Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.231.1.1

Examination and comparison of Fragilaria candidagilae sp. nov. with type material of Fragilaria recapitellata, F. capucina, F. perminuta, F. intermedia and F. neointermedia (Fragilariales, Bacillariophyceae)

Cristina Delgado, M.Helena Novais, Saul Blanco, Salomé F.P. de Almeida

Abstract


Fragilaria candidagilae Almeida, C. Delgado, Novais & S. Blanco is a new araphid diatom species, described from samples collected in central and southern Portugal (SW Europe). Fragilaria candidagilae has linear-lanceolate valves with strongly capitate apices, without spines, and alternate punctate striae. This taxon presents siliceous plaques on the valve mantle edge, two apical pore fields in the poles and siliceous depositions on the outer areolar openings in the form of rounded floating disks. The morphology of the new diatom species is documented by light and scanning electron micrographs and discussed in detail, including a morphological comparison with the type material of similar taxa such as Fragilaria recapitellata, F. capucina, F. intermedia, F. neointermedia and F. perminuta to confirm it as a new species. Statistical comparison of morphometric characters and valve shape analysis were based on at least 20 valves. Ecological notes were also included. Considering morphology and morphometry, together F. candidagilae is clearly different from other species.



Keywords


Diatoms, new species, Araphids, Fragilaria, Geometric morphometry, Portugal, Algae

Full Text:

PDF/A (1.89 MB)

References


Abe, S., Kobayashi, S., Kitano, S. & Nagumo, T. (2009) Differential vulnerability of benthic algae to grazing by the loach, Niwaella delicata (Niwa). Diatom 25: 73–78.

http://dx.doi.org/10.11464/diatom.25.73

Aboal, M., Alvarez-Cobelas, M., Cambra, J. & Ector, L. (2003) Floristic list of non marine diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) of Iberian Peninsula, Balearic Islands, and Canary Islands. Updated taxonomy and bibliography. In: Witkowski, A. (Ed.) Diatom Monographs 4. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G., pp. 1–639.

Anderson, M.J. (2001) A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecology 26: 32–46.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9993.2001.01070.pp.x

Antoniades, D., Hamilton, P.B., Douglas, M.S.V. & Smol, J.P. (2008) Diatoms of North America: The freshwater floras of Prince Patrick, Ellef Ringnes and northern Ellesmere Islands from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Iconographia Diatomologica 17: 1–649.

APHA (1995) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Ed. 19. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, D.C., 541 pp.

Barber, H.G. & Haworth, E.Y. (1981) A guide to the morphology of the diatom frustule with a key to the British freshwater genera. Freshwater Biological Association Scientific Publication 44: 1–112.

Blanco, S., Cejudo-Figueiras, C., Álvarez-Blanco, I., Bécares, E., Hoffmann, L. & Ector, L. (2010) Atlas de las Diatomeas de la Cuenca del Duero / Diatom Atlas of the Duero Basin. Léon, Área de Publicaciones, Universidad de León, 386 pp.

Carlson, G.W.F. (1913) Süsswasser-Algen aus der Antarktis, Süd-Georgien und den Falkland Inseln. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Südpolar-Expedition 1901–1903, unter Leitung von Dr. Otto Nordenskjöld. Lithographisches Institut des Generalstabs 4: 1–94.

CEN TC230 N68 (2003) Water Quality: Guidance for Routine Sampling of Benthic Algae in Shallow Swift Running Waters. Comité Europeén de Normalisation, Brussels, 14 pp.

Cleve-Euler, A. (1932) Die Kieselalgen des Tåkernsees in Schweden. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar, ser. 3 11 (2): 1–254.

Compère, P. (2001) Ulnaria (Kützing) Compère, a new genus name for Fragilaria subgen. Alterasynedra Lange-Bertalot with comments on the typification of Synedra Ehrenberg. In: Jahn, R., Kociolek, J.P., Witkowski, A. & Compère, P. (Eds.) Lange-Bertalot Festschrift. Studies on diatoms dedicated to Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Horst Lange-Bertalot on the occasion of his 65th birthday. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G. Ruggell, pp. 97–101.

Cremer, H. & Koolmees, H. (2010) Common diatoms (Centrales and Fragilariaceae, Bacillariophyta) of modern and fossil freshwater environments in the Netherlands. Nova Hedwigia 90: 343–381.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1127/0029-5035/2010/0090-0343

Czarnecki, D.B. (1994) The freshwater diatom culture collection at Loras College, Dubuque, Iowa. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences 17: 155–173.

Das, S. & Adhikary, S. (2012) Diversity of Freshwater algae in Arunachal Pradesh and their distribution in different altitudes. Journal of Indian Botanical Society 91: 160–182.

Desmazières, J.B.H.T. (1830) Plantes cryptogames de la France. Ed. 1. Lille.

Dujardin J.P., Kaba, D. & Henry, A.B. (2010) The exchangeability of shape. BioMed Central Research Notes 3: 1–7.

Elias, C., Vieira, N., Feio, M.J. & Almeida, S.F.P. (2012) Can season interfere with diatom ecological quality assessment? Hydrobiologia 695: 223–232.

EN 13946 (2003) Water Quality: Guidance Standard for the Routine Sampling and Pretreatment of Benthic Diatoms for Rivers.

EN 14407 (2004) Water Quality: Guidance Standard for the Identification, Enumeration and Interpretation of Benthic Diatom Samples from Running Waters.

Ehrenberg, C.G. (1838). Die Infusionsthierchen als vollkommene Organismen: Ein Blick in das tiefere organische Leben der Natur. Verlag von Leopold Voss, Leipzig, 547 pp.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.97605

Ehrenberg, C.G. (1843) Verbreitung und Einfluss des mikroskopischen Lebens in Süd-und Nord-Amerika. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1841: 291–466, pls 1–4.

Flower, R., Pomazkina, G., Rodionova, E. & Williams, D. (2002) Local and meso-scale diversity patterns of benthic diatoms in Lake Baikal. In: Poulin, M (Ed.) Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Diatom Symposium : Ottawa, Canada, 25th–31st August 2002. Ottawa, Biopress, England, pp. 69–92.

Gasse, F. (1980) Les diatomees lacustres Plio-Pleistocenes du Gadeb (Ethiopie). Systematique, paleoecologie, biostratigraphie. Revue Algologique, Mémories hors-serie no. 3: 1–249.

Geitler, L. (1927) Somatische Teilung, Reduktionsteilung, Copulation und Parthenogenese bei Cocconeis placentula. Archiv für Protistenkunde 59: 506–549.

Granetti, B. (1984) Le diatomee del Lago Trasimeno: sistematica e ecologia. Rivista di idrobiologia 23 (1): 1–112.

Gregory, W. (1856) Notice of some new species of British Freshwater Diatomaceae. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, new series, London 4: 1–14.

Grunow, A. (1860) Ueber neve order ungenugend gekannte Algen. Erste Folge, Diatomeen, Familie Naviculaceen. Verhand lugen der kaiserlich koniglichen zoologisch botanischen Gesellschaft in wien 10: 503–582, Tab III–VII.

Grunow, A. (1862) Die österreichischen Diatomaceen nebst Anschluss einiger neuen Arten von andern Lokalitäten und einer kritischen Uebersicht der bisher bekannten Gattungen und Arten. Erste Folge. Epithemieae, Meridioneae, Diatomeae, Entopyleae, Surirelleae, Amphipleureae. Zweite Folge. Familie Nitzschieae. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12: 315–472.

Grunow, A. (1882) Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Fossilen Diatomeen ÖsterreichUngarns. In: Mojsisovics, E. von & Neumayr, N. (Eds.) Beiträge zur Paläontologie Österreich-Ungarns und des Orients 2 (4): 136–159.

Hammer, B. (1995) Diatom Succession in Recent, Storm-induced Sediment Sediment Laminations of Third Sister Lake, Michigan: A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment for the Degree of Master of Science, University of Michigan, 111 pp.

Hammer, Ø., Harper, D.A.T. & Ryan, P.D. (2001) PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4: 1–9.

Hein, M.K. (1990) Flora of Adak Island, Alaska: Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms). Bibliotheca Diatomologica 21: 1–240

Hirota, M. & Ohtsuka, T. (2009) Epilithic diatoms of Sendai River, Tottori Prefecture, Japan. Diatom 25: 52–72.

Hofmann, G., Werum, M. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (2011) Diatomeen im Süßwasser-Benthos von Mitteleuropa. Bestimmungsflora Kieselalgen für die ökologische Praxis. Über 700 der häufigsten Arten und ihre Ökologie. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G., Rugell, 908 pp.

Hustedt, F. (1932) Die Kieselalgen Deutschlands, Österreichs und der Schweiz unter Berücksichtigung der übrigen Länder Europas sowie der angrenzenden Meeresgebiete. In: Rabenhorst, L. (Ed.) Kryptogamen Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft m.b.h., Leipzig, pp. 177–320.

Hustedt, F. (1939) Diatomeen aus den Pyrenäen. Bericht der Deutschen Botanischen Gessellschaft 56 (10): 543–572, Taf. 25.

Jørgensen, E.G. (1948) Diatom Communities in some Danish lakes and ponds. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Biologiske Shrifter 5 (2): 1–140.

Kobayasi, H. (1965) Notes on the genus Ceratoneis (Diatoms from the River Arakawa-3). Journal of Japanese Botany 40 (4): 125–128.

Kobayasi, H. (1997) Comparative studies among four linear-lanceolate Achnanthidium species (Bacillariophyceae) with curved terminal raphe endings. Nova Hedwigia 65: 147–163.

Kobayasi, H., Idei, M., Mayama, S., Nagumo, T. & Osada, K. (2006) Dr. H. Kobayasi’s Atlas of Japanese Diatoms Based on Electron Microscopy. Vol. 1. Uchida Rokakuho, Tokyo, 569 pp.

Kociolek, J.P. & Stoermer, E.F. (1987) Ultrastructure of Cymbella sinuata and its allies (Bacillariophyceae), and their transfer to Reimeria, gen. nov. Systematic Botany 12: 451–159.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2418882

Kociolek, J.P. & Williams, D.M. (2015) How to define a diatom genus? Notes on the creation and recognition of taxa, and a call for revisionary studies of diatoms. Acta Botanica Croatica 74 (2): 1–16.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/botcro-2015-0018

Kopalová, K., Veselá, J., Elster, J., Nedbalová, L., Komárek, J. & Van de Vijver, B. (2012) Benthic diatoms (Bacillariophyta) from seepages and streams on James Ross Island (NW Weddell Sea, Antarctica). Plant Ecology and Evolution 145: 190–208.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5091/plecevo.2012.639

Krammer, K. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (1986) Bacillariophyceae 1. Teil: Naviculaceae. In: Ettl, H., Gerloff, J., Heynig, H. & Mollenhauer, D. (Eds.) Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa, Vol. 2. VRG Gustav Fisher Verlag, Jena, 876 pp.

Krammer, K. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (1988) Bacillariophyceae 2. Teil: Bacillariaceae, Epithemiaceae, Surirellaceae. In: Ettl, H., Gerloff, J., Heynig, H. & Mollenhauer, D. (Eds.) Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa, Vol. 2. VRG Gustav Fisher Verlag, Jena, 596 pp.

Krammer, K. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (1991) Bacillariophyceae 3. Teil: Centrales, Fragilariaceae, Eunotiaceae. In: Ettl, H., Gerloff, J., Heynig, H. & Mollenhauer, D. (Eds.) Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa, Vol. 2. VRG Gustav Fisher Verlag, Jena, 576 pp.

Krammer, K. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (2000) Bacillariophyceae 3. Teil: Centrales, Fragilariaceae, Eunotiaceae (2nd Edition). In: Ettl, H., Gerloff, J., Heynig, H. & Mollenhauer, D. (Eds.) Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa, Vol. 2. VRG Gustav Fisher Verlag, Jena, 599 pp.

Krammer, K. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (2004) Bacillariophyceae 3. Teil, Centrales, Fragilariaceae, Eunotiaceae. Ergänzte und korrigierte 2. Auflage. In: Ettl, H., Gerloff, J., Heynig, H. & Mollenhauer, D. (Eds.) Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa 2 (3). Spektrum, Heidelberg and Berlin, 468 pp.

Kützing, F.T. (1834 ‘1833’) Synopsis diatomearum oder Versuch einer systematischen Zusammenstellung der Diatomeen. Linnaea 8: 529–620, pls XIII–XIX [79 figs].

Kützing, F.T. (1844) Die Kieselschaligen Bacillarien oder Diatomeen. Zu finden bei W. Köhne, Nordhausen, 152 pp.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.64360

Kwandrans, J. (2007) Diversity and Ecology of Benthic Diatom Communities in Relation to Acidity, Acidification and Recovery of Lakes and Rivers. Diatom Monographs 9: 1–146.

Lange-Bertalot, H. (1980) Zur systematischen Bewertung der bandförmigen Kolonien bei Navicula und Fragilaria. Kriterien für die Vereinigung von Synedra (subgen. Synedra) Ehrenberg mit Fragilaria Lyngbye. Nova Hedwigia 33: 723–787.

Lange-Bertalot, H. (1993) 85 Neue Taxa und über 100 weitere neu definierte Taxa ergänzend zur Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa vol. 2/1–4. Bibliotheca Diatomologica 27: 1–164.

Lauby, A. (1910) Recherches paléophytologiques dans le Massif Central. Thèses présentées à la Faculté des Sciences de Paris pour obtenir le grade de Docteur es Sciences Naturelles, Serie A, No. 613. Bulletin des Services de la Carte Géologique de France. Mémoire 125: 1–398.

Lee, J.H., Gotoh, T. & Chung, J. (1992) Diatoms of Yungchun Dam Reservoir and its tributaries, Kyung. Pook Prefecture, Korea. Diatom 7: 45–70

Lee, J.H., Chung, J. & Gotoh, T. (1994) Diatoms of the Kwang River (Kwangchun), South Korea I. Centrales, Pennales except Naviculaceae. Diatom 9: 17–27.

Levkov, Z. (2007) Diatoms of Lakes Prespa and Ohrid: about 500 taxa from ancient lake system. Iconographia Diatomologica 16: 1–613.

Lyngbye, H.C. (1819) Tentamen hydrophytologiae danicae: continens omnia hydrophyta cryptogama Daniae, Holsatiae, Faeroae, Islandiae, Groenlandiae hucusqve cognita, systematice disposita, descripta et iconibus illustrata, adjectis simul speciebus norvegicis. Typis Schultzianis, Copenhagen, 248 pp.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.6079

Makarova, I.V. & Akhmetova, N.I. (1987) De Bacillariophytis pro lacu Balchasch novis. III. Novitates Systematicae Plantarum Non Vascularium. Novosti Sistematiki Nizschikh Rastenii 24: 49–55.

Mayer, A. (1919) Bacillariales von Reichenhall und Umgebung. Kryptogamische Forschungen herausgegeben von der Kryptogamenkommission der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft zur Erforschung der heimischen Flora 1 (4): 191–216, pls. 5–10.

Metzeltin, D., Lange-Bertalot, H. & Nergui, S. (2009) Diatoms in Mongolia. Iconographia Diatomologica 20: 3–686.

Morales, E.A., Rivera, S.F., Wetzel, C.E., Novais, M.H., Hamilton, P.B., Hoffmann, L. & Ector, L. (2014) New epiphytic araphid diatoms in the genus Ulnaria (Bacillariophyta) from Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. Diatom Research 29: 41–54.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.2013.860399

Müller, O.F. (1788) De Confervis palustribus oculo nudo invisibilis. Nova acta Accademiae scientiarum imperialis Petropolitanae 3: 1–91.

Nitzsch, C.L. (1817) Beitrag zur Infusorienkunde Oder Naturbeschreibung der Zerkarien und Bazillarien. Neue Schriften der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu Halle 3 (1): 1–128.

Novais, M.H., Blanco, S., Morais, M., Hoffmann, L. & Ector, L. (2015) Catalogue of continental diatoms from Portugal, including the Archipelagos of Azores and Madeira: updated nomenclature, distribution and bibliography. Diatom Monographs 17: 1–2245.

Østrup, E. (1902) Freshwater diatoms. Botanisk Tidsskrift 25 (1): 28–41.

Ohtsuka, T. (2002) Checklist and illustration of diatoms in the Hii River. Diatom 18: 23–56.

Ohtsuka, T., Nakaruma, Y., Nakano, S.I. & Miyake, Y. (2007) Diatoms from Ishite Stream, near the Komenono Forest Research Center of Ehime University, Japan. Diatom 23: 29–48.

Patrick, R.M. & Freese, L.R. (1961) Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) from Northern Alaska. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 112 (6): 129–293.

Patrick, R.M. & Reimer, C.W. (1966) The Diatoms of the United States exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii. Volume 1. Fragilariaceae, Eunotoniaceae, Achnanthaceae, Naviculaceae. Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 13: 1–688.

Petersen, J.B. (1938) Fragilaria intermedia-Synedra vaucheriae? Botaniska Notiser 1–3: 164–170.

Petersen, J.B. (1946) Algae collected by Eric Hulten on the Swedish Kamtchatka Expedition 1920–1922, especially from Hot Springs. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Biologiske Meddelelser 20: 1–122.

Poulin, M. & Pienitz, R. (2010) Diatoms of North America: The Pliocene-Pleistocene Freshwater Flora of Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canadian High Arctic. Iconographia Diatomologica 21: 1–407.

Rabenhorst, L. (1862) Die Algen Europa’s. Decas, pp. 127–128.

Rohlf, F.J. & Slice, D.E. (1990) Extensions of the Procrustes method for the optimal superimposition of landmarks. Systematic Zoology 39: 40–59.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2992207

Ross, R. (1947) Freshwater Diatomeae (Bacillariophyta). Botany of the Canadian Eastern Arctic, Part II. Thallophyta and Bryophyta. National Museum of Canada Bulletin 97: 178–233.

Ross, R., Cox, E.J., Karayeva, N.I., Mann, D.G., Paddock, T.B.B., Simonsen, R. & Sims, P.A. (1979) An amended terminology for the siliceous components of the diatom cell. Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft 64: 513–533.

Round, F.E., Crawford, R.M. & Mann, D.G. (1990) The Diatoms. Biology & Morphology of the genera. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 747 pp.

Schmidt, R., Kamenik, C., Lange-Bertalot, H. & Klee, R. (2004) Fragilaria and Staurosira (Bacillariophyceae) from sediment surfaces of 40 lakes in the Austrian Alps in relation to environmental variables, and their potential for palaeoclimatology. Journal of Limnology 63: 171–189.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/jlimnol.2004.171

Shiono, M. & Jordan, R.W. (1995) Recent diatoms of lake hibara, fukushima prefecture. Diatom 11: 31–63.

Smith, M.E. & Manoylov, K.M. (2013) Changes in Diatom Biodiversity in Lake Sinclair, Baldwin County, Georgia, USA. Journal of Water Resource and Protection 5: 732–742.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2013.57074

Silva, A.M., Ludwig, T.A.V., Tremarin, P.I. & Vercellino, I.S. (2010) Diatomáceas perifíticas em um sistema eutrófico brasileiro (Reservatório do Iraí, estado do Paraná). Acta Botanica Brasilica 24: 997–1016.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-33062010000400015

Solak, C. & Wojtal, A. (2012) Diatoms in springs and streams of Turkmen Mt (Sakarya River Basin) common in Turkish Inland waters. Polish Botanical Journal 57 (2): 345–425.

Tremarin, P.I., Freire, E.G., Bertolli, L.M. & Ludwig, T.A.V. (2014) Catálogo das diatomáceas (Ochrophyta-Diatomeae) continentais do estado do Paraná. Iheringia Série Botânica 64: 79–107.

Tuji, A. (2007) Algae Aquae Dulcis Japonicae Exsiccatae. Fasc. I. nos. 1–20. National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba, 29 pp.

Tuji, A. & Williams, D.M. (2006a) Typification of Conferva pectinalis O.F. Müll. (Bacillariophyceae) and the identity of the type of an alleged synonym, Fragilaria capucina Desm. Taxon 55: 193–199.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/25065541

Tuji, A. & Williams, D.M. (2006b) Examination of the type material of Synedra rumpens = Fragilaria rumpens, Bacillariophyceae. Phycological Research 54: 99–103.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1835.2006.00414.x

Tuji, A. & Williams, D.M. (2008) Examination of types in the Fragilaria pectinalis-capitellata species complex. In: Likhoshway, Y. (Ed.) Proceedings of the Nineteenth International Diatom Symposium. Biopress Limited, Bristol, pp. 125–139.

Tuji, A. & Williams, D.M. (2013) Examination of types in the Fragilaria vaucheriae-intermedia species complex. Bulletin of the National Museum of Natural Sciences Series B 39: 1–9.

Van Dam, H., Mertens, A. & Sinkeldam, J. (1994) A coded checklist and ecological indicator values of freshwater diatoms from the Netherlands. Netherland Journal of Aquatic Ecology 28: 117–133.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02334251

Van de Vijver, B., Jarlman, A., de Haan, M. & Ector, L. (2012) New and interesting diatom species (Bacillariophyceae) from Swedish rivers. Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft 141: 237–254.

Van Heurck, H. (1881) Synopsis des Diatomées de Belgique. Atlas. Ducaju & Cie., Antwerpen, pls. 31–77.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.1990

Van Heurck, H. (1885) Synopsis des Diatomées de Belgique. Texte. Martin Brouwers & Co., Anvers, 235 pp.

Van Heurck, H. (1896) A Treatise on the Diatomaceae. Translated by W.E. Baxter. William Wesley & Son, London, 558 pp., 35 pls.

Vyverman, W. (1991) Diatoms from Papua New Guinea. Bibliotheca Diatomologica 22: 1–224.

Waldmann, N., Borromei, A.M., Recasens, C., Olivera, D., Martínez, M.A., Maidana, N.I. & Moy, C.M. (2014) Integrated reconstruction of Holocene millennial-scale environmental changes in Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 399: 294–309.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2014.01.023

Wehr, J.D. (2002) Freshwater Algae of North America: Ecology and Classification. Academic Press, San Diego, 918 pp.

Werum, M. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (2004) Diatoms in springs from Central Europe and elsewhere under the influence of hydrologeology and anthropogenic impacts. Iconographia Diatomologica 13: 3–417.

Wetzel, C.E. & Ector, L. (2015) Taxonomy and ecology of Fragilaria microvaucheriae sp. nov. and comparison with the type materials of F. uliginosa and F. vaucheriae. Cryptogamie Algologie 36 (3): 271–289.

Williams, D.M. (2011) Synedra, Ulnaria: definitions and descriptions - a partial resolution. Diatom Research 26: 149–153.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.2011.587646

Williams, D.M. & Round, F.E. (1987) Revision of the genus Fragilaria. Diatom Research 2: 267–288.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.1987.9705004

Williams, D.M. & Round, F.E. (1988) Fragilariforma, nom. nov., a new generic name for Neofragilaria Williams & Round. Diatom Research 3: 265–267.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.1988.9705039

Zimmermann, C., Poulin, M. & Pienitz, R. (2010) Diatoms of North America: The Pliocene-Pleistocene freshwater flora of Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canadian High Arctic. Iconographia Diatomologica 21: 1–407.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand