Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


Redescription of Clitocybe umbrinopurpurascens (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) and revision of Neohygrophorus and Pseudoomphalina

Carmine Lavorato, Alfredo Vizzini, Zai-Wei Ge, Marco Contu


Clitocybe umbrinopurpurascens, a rare species thus far known only from Morocco, is redescribed based on fresh collections made in Calabria (South Italy). Photographs of fresh material and drawings of the main micromorphological features of the species are provided. The type collection, in poor condition and not suitable for molecular analysis, was restudied macro- and micromorphologically and was found fully identical with the collections from Calabria. Based on molecular data, this species  belongs to the genus Pseudoomphalina (type Omphalia kalchbrenneri) and the genus Neohygrophorus is treated as a synonym of Pseudoomphalina. A collection from Calabria is chosen as an epitype for P. umbrinopurpurascens. Our morphological and molecular revision of other Pseudoomphalina species did not provide evidence supporting the placement of  Agaricus pachyphyllus in Pseudomphalina, or any other of the allied genera, therefore, for this species the new genus Pseudolaccaria is introduced. As there are no extant original herbarium specimens, a lectotype and epitype for Omphalia kalchbrenneri and a neotype for Agaricus pachyphyllus are designated.


Agaricomycetes, tricholomatoid clade, amyloid spores, ITS and nucLSU sequences, taxonomy, Fungi, Italy

Full Text:

PDF/A (4.68 MB)


Baroni, T.J., Bocsusis, N., Lodge, D.J. & Lindner, D.L. (2008) A new species of Pleurocollybia (Tricholomataceae; Agaricales; Basidiomycetes) from Belize. Mycotaxon 103: 353–363.

Bigelow, H.E. (1982) North American species of Clitocybe, part. I. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 72: 1–280.

Bigelow, H.E. (1985) North American species of Clitocybe, part. II. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 81: 281–471.

Binder, M., Larsson, K-H., Matheny, P.B. & Hibbett, D.S. (2010) Amylocorticiales ord. nov. and Jaapiales ord. nov.: early diverging clades of agaricomycetidae were dominated by corticioid forms. Mycologia 102: 865–880.

Bon, M. (1978) Tricholomataceae de France et d’Europe occidentale (Leucopaxilloideae). Documents Mycologiques 9 (33): 1–79.

Bon, M. (1991) Flore Mycologique d’Europe. 2. Les Tricholomes et ressemblants. Documents Mycologiques, Mémoire Hors Série No 2. Amiens. Lille : Association d’écologie et de mycologie, U.E.R., 154 pp.

Bon, M. (1997) Flore Mycologique d’Europe. 4. Les clitocybes, omphales et ressem­blants. Documents Mycologiques, Mémoire Hors Série No 4. Amiens. Lille : Association d’écologie et de mycologie, U.E.R., 181 pp.

Consiglio, G., Contu, M. & Caroti, V. (2006) Il genere Pseudoomphalina in Italia. I. Nuova descrizione di alcune specie note. Bollettino dell’ Associazione Micologica ed Ecologica Romana 68: 5–33.

Contu, M. (2010) Tipificazione e posizione tassonomica di Clitocybe umbrino-purpurascens (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Bollettino dell’Associazione Micologica ed Ecologica Romana 80: 3–12.

Cripps, C.L. (2009) Snowbank Fungi Revisited. Fungi 2 (1): 47–53.

Doyle, J.J. & Doyle, J.L. (1987) A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf material. Phytochemistry Bulletin 19: 11–15.

Fannechére, G. (2011) Mycomètre, logiciel d’aide à la mesure et de traitement statistique. Available from (accessed 30 June 2015)

Gardes, M. & Bruns, T.D. (1993) ITS primers with enhanced specificity for Basidiomycetes—application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Molecular Ecology 2: 113–118.

Ge, Z-W., Yang, Z.L., Pfister, D.H., Carbone, M., Bau, T. & Smith, M.E. (2014) Multigene molecular phylogeny and biogeographic diversification of the earth tongue Fungi in the genera Cudonia and Spathularia (Rhytismatales, Ascomycota). PLoS ONE 9 (8): e103457.

Harmaja, H. (1979) Type studies in Clitocybe 3. Karstenia 19: 22–24.

Heinemann, P. (1963) Champignons récoltés au Congo par Madame M. Goossens-Fontana: V. Hygrophoraceae. Bulletin du Jardin botanique de l’État a Bruxelles 33 (4): 421–458.

Hesler, L.R. & Smith, A.H. (1963) North American species of Hygrophorus. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, 416 pp.

Katoh, K., Asimenos, G. & Toh, H. (2009) Multiple alignment of DNA sequences with MAFFT. Methods in Molecular Biology 537: 39–64.

Knudsen, H. (2012) Pseudoomphalina (Singer) Singer. In: Knudsen, H. & Vesterholt, J. (Eds.) Funga Nordica: agaricoid, boletoid, clavarioid, cyphelloid and gastroid genera. Copenhagen, Nordsvamp, pp 490–491.

Knudsen, H. & Hansen, L. (1991) New taxa and combinations in the Agaricales, Boletales and Polyporales. Nordic Journal of Botany 11: 477–481.

Kotlaba, F. & Pouzar, Z. (1995) Pseudoomphalina kalchbrenneri (Agaricales) in the Czech Republic. Czech Mycology 48 (3): 199–205.

Kuyper, T.W. (1978) Aantekeningen over Clitocybe I: C. incomis. Coolia 21 (2): 40–45.

Kuyper, T.W. (1995) Pseudoomphalina (Singer) Singer. In: Bas, C., Kuyper, T.W., Noordeloos, M.E. & Vellinga, E.C. (Eds.) Flora Agaricina Neerlandica. Balkema, Rotterdam, Brookfield, pp. 93–94.

Largent, D.L. (1985) The Agaricales (Gilled Fungi) of California. 5. Hygrophoraceae. Mad River Press, Eureka, CA. 208 pp.

Lodge, D.J., Matheny, P.B., Cantrell, S.A., Moncalvo, J.-M., Vilgalys, R. & Redhead, S.A. (2006) Delineating the Hygrophoraceae: character myths vs. Gene trees. Inoculum 57: 27.

Lodge, D.J., Padamsee, M., Matheny, P.B., Aime, M.C., Cantrell, S.A., Boertmann, D., Kovalenko, A., Vizzini, A., Dentinger, B.T.M., Kirk, P.M., Ainsworth, A.M., Moncalvo, J.-M., Vilgalys, R., Larsson, E., Lücking, R., Griffith, G.W., Smith, M.E., Norvell, L.L., Desjardin, D.E,, Redhead, S.A., Ovrebo, C.L., Lickey, E.B., Ercole, E., Hughes, K.W., Courtecuisse, R., Young, A., Binder, M., Minnis, A.M., Lindner, D.L., Ortiz-Santana, B., Haight, J., Læssøe, T., Baroni, T.J., Geml, J. & Hattori, T. (2014) Molecular phylogeny, morphology, pigment chemistry and ecology in Hygrophoraceae (Agaricales). Fungal Diversity 64: 1–99.

Lonati, G. (1988) Note su due miceti morfologicamente molto simili: Pseudoomphalina clusiliformis (Kühner & Romagnesi) Bon-Fayodia pseudoclusilis (Josserand & Konrad) Singer. Micologia e Vegetazione Mediterranea 3 (2): 75–80.

Maire, R. (1945) Etudes Mycologiques, Fascicule 5. Bulletin de la Société d’histoire naturelle de l’Afrique du nord 36: 26–42.

Malysheva, E.F., Morozova, O.V. & Contu, M. (2011) New combinations in Clitocybula: a study of cystidiate Pseudoomphalina species (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Sydowia 63 (1): 85–104.

Matheny, P.B., Curtis, J.M., Hofstetter, V., Aime, M.C., Moncalvo, J.-M., Ge, Z-W., Yang, Z-L., Slot, J.C., Ammirati, J.F., Baroni, T.J., Bougher, N.L., Hughes, K.W., Lodge, D.J., Kerrigan, R.W., Seidl, M.T., Aanen, D.K., DeNitis, M., Daniele, G.M., Desjardin, D.E., Kropp, B.R., Norvell, L.L., Parker, A., Vellinga, E.C., Vilgalys, R. & Hibbett, D.S. (2006) Major clades of Agaricales: a multilocus phylogenetic overview. Mycologia 98: 982–995.

Migliozzi, V. & Coccia, M. (1998) Funghi del Lazio. lX. 43–46. Descrizione dl Clitocybe pachyphylla, Rhodotus palmatus, Cyathus stercoreus e Delastria rosea. Micologia Italiana 27 (3): 25–36.

Moncalvo, J.-M., Vilgalys, R., Redhead, S.A., Johnson, J.E., James, T.Y., Aime, M.C., Hofstetter, V., Verduin, S.J.W., Larsson, E., Baroni, T.J., Thorn, R.G., Jacobsson, S., Clémençon, H. & Miller, O.K. (2002) One hundred and seventeen clades of euagarics. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23: 357–400.

Pegler, D.N., Lodge, D.J. & Nakasone, K.K. (1998) The pantropical genus Macrocybe gen. nov. Mycologia 90: 494–504.

Redhead, S.A. (1982) The systematics of Callistosporium luteo-olivaceum. Sydowia 35: 223–235.

Redhead, S.A., Ammirati, J.F., Norvell, L.L. & Seidl, M.T. (2000) Notes on western north American snowbank fungi. Mycotaxon 76: 321–328.

Ridgway, R. (1912) Color standards and color nomenclature. Washington D.C., self published.

Singer, R. (1961) Diagnoses Fungorum Novorum Agaricalium. II. Sydowia 15: 45–83.

Singer, R. (1986) The Agaricales in modern taxonomy, 4th edn. Koeltz Scientific Books, Koenigstein, 981 pp.

Smith, A.H. & Hesler, L.R. (1942) Studies in North American species of Hygrophorus. II. Lloydia 5 (1): 1–94.

Stamatakis, A., Hoover, P. & Rougemont, J. (2008) A rapid bootstrap algorithm for the RAxML Web servers. Systematic Biology 57: 758–771.

Thiers, B. (2015) [continuously updated]. Index herbariorum: a global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium. Available from: (accessed 30 June 2015)

Vesterholt, J. & Holec, J. (2012) Callistosporium Singer. In: Knudsen, H. & Vesterholt, J. (Eds.) Funga Nordica: agaricoid, boletoid, clavarioid, cyphelloid and gastroid genera. Nordsvamp, Copenhagen, pp. 449–450.

Vilgalys, R. & Hester, M. (1990) Rapid genetic identification and mapping of enzymatically amplified ribosomal DNA from several species of Cryptococcus. Journal of Bacteriology 172: 4238–4246.

Watling, R. & Turnbull, E. (1998) British Fungus Flora. Agarics and Boleti. 8. Cantharellaceae, Gomphaceae and amyloid spored and xeruloid members of Tricholomataceae (excl. Mycena), Edinburgh, 189 pp.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand