Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.221.1.4

Gastrodia madagascariensis (Gastrodieae, Orchidaceae): from an historical designation to a description of a new species from Madagascar

Florent Martos, Steven D Johnson, Benny Bytebier

Abstract


Gastrodia madagascariensis, a leafless achlorophyllous orchid, is described and illustrated here. The epithet was originally coined by Perrier de la Bâthie in 1939 for fruiting material found on the eastern coastal plain of Madagascar more than a century ago, but the name was never validly published. This new species is closely related to G. similis from Reunion Island, from which it can be distinguished by the perianth tube spreading towards the apex, the shape of the column and stigma, and the flower colour. The achlorophyllous genus Gastrodia currently comprises five species in the tropical parts of the Afro-Madagascan region, one of which, G. africana, is possibly extinct. We provide an artificial key to distinguish them. In addition, there is also an extratropical species in continental Africa, the introduced G. sesamoides (very local near Cape Town, South Africa).


Keywords


Didymoplexis; Flora of Madagascar; myco-heterotrophy; Perrier de la Bâthie, Monocots, Madagascar

Full Text:

PDF/A (8.49 MB)

References


Bosser, J. (2006) Contribution à l’étude des Orchidaceae de Madagascar, des Comores et des Mascareignes — XXXV Description d’un Oeceoclades nouveau de Madagascar, et notes sur trois genres nouveaux pour les Mascareignes. Adansonia, sér. 3 28: 52–53.

Bosser, J. & Lecoufle, M. (2011) Les Orchidées de Madagascar. Biotope (collection Parthénope), Mèze, France, 496 pp.

Brown, R. (1810) Prodomus Florae Novae Hollandiae, et insulae van Diemen. Johnson, London, 446 pp.

Cable, S. & Cheek, M. (1998) The plants of Mount Cameroun. A conservation checklist. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 277 pp.

Cribb, P.J., Fischer, E. & Kilmann, D. (2010) A revision of Gastrodia (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae; Gastrodieae) in tropical Africa. Kew Bulletin 65: 315–321.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12225-010-9193-4

Cribb, P.J., Gautier, L. & Nusbaumer, L. (2013) How many species are there in the holomycotrophic genus Didymoplexis Griff. (Orchidaceae) in Madagascar? Candollea 68: 41–49.

http://dx.doi.org/10.15553/c2013v681a3

Cribb, P.J., Gautier, L., Trigui, S. & Nusbaumer, L. (2011) Two new records of Orchidaceae from Madagascar, with an updated list of species shared with continental Africa. Candollea 66: 413–416.

http://dx.doi.org/10.15553/c2011v662a22

Cribb, P.J. & Hermans, J. (2009) Field guide to the orchids of Madagascar. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 456 pp.

Griffith, W. (1844) On some plants, mostly undescribed, in the H. C. Botanic Gardens, Calcutta. Calcutta Journal of Natural History, and Miscellany of the Arts and Sciences in India 4: 375–390.

Hoehne, F.C. (1944) Orchidaceae novas para a flora do Brasil, dos herbários do Inst. de Botânica, Jardim Botânico, Rio de Janeiro, e comissão das linhas telegráficas, estratégicas de Mato-Grosso ao Amazonas. Arquivos de Botânica do Estado de São Paulo 1: 129–134.

Hsu, T.C. & Kuo, C.M. (2010) Supplements to the orchid flora of Taiwan (IV): four additions to the genus Gastrodia. Taiwania 55: 243–248.

Hsu, T.C. & Kuo, C.M. (2011) Gastrodia albida (Orchidaceae), a new species from Taiwan. Annales Botanici Fennici 48: 272–275.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5735/085.048.0308

Hsu, T.C., Chung, S.W. & Kuo, C.M. (2012) Supplements to the orchid flora of Taiwan (VI). Taiwania 57: 271–277.

Hu, A.Q., Hsu, T.C. & Liu, Y. (2014) Gastrodia damingshanensis (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae): a new mycoheterotrophic orchid from China. Phytotaxa 175 (5): 256–262.

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.175.5.3

IUCN (2014) The IUCN red list of threatened species, version 2014.3. IUCN Red List Unit, Cambridge U.K. Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/ (accessed: 4 May 2015)

Kores, P., Molvray, M., Pridgeon, A.M., Veitch, N.C. & Grayer, R.J. (2006) E. Tribe Gastrodieae. In: Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.W. & Rasmussen, F.N. (Eds.) Genera Orchidacearum, volume 4, Epidendroideae (Part 1). Oxford University, Oxford, pp. 435–452.

Kraenzlin, F. (1900) Orchidaceae Africanae. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik 28: 162–179.

Martos, F., Cariou, M.-L., Pailler, T., Fournel, J., Bytebier, B. & Johnson, S.D. (2015) Chemical and morphological filters in a specialized floral mimicry system. New Phytologist 207: 225–234.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.13350

Martos, F., Dulormne, M., Pailler, T., Bonfante, P., Faccio, A., Fournel, J., Dubois, M.-P. & Selosse, M.-A. (2009) Independent recruitment of saprotrophic fungi as mycorrhizal partners by tropical achlorophyllous orchids. New Phytologist 184: 668–681.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.02987.x

McNeill, J., Barrie, F.R., Buck, W.R., Demoulin, V., Greuter, W., Hawksworth, D.L., Herendeen, P.S., Knapp, S., Marhold, K., Prado, J., Prud’homme van Reine, W.F., Smith, G.F., Wiersema, J.H. & Turland, N. (2012) International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (Melbourne Code). Regnum Vegetabile 154. Koeltz Scientific Books, Koenigstein, 240 pp.

Perrier de la Bâthie, H. (1939) 49e Famille, Orchidées, Tome I. In: Humbert, H. (Ed.) Flore de Madagascar. Imprimerie Officielle, Tananarive, 477 pp.

Schlechter, R. (1925) Orchidaceae Perrierianae. Repertorium specierum novarum regni vegetabilis. Beihefte 33: 122–123.

Selosse, M.-A. & Martos, F. (2014) Do chlorophyllous orchids heterotrophically use mycorrhizal fungal carbon? Trends in Plant Science 19: 683–685.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2014.09.005

Selosse, M.-A., Martos, F., Perry, B., Padamsee, M., Roy, M. & Pailler, T. (2010) Saprotrophic fungal symbionts in tropical achlorophyllous orchids: finding treasures among the ‘molecular scraps’? Plant Signaling & Behavior 5: 349–353.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/psb.5.4.10791

Smidt, E.C., Engels, M.E., Bolson, M. & van den Berg, C. (2015) A new species of Uleiorchis (Orchidaceae, Gastrodieae) from the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Phytotaxa 197 (4): 257–266.

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.197.4.3

Stewart, J. & Hennessy, E.F. (1980) Orchids of Africa: Didymoplexis verrucosa — a new saprophytic orchid from South Africa. American Orchid Society Bulletin 49: 841–847.

Suetsugu, K. (2013) Gastrodia takeshimensis (Orchidaceae), a new mycoheterotrophic species from Japan. Annales Botanici Fennici 50: 375–378.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5735/085.050.0613

Suetsugu, K. (2014) Gastrodia flexistyloides (Orchidaceae), a new mycoheterotrophic plant with complete cleistogamy from Japan. Phytotaxa 175 (5): 270–274.

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.175.5.5

Summerhayes, V.S. (1951). African orchids XX. Kew Bulletin 6: 461–475.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4118030

Summerhayes, V.S. (1953) African orchids XXI. Kew Bulletin 8: 129–162.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4117167

Tan, Y.H., Hsu, T.C., Pan, B., Li, J.W. & Liu, Q. (2012) Gastrodia albidoides (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae), a new species from Yunnan, China. Phytotaxa 66: 38–42.

Yeh, C.L., Leou, C.S., Hsu, T.C. & Yeh, C.R. (2011) Gastrodia sui sp. nov. (Orchidaceae) from Taiwan. Nordic Journal of Botany 29: 417–419.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-1051.2011.01147.x


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand