-sha, Kamakura, 623 pp. [in Japanese]

Tuyama, T. (1939) Plantae Bonienses Novae Criticae. XII. The Botanical Magazine, Tokyo 53: 1–7.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand