Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


Cuticular features of Cryptocarya (Lauraceae) from Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand and Indo-China and its taxonomic implications



Cuticular features potentially offer valuable information on phytotaxonomy, especially for plants that are difficult to classify or identify. Cryptocarya is one such difficult and poorly known genus, and we investigated its cuticular features to evaluate their taxonomic implications. We examined cutinized leaf epidermis and the stomatal complex for 21 species from Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand and Indo-China, as well as one species endemic to Borneo and one to Sumatra, and compared features among members of this group, between this group and congeners in the other countries, and between this group and the other genera of Lauraceae. Many of the Cryptocarya species studied have straight to slightly curved anticlinal epidermal walls and butterfly-shaped stomatal ledges, although some variation was seen in the ornamentation of the periclinal epidermal walls and the appearance of the stomatal complex. Based on these results, we recognized four groups and two subgroups among the South-east Asian species. Comparison with congeneric taxa in the other countries indicates that butterfly-shaped stomatal ledges are often shared among the species across the regions. However, no cuticular features occur exclusively in any of the species groups of Cryptocarya studied here, nor in the genus as a whole. We consider that cuticular features are useful in the recognition of infrageneric groups within Lauraceae, bearing in mind that they might have evolved in parallel in different genera.


cuticle, epidermis, morphology, Magnoliids, Malaysia, Thailand, China

Full Text:

PDF/A (4.55 MB)


Allen, C.K. (1942) Studies in the Lauraceae, IV. Preliminary study of the Papuasian species collected by the Archbold expeditions. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 23: 112–155.

Aublet, J.B.C.F. (1775a) Histoire des Plantes de la Guiane Françoise, vol. 1. Pierre-François Didot, Paris, pp. 1–621.

Aublet, J.B.C.F. (1775b) Histoire des Plantes de la Guiane Françoise, vol. 2, Pierre-François Didot, Paris, pp. 622–976.

Baker, J.G. (1883) Contributions to the flora of Madagascar, Part III. Incompletae, Monocotyledons, and Filices. Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 20: 237–304.

Baranova, M. (1972) Systematic anatomy of the leaf epidermis in the Magnoliaceae and some related families. Taxon 21: 447–469.

Baranova, M. (1987) Historical development of the present classification of morphological types of stomata. Botanical Review (Lancaster) 53: 53–79.

Baranova, M. (1992) Principles of comparative stomatographic studies of flowering plants. Botanical Review (Lancaster) 58: 1–99.

Blume, C.L. (1825) Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië, vol. 11. Ter Lands Drukkerij, Batavia. 636 pp.

Blume, C.L. (1851) Museum Botanicum Lugduno-Batavum, E.J. Brill, Leiden, 396pp.

Brown, R. (1810) Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van-Diemen, J. Johnson, London, pp. i–viii, 145–590.

Carpenter, R.J., Truswell, E.M. & Harris, W.K. (2010) Lauraceae fossils from a volcanic Palaeocene oceanic island, Ninetyeast Ridge, Indian Ocean: Ancient long distance dispersal? Journal of Biogeography 37: 1202–1213.

Celis-Diez, J.L. & Bustamante, R.O. (2005) Frequency-dependent seed size selection on Cryptocarya alba (Mol.) Looser (Lauraceae): testing the effect of background. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 84: 137–142.

Christophel, D.C. & Rowett, A.I. (1996) Leaf and cuticle atlas of Australian Leafy Lauraceae. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. 217pp.

Christophel, D.C., Kerrigan, R. & Rowett, A.I. (1996) The use of cuticular features in the taxonomy of the Lauraceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 83: 419–432.

Danguy, M.P. (1920) Lauracees de la foret d’Analamazaotra (Madagascar). Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle 26: 547–550.

de Kok, R.P.J. (2015) A revision of Cryptocarya R.Br. (Lauraceae) of Thailand and Indo-China. Garden’s Bulletin Singapore 67 (2): 309–349.

de Kok, R.P.J. (in press) A revision of Cryptocarya R.Br. (Lauraceae) of Peninsular Malaysia. Kew Bulletin.

Frodin, D.G. (1976) Studies in Cryptocarya (Lauraceae) I. Telopea 1: 217–224.

Gamble, J.S. (1910a) New Lauraceae from the Malayan region I. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1910: 142–153.

Gamble, J.S. (1910b) New Lauraceae from the Malayan region II. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1910: 218–228.

Hance, H.F. (1882) A decade of new Hong-Kong plants. Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 20 (231): 77–80.

Hooker, J.D. (1886a) Icones Plantarum 16. Williams and Norgate, London, Edinburgh. 202pp.

Hooker, J.D. (1886b) The Flora of British India, vol. 5. L. Reeve & Co., London. 910pp.

Hyland, B.P.M. (1989) A revision of Lauraceae in Australia (excluding Cassytha). Australian Systematic. Botany 2: 135–367.

Kochummen, K.M. (1989) Lauraceae. In: Ng, F.S.P. (Ed.) Tree Flora of Malaya, vol. 4. Longman Malaysia, Petaling Jaya, pp. 98–178.

Koorders, S.H. & Valeton, T. (1904) Bijdrage nᵒ 10 tot de kennis der Boomsoorten op Java. Mededeelingen uit ‘s Lands Plantentuin 68: 1–245.

Kostermans, A.J.G.H. (1938) Revision of the Lauraceae V. A monograph of the genera: Anaueria, Beilschmiedia (American species) and Aniba. Recueil des Travaux Botaniques Néerlandais 35: 834–931.

Kostermans, A.J.G.H. (1939) Enumeratio Lauracearum Madagascariensium et ex Insulis Mascarenis (Revisio Lauracearum VI). Notulae Systematicae. Herbier du Museum de Paris 8: 6–128.

Kostermans, A.J.G.H. (1968) Materials for a revision of Lauraceae I. Reinwardtia 7: 291–356.

Kostermans, A.J.G.H. (1970) Materials for a revision of Lauraceae III. Reinwardtia 8: 21–196.

Kostermans, A.J.G.H. (1974) New species and combinations of Lauraceae from Thailand. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 25: 31–44.

Kostermans, A.J.G.H. (1978) Potoxylon, a new Bornean genus of Lauraceae. Malayan Nature Journal 32: 143–147.

Meissner, C.D.F. (1864) Lauraceae. In: de Candolle, A.L.P.P. ed. Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis, pars 15 (1). Sumptibus Victoris Masson et Filii, Paris, pp.1–260.

Merrill, E.D. (1922) Diagnoses of Hainan plants. The Philippine Journal of Science 21 (4): 337–355.

Merrill, E.D. (1929) Plantae Elmerianae Borneenses. University of California Publications in Botany 15: 1–316.

Mez, C.C. (1889) Lauraceae Americanae. Jahrbuch des Königlichen Botanischen Gartens und des Botanischen Museums zu Berlin 5:1–556.

Miquel, F.A.W. (1855) Flora van Nederlandsch Indië, vol. 1 (1). I. C. G. van der Post, Amsterdam & C. van der Post Jr., Utrecht. 1116 pp.

Miquel, F.A.W. (1860–1861) Flora Indiae Bataviae, Supplementum primum. Prodromus florae Sumatranae. C. G. van der Post, Amsterdam & C. van der Post Jr., Utrecht, 656 pp.

Moraes, P.L.R. de (2007) Taxonomy of Cryptocarya species of Brazil. ABC Taxa 3: 1–191.

Nees von Esenbeck, C.G.D. (1831) Laurinae Indiae Orientalis. In: Wallich, N. Plantae Asiaticae rariores; or, descriptions and figures of a select number of unpublished East Indian plants, vol. 2. Treuttel and Würtz, London, pp. 58–76.

Nees von Esenbeck, C.G.D. (1833) Plantarum Laurinarum secundum affinitates naturales exposition, qua comprehenditur Hufelandiae Illustratio. Typis Grassii, Barthii et sociorum, Vratislaviae (Breslau), 25 pp.

Nishida, S. (1999) Revision of Beilschmiedia (Lauraceae) in the Neotropics. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 86: 657–701.

Nishida, S. & Christophel, D.C. (1999) Leaf anatomy of Beilschmiedia (Lauraceae) in the neotropics. Nature and Human Activities 4: 9–43.

Nishida, S. & van der Werff, H. (2007) Are cuticular characters useful in solving generic relationships of problematic species of Lauraceae? Taxon 56: 1229–1237.

Nishida, S. & van der Werff, H. (2011) An evaluation of classification by cuticular characters of the Lauraceae: a comparison to molecular phylogeny. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 98: 348–357.

Nishida, S. & van der Werff, H. (2014) Do cuticle characters support the recognition of Alseodaphne, Nothaphoebe, and Dehaasia as distinct genera? Reinwardtia 14: 53–66.

Nizam, M.S., Norfazlina, B., Latiff, A. & Supardi, M.N.N. (2008) Dynamics of Lauraceae trees and their biomass in the 50-ha plot at Pasoh Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana 37: 21–32.

Petzold, V. (1907) Systematisch-anatomische Untersuchungen über die Laubblätter der amerikanischen Lauraceen. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 38: 445–474.

Rohwer, J.G. & Richter, H.G. (1987) Aspidostemon, a new lauraceous genus from Madagascar. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 109: 71–79.

Rohwer, J.G., Richter, H.G., van der Werff, H. (1991) Two new genera of Neotropical Lauraceae, and critical remarks on the generic delimitation. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 78: 388–400.

Rohwer, J.G., Moraes, P.L.R. de, Rudoph, B. & van der Werff, H. (2014) A phylogenetic analysis of the Cryptocarya group (Lauraceae), and relationships of Dahlgrenodendron, Sinopora, Triadodaphne and Yasunia. Phytotaxa 158 (2): 111–132.

Stapf, O. (1909) Order CXVI. Laurineae. In: Thiselton-Dyer, W.T. (Ed.) Flora of Tropical Africa, vol. 6. Reeve, London, pp. 171–188.

Teijsmann, J.E. & Binnendijk, S. (1863) Bijdrage tot de kennis van het Echte IJzerhout, Eusideroxylon zwageri. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indië 25: 289–294.

Upchurch, G. (1984a) Cuticle evolution in Early Cretaceous angiosperms from the Potomac Group of Virginia and Maryland. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 71: 522–550.

Upchurch, G. (1984b) Cuticular anatomy of angiosperms leaves from the Lower Cretaceous Potomac Group I. Zone I leaves. American Journal of Botany 71: 192–202.

van Balgooy, M.M.J. (1998) Malesian Seed Plants, vol. 2. Rijksherbarium/Hortus Botanicus, Leiden, 307 pp.

van der Merwe, J.J.M., van Wyk, A.E. & Kok, P.D.F. (1988) Dahlgrenodendron, a remarkable new genus of Lauraceae from Natal and Pondoland. South African Journal of Botany 54: 80–88.

van der Werff, H. (1986) Kubitzkia van der Werff, a new name for a genus of Neotropical Lauraceae. Taxon 35: 164–166.

van der Werff, H. (1992) Proposal to conserve 2813 Cryptocarya against Ravensara (Lauraceae). Taxon 41: 129–130.

van der Werff, H. (2001) An annotated key to the genera of Lauraceae in the flora Malesiana region. Blumea 46: 125–140.

van der Werff, H. (2006) A revision of the Malagasy endemic genus Aspidostemon Rohwer & Richter (Lauraceae). Adansonia sér. 3 28: 7–44.

van der Werff, H. & Nishida, S. (2010) Yasunia (Lauraceae), a new genus with two species from Ecuador and Peru. Novon 20: 493–502.

von Mueller, F.J.H. (1866) Fragmenta Phytographiæ Australiæ 5. J. Ferres, Government Printer, Melbourne, 215 pp.

Wight, R. (1852) Icones Plantarum Indiæ Orientalis, vol. 5. Franck and Co., Madras, 35 pp.

Wilkinson, H.P. (1979) The plant surface (mainly leaf). In: Metcalfe, C.R. (Ed.) Anatomy of the Dicotyledons second edition, vol. 1. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 97–165.

Yang, Y., Zhang, L., Liu, B. & van der Werff, H. (2012) Leaf cuticular anatomy and taxonomy of Syndiclis (Lauraceae) and its allies. Systematic Botany 37: 861–878.

Yang, Z.-R. & Lin, Q. (2005) Comparative morphology of the leaf epidermis in Schisandra (Schisandraceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 148: 39–56.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand