Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.246.3.1

Two new diatoms in the genus Fragilaria Lyngbye (Fragilariophyceae) from tropical reservoirs in Brazil and comparison with type material of F. tenera

PRYSCILLA DENISE ALMEIDA, Eduardo Antonio Morales, Carlos Eduardo Wetzel, Luc Ector, Denise de Campos Bicudo

Abstract


Two new diatom species, Fragilaria neotropica sp. nov. and F. spectra sp. nov., from six reservoirs with different trophic status in the Alto Tietê River Basin, São Paulo, Brazil, are described. Descriptions are based on light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data revealing that both taxa have distinctive features that separate them from each other and from other taxa currently in Fragilaria. Fragilaria neotropica has high stria density, broader (sometimes deformed) central area, and capitate (often deflected) apices. This species was found in high abundance as part of the phytoplankton, periphyton and surface sediments in mesotrophic reservoirs. On the other hand, F. spectra has indistinct striae (not clearly seen in LM), wide sternum, two rimoportulae per valve and lacks spines. This taxon was abundant in the phytoplankton and periphyton of oligotrophic to mesotrophic reservoirs. A discussion of morphological and ecological aspects in the light of available literature is presented, as well as a morphological comparison based on LM and SEM analysis of the original material of F. tenera.


Keywords


Bacillariophyta, morphology, Neotropics, new species, São Paulo, systematics, taxonomy, Algae

Full Text:

PDF/A (3.04 MB)

References


Almeida, P.D. & Bicudo, D.C. (2014) Diatomáceas planctônicas e de sedimento superficial em represas de abastecimento da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, SP, Sudeste do Brasil. Hoehnea 41: 187–207.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S2236-89062014000200004

Almeida, P.D., Wetzel, C.E., Morales, E.A., Ector, L. & Bicudo, D.C. (2015) Staurosirella acidophila sp. nov., a new araphid diatom (Bacillariophyta) from southeastern Brazil: ultrastructure, distribution and autecology. Cryptogamie, Algologie 36: 255–270.

http://dx.doi.org/10.7872/crya/v36.iss3.2015.255

APHA (2005) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21stEdition. American Public Health Association, Washington DC, 1368 pp.

Barber, H.G. & Haworth, E.Y. (1981) A guide to the morphology of the diatom frustules with a key to the British freshwater genera. Freshwater Biological Association, Ambleside, Scientific Publication n° 44: 1–112.

Battarbee, R.W. (1986) Diatoms analysis. In: Berglund, B.E. (Ed.) Handbook of Holocene Palaeohydrology and Palaeohydrology. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, pp. 527–570.

Bere, T. & Tundisi, J.G. (2010) Epipsammic diatoms in streams influenced by urban pollution, São Carlos, SP, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology 70: 921–930.

Bere, T. & Tundisi, J.G. (2011a) Influence of land-use patterns on benthic diatom communities and water quality in the tropical Monjolinho hydrological basin, São Carlos-SP, Brazil. Water SA 37: 93–102.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wsa.v37i1.64112

Bere, T. & Tundisi J.G. (2011b) Diatom-based water quality assessment in streams influenced by urban pollution: effects of natural and two selected artificial substrates, São Carlos-SP, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Aquatic Science and Technology 15: 54–63.

http://dx.doi.org/10.14210/bjast.v15n1.p54-63

Beyruth, Z. (2000) Periodic disturbances, trophic gradient and phytoplankton characteristics related to cyanobacterial growth in Guarapiranga Reservoir, São Paulo State, Brazil. Hydrobiologia 424: 51–65.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-3488-2_5

Branco, C.W.C., Rocha, M.-I.A., Pinto, G.F.S., Gômara, G.A. & De Filippo, R. (2002) Limnological features of Funil Reservoir (R.J., Brazil) and indicator properties of rotifers and cladocerans of the zooplankton community. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management 7: 87–92.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-169X.2002.00177.x

Brassac, N.M. & Ludwig, T.A.V. (2003) Fragilariaceae (Bacillariophyceae) de rios da bacia do Iguaçu, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Botânica 26: 311–318.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-84042003000300004

Bukhtiyarova, L.N. (1995) Novye taksonomischeskie kombinatsii diatomovykh vodoroslei (Bacillariophyta). Algologia 5: 417–424.

Canani, L.G.C. & Torgan, L.C. (2013) Two new Eunotia species with subapical costae, an uncommon structure for the genus. Diatom Research 28: 395–406.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.2013.821425

Cleve-Euler, A. (1953) Die Diatomeen von Schweden und Finnland. Teil II. Arraphideae, Brachyraphideae. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskap-Akademiens Handlingar, Fjärde. Serien 4: 1–158.

Cox, E.J. (2009) What’s in a name? – Diatom classification should reflect systematic relationships. Acta Botanica Croatica 68: 443–454.

Desmazières, J.B.H.J. (1830) Plantes cryptogames du nord de la France. Ed. 1. Lille.

Druart, J.C., Lavigne, S. & Robert, M. (2007) Fragilaria tenera var. lemanensis, une nouvelle variété pour le Léman (France-Suisse). Cryptogamie, Algologie 28: 283–287.

Dunck, B., Nogueira, I.S. & Machado, M.G. (2012) Planktonic diatoms in lotic and lentic environments in the Lago dos Tigres hydrologic system (Britânia, Goiás, Brazil): Coscinodiscophyceae and Fragilariophyceae. Brazilian Journal of Botany 35: 181–193.

Ehrenberg, C.G. (1837) Über ein aus fossilen Infusorien bestehendes, 1832 zu Brod verbacknes Bergmehl von den Grenzen Lapplands in Schweden. Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlich-Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1837: 43–45.

Ehrenberg, C.G. (1843) Mittheilungen über 2 neue asiatische Lager fossiler Infusorien-Erden aus dem russischen Trans-Kaukasien (Grusien) und Sibirien. Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlich-Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1843: 43–49.

Ehrenberg, C.G. (1854) Mikrogeologie. Einundvierzig Tafeln mit überviertausend grossentheils colorirten Figuren, Gezeichnet vom Verfasser [Atlas]. Leopold Voss, Leipzig, 40 pls.

Eskinazi-Leça, E., Moura, C.W.N., Cunha, M.G.G.S., Santiago, M.F., Borges, G.C.P., Lima, J.C., Silva, M.H., Ferreira, L.C., Aquino, E., da Silva, W.J. & Menezes, M. (2015) Bacillariophyceae. In: Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro. Available from: http://www.floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB119125 (accessed 1 June 2015)

European Committee for Standardization (2003) Water Quality – Guidance Standard for the Routine Sampling and Pretreatment of Benthic Diatoms from Rivers. European Standard EN 13946, Brussels.

Falasco, E., Bona, F., Badino, G., Hoffmann, L. & Ector, L. (2009) Diatom teratological forms and environmental alterations: a review. Hydrobiologia 623: 1–35.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-008-9687-3

Ferrari, F. & Ludwig, T.A.V. (2007) Coscinodiscophyceae, Fragilariophyceae e Bacillariophyceae (Achnanthales) dos rios Ivaí, São João e dos Patos, bacia hidrográfica do rio Ivaí, município de Prudentópolis, PR, Brasil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 21: 421–441.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-33062007000200016

Ferrari, F., Wetzel, C.E., Ector, L., Bicudo, D.C. & Bicudo, C.E.M. (2014) A new uncommon epilithic Eunotia (Bacillariophyceae, Eunotiaceae) from the Chapada Diamantina region, Northeast Brazil. Phytotaxa 164 (3): 161–174.

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.164.3.1

Ferreira da Silva, E., Almeida, S.F.P., Nunes, M.L., Luís, A.T., Borg, F., Hedlund, M., Marques de Sá, C., Patinha, C. & Teixeira, P. (2009) Heavy metal pollution downstream the abandoned Coval da Mó mine (Portugal) and associated effects on epilithic diatom communities. Science of the Total Environment 407: 5620–5636.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.06.047

Flôres, T.L., Moreira-Filho, H. & Ludwig, T.A.V. (1999) Contribuição ao inventário florístico das diatomáceas (Bacillariophyta) do Banhado do Taim, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: II. Fragilariaceae. Ínsula 28: 167–187.

Fonseca, B.M. & Bicudo, C.E.M. (2011) Phytoplankton seasonal and vertical variations in a tropical shallow reservoir with abundant macrophytes (Ninféias Pond, Brazil). Hydrobiologia 665: 229–245.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-011-0626-3

Fontana, L. & Bicudo, D.C. (2009) Diatomáceas (Bacillariophyceae) de sedimentos superficiais dos reservatórios em cascata do Rio Paranapanema (SP/PR, Brasil): Coscinodiscophyceae e Fragilariophyceae. Hoehnea 36: 375–386.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S2236-89062009000300001

Fontana, L., Albuquerque, A.L.S., Brenner, M., Bonotto, D.M., Sabaris, T.P.P., Pires, M.A.F., Cotrim, M.E.B. & Bicudo, D.C. (2014) The eutrophication history of a tropical water supply reservoir in Brazil. Journal of Paleolimnology 51: 29–43.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10933-013-9753-3

Garcia, M. (2010) A new diatom genus: Rimoneis M.Garcia (Fragilariaceae, Bacillariophyceae): a new hyaline araphid genus based on observations of frustules from Southern Brazil. Diatom 26: 1–9.

Garcia, M. (2012) Hyalogramma M.Garcia (Fragilariales, Bacillariophyceae): a new hyaline araphid genus from Brazilian marine sandy beaches. Diatom 28: 7–13.

Guarino, A.W.S., Branco, C.W.C., Diniz, G.P. & Rocha, R. (2005) Limnological characteristics of old tropical reservoir (Ribeirão das Lajes Reservoir, RJ, Brazil). Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia 17: 129–141.

Henry, R., Carmo, C.F. & Bicudo, D.C. (2004) Trophic status of a Brazilian urban reservoir and prognosis about the recovery of water quality. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia 16: 251–262.

Houk, V. & Klee, R. (2004) The stelligeroid taxa of the genus Cyclotella (Kützing) Brébisson (Bacillariophyceae) and their transfer into the new genus Discostella gen. nov. Diatom Research 19: 203–228.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.2004.9705871

Hustedt, F. (1930) Bacillariophyta (Diatomeae). In: Pascher, A. (Ed.) Die Süsswasser-Flora Mitteleuropas, Zweite Auflage. vol. 10. Gustav Fischer, Jena, pp. 1–466.

IBGE—Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (2014) São Paulo. Available from: http://www.cidades.ibge.gov.br/xtras/uf.php?lang=&coduf=35&search=sao-paulo (accessed 19 September 2015)

Ishii, S. & Sadowsky, M.J. (2008) Escherichia coli in the environment: Implications for water quality and human health. Microbes and Environments 23: 101–108.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1264/jsme2.23.101

Kitton, F. (1869) Notes on New York diatoms with description of a new species Fragilaria crotonensis. Hardwicke’s Science-Gossip 5: 109–110.

Kociolek, J.P., Lyon, D. & Spaulding, S. (2001) Revision of the South American species of Actinella. In: Jahn, R., Kociolek, J.P., Witkowski, A. & Compère, P. (Eds.) Lange-Bertalot-Festschrift. Studies on Diatoms. Dedicated to Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Horst Lange-Bertalot On the Occasion of his 65th Birthday. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G., Ruggell, pp. 131–165.

Krammer, K. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (1986) Bacillariophyceae.1. Teil: Naviculaceae. In: Ettl, H., Gärtner, G., Gerloff, J., Heynig, H. & Mollenhauer, D. (Eds.) Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa 2/1. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, Jena, pp. 1–876.

Krammer, K. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (1988) Bacillariophyceae. 2. Teil: Bacillariaceae, Epithemiaceae, Surirellaceae. In: Ettl, H., Gerloff, J., Heynig, H. & Mollenhauer, D. (Eds.) Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa 2/2. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, Jena, pp. 1–596.

Krammer, K. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (1991) Bacillariophyceae. 3 Teil: Centrales, Fragilariaceae, Eunotiaceae. In: Ettl, H., Gerloff, J., Heynig, H. & Mollenhauer, D. (Eds.) Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa 2/3. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, Jena, pp. 1–576.

Kützing, F.T. (1836) Algarum Aquae Dulcis Germanicarum. Decas XVI. Collegit Fridericus Traugott Kutzing, Societatis Botanica Ratisbonis Sodalis. Halis Saxonum in Commissis C.A. Schwetschkii et Fil 16: 1–4.

Kützing, F.T. (1844) Die kieselschaligen Bacillarien oder Diatomeen. W. Köhne, Nordhausen, 152 pp.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.64360

Landucci, M. & Ludwig, T.A.V. (2005) Diatomáceas de rios da bacia hidrográfica Litorânea, PR, Brasil: Coscinodiscophyceae e Fragilariophyceae. Acta Botanica Brasilica 19: 345–357.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-33062005000200018

Lange-Bertalot, H. (1980) Zur systematischen Bewertung der bandförmigen Kolonien bei Navicula und Fragilaria. Kriterien für die Vereinigung von Synedra (subgen. Synedra) Ehrenberg mit Fragilaria Lyngbye. Nova Hedwigia 33: 723–787.

Lange-Bertalot, H. (1993) 85 Neue taxa und über 100 weitere neu definierte Taxa ergänzend zur Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Bibliotheca Diatomologica 27: 1–454.

Lange-Bertalot, H. & Ulrich, S. (2014) Contributions to the taxonomy of needle-shaped Fragilaria and Ulnaria species. Lauterbornia 78: 1–73.

Linares-Cuesta, J.E. & Sanchez-Castillo, P.M. (2007) Fragilaria nevadensis sp. nov., a new diatom taxon from a high mountain lake in the Sierra Nevada (Granada, Spain). Diatom Research 22: 127–134.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.2007.9705700

Lopes, M.R.M., Bicudo, C.E.M. & Ferragut M.C. (2005) Short term spatial and temporal variation of phytoplankton in a shallow tropical oligotrophic reservoir, southeast Brazil. Hydrobiologia 542: 235–247.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-004-8332-z

Ludwig, T.A.V. & Flôres, T.L. (1997) Diatomoflórula dos rios da região a ser inundada para a construção da usina hidrelétrica de Segredo, PR. Fragilariophyceae (Fragilaria e Synedra). Hoehnea 24: 55–65.

Lyngbye, H.C. (1819) Tentamen Hydrophytologiae Danicae Continens omnia Hydrophyta Cryptogama Daniae, Holsatiae, Faeroae, Islandiae, Groenlandiae hucusque cognita, Systematice Disposita, Descripta et iconibus illustrata, Adjectis Simul Speciebus Norvegicis. Hafniae,Typis Schultzianis, in commissis Librariae Gyldendaliae, Copenhagen, 248 pp., 70 pls.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.6079

Manoylov, K.M., Morales, E.A. & Stoermer, E.F. (2003) Staurosira stevensonii sp. nov. (Bacillariophyta), a new taxon from Florida, USA. European Journal of Phycology 38: 65–71.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0967026031000096263

Marceniuk, A.P., Hilsdorf, A.W.S. & Langeani, F. (2011) A ictiofauna de cabeceiras do rio Tietê, São Paulo, Brasil. Biota Neotropica 11: 217–236.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032011000300020

Masmoudi, S., Nguyen-Deroche, N., Caruso, A., Ayadi, H., Morant-Manceau, A., Tremblin, G., Bertrand, M. & Schoefs, B. (2013) Cadmium, copper, sodium and zinc effects on diatoms: from heaven to hell – a review. Cryptogamie Algologie 34: 185–225.

http://dx.doi.org/10.7872/crya.v34.iss2.2013.185

McFarland, B.H., Hill, B.H. & Willingham, W.T. (1997) Abnormal Fragilaria spp. (Bacillariophyceae) in streams impacted by mine drainage. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 12: 141–149.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02705060.1997.9663517

Medlin, L., Jung, I., Bahulikar, R., Mendgen, K., Kroth, P. &. Kooistra, W.H.C.F (2008) Evolution of the diatoms. VI. Assessment of the new genera in the araphids using molecular data. Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft 133: 81–100.

Metzeltin, D. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (1998) Tropische Diatomeen in Südamerika I. 700 überwiegend wenig bekannte oder neue Taxa repräsentativ als Elemente der neotropischen Flora. Iconographia Diatomologica 5: 1–695.

Metzeltin, D. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (2007) Tropical diatoms of South America II. Special remarks on biogeographic disjunction. Iconographia Diatomologica 18: 1–876.

Metzeltin, D., Lange-Bertalot, H. & García-Rodríguez, F. (2005) Diatoms of Uruguay. Iconographia Diatomologica 15: 1–736.

Morales, E.A. (2003) Fragilaria pennsylvanica, a new diatom (Bacillariophyceae) species from North America, with comments on the taxonomy of the genus Synedra Ehrenberg. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 153: 155–166.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1635/0097-3157(2003)153[0155:FPANDB]2.0.CO;2

Morales, E.A. & Vis, M.L. (2007) Epilithic diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) from cloud forest and alpine streams in Bolivia, South America. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 156: 123–155.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1635/0097-3157(2007)156[123:EDBFCF]2.0.CO;2

Morales, E.A., Vis, M.L., Fernández, E. & Kociolek, J.P. (2008) Epilithic diatoms (Bacillariophyta) from cloud forest and alpine streams in Bolivia, South America II: A preliminary report on the diatoms from Sorata, Department of La Paz. Acta Nova 3: 680–696.

Morales, E.A., Fernández, E. & Kociolek, J.P. (2009) Epilithic diatoms (Bacillariophyta) from cloud forest and alpine streams in Bolivia, South America 3: diatoms from Sehuencas, Carrasco National Park, Department of Cochabamba. Acta Botanica Croatica 68: 263–283.

Morales, E.A., Manoylov, K.M. & Bahls, L.L. (2010) Three new araphid diatoms (Bacillariophyta) from rivers in North America. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 160: 29–46.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1635/053.160.0105

Morin, S. & Coste, M. (2006) Metal-induced shifts in the morphology of diatoms from the Riou Mort and Riou Viou streams (South West France). In: Ács, É., Kiss, K.T., Padisák, J. & Szabó, K (Eds.) Use of algae for monitoring rivers VI. Hungarian Algological Society, Göd, pp. 91–106.

Nardelli, M.S., Bueno, N.C., Ludwig, T.A.V., Tremarin, P.I. & Bartozek, E.C.R. (2014) Coscinodiscophyceae and Fragilariophyceae (Diatomeae) in the Iguaçu River, Paraná, Brazil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 28: 127–140.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-33062014000100013

Nunes, M.L., Ferreira da Silva, E. & Almeida, S.F.P. (2003) Assessment of water quality in the Caima and Mau river basins (Portugal) using geochemical and biological indices. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 149: 227–250.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1025636106890

Oliveira, C.E.S. (2011) Avaliação da composição isotópica do chumbo e da distribuição elementar nos sedimentos da represa Pedro Beicht, Cotia, São Paulo. Dissertação de Mestrado, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo. Available from: http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/46/46136/tde-31082011-153104/

Pappas, J.L. & Stoermer, E.F. (1996) Quantitative method for determining a representative algal sample count. Journal of Phycology 32: 693–696.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3646.1996.00693.x

Patrick, R. (1940a) Diatoms of northeastern Brazil. Part I. – Coscinodiscaceae, Fragilariaceae and Eunotiaceae. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 92: 191–227.

Patrick, R. (1940b) Some new diatoms from Brazil. Notulae Naturae 59: 1–7.

Patrick, R.M. & Reimer, C.W. (1966) The Diatoms of the United States exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii, Vol. I. Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 13: 1–688.

Rabenhorst, L. (1853) Die Süsswasser-Diatomaceen (Bacillarien) für Freunde der Mikroskopie. E. Kümmer, Leipzig, 72 pp., 10 pls.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.8348

Rocha, A.C.R. (2012) Influência do hábitat e do estado trófico na biodiversidade e distribuição das diatomáceas (Bacillariophyta) em reservatórios da sub-bacia do Alto Rio Tiête, São Paulo. PhD Thesis. Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, 330 pp.

Ross, R., Cox, E.J., Karayeva, N.I., Mann, D.G., Paddock, T.B.B., Simonsen, R. & Sims, P.A. (1979) An amended terminology for the siliceous components of the diatom cell. Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft 64: 513–533.

Round, F.E., Crawford, R.M. & Mann, D.G. (1990) The Diatoms. Biology and morphology of the genera. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 747 pp.

Rumrich, U., Lange-Bertalot, H. & Rumrich, M. (2000) Diatomeen der Anden. Von Venezuela bis Patagonien/Feuerland. Iconographia Diatomologica 9: 1–649.

Sanders, J.G. & Riedel, G.F. (1998) Metal accumulation and impacts in phytoplankton. In: Langston, W.J. & Bebianno, M.J. (Eds.) Metal Metabolism in Aquatic Environments. Chapman & Hall, London, pp. 59–76.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-2761-6_4

Sartory, D.P. & Grobbelaar, J.U. (1984) Extraction of chlorophyll a from freshwater phytoplankton for spectrophotometric analysis. Hydrobiologia 114: 177–187.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00031869

Silva, R.T. & Porto, M.F.A. (2003) Gestão urbana e gestão das águas: caminhos da integração. Estudos Avançados 17: 129–145.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-40142003000100007

Silva, W.J. & Souza, M.G.M. (2015) New species of the genus Encyonema (Cymbellales, Bacillariophyta) from the Descoberto River Basin, Central-western Brazil. Phytotaxa 195 (2): 154–162.

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.195.2.4

Simonsen, R. (1987) Atlas and Catalogue of the Diatom Types of Friedrich Hustedt. 3 Vols. J. Cramer, Berlin & Stuttgart, 1741 pp.

Smith, W. (1856) A synopsis of the British Diatomaceae; with remarks on their structure, functions and distribution; and instructions for collecting and preserving specimens. Vol. 2. John van Voorst, London, 107 pp.

Smol, J.P. (2008) Pollution of Lakes and Rivers: A Paleoenvironmental Perspective. 2nd edition. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 383 pp.

Thwaites, G.H.K. (1848) Further observations on the diatomaceae with descriptions of new genera and species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 3: 161–272.

Tremarin, P.I., Ludwig, T.A.V. & Torgan, L.C. (2012) Ultrastructure of Aulacoseira brasiliensis sp. nov. (Coscinodiscophyceae) and comparison with related species. Fottea 12: 171–188.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5507/fot.2012.013

Tremarin, P.I., Paiva, R.S., Ludwig, T.V. & Torgan, L.C. (2013) Aulacoseira calypsi sp. nov. (Coscinodiscophyceae) from an Amazonian lake, northern Brazil. Phycological Research 61: 292–298.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pre.12031

Tuji, A. (2004) Type examination of the ribbon-forming Fragilaria capucina complex described by Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg. In: Poulin, M. (Ed.) Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Diatom Symposium. Ottawa, Canada, 25th– 31st August 2002. Biopress Limited, Bristol, pp. 411–422.

Tuji, A. (2006) Re-designation of seventeen lectotypes for diatoms (Bacillariophyceae), originally designated by Ohtsuka & Tuji (2002), Tuji (2002) and Tuji (2004). Bulletin of the National Science Museum, Tokyo, Serie B, Botany 32: 171–173.

Tuji, A. & Williams, D.M. (2006) Typification of Conferva pectinalis O.F. Müll. (Bacillariophyceae) and the identity of the type of an alleged synonym, Fragilaria capucina Desm. Taxon 55: 193–199.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/25065541

Tuji, A. & Williams, D.M. (2008a) Examination of types in the Fragilaria pectinalis-capitellata species complex. In: Likhoshway, Y. (Ed.) Proceedings of the Nineteenth International Diatom Symposium. Listvyanka, Irkutsk, Russia, 28th August – 3rd September 2006. Biopress Limited, Bristol, pp. 125–139.

Tuji, A. & Williams, D.M. (2008b) Typification and type examination of Synedra familiaris Kütz. and related taxa. Diatom 24: 25–29.

Wengrat, S., Marquardt, G.C., Bicudo, D.C., Bicudo, C.E.M, Wetzel, C.E. & Ector, L. (2015) Type analysis of Cymbella schubartii and two new Encyonopsis species (Bacillariophyceae) from southeastern Brazil. Phytotaxa 221 (3): 247–264.

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.221.3.3

Wetzel, C.E., Ector, L., Hoffmann, L., Lange-Bertalot, H. & Bicudo, D.C. (2011) Two new periphytic Eunotia species from the neotropical Amazonian ‘black waters’, with a type analysis of E. braunii. Diatom Research 26: 135–146.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.2011.587644

Wetzel, C.E., Lange-Bertalot, H., Morales, E.A., Bicudo, D.C., Hoffmann, L. & Ector, L. (2012) Bicudoa amazonica gen. nov. et sp. nov. (Bacillariophyta) – a new freshwater diatom from the Amazon basin with a complete raphe loss in the Eunotioid lineage. Phytotaxa 75 (1): 1–18.

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.75.1.1

Whately, M. & Cunha, P. (2006) Proposition priority actions to ensure good quality water for public supply. Institute Socioenvironmental, Prefeitura da Cidade de São Paulo, 117 pp.

Williams, D.M. (2011) Synedra, Ulnaria: definitions and descriptions – a partial resolution. Diatom Research 26: 149–153.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.2011.587646

Williams, D.M. & Round, F.E. (1986) Revision of the genus Synedra Ehrenb. Diatom Research 1: 313–339.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.1986.9704976

Williams, D.M. & Round, F.E. (1987) Revision of the genus Fragilaria. Diatom Research 2: 267–288.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.1987.9705004

Williams, D.M. & Round, F.E. (1988) Fragilariforma, nom. nov., a new generic name for Neofragilaria Williams & Round. Diatom Research 3: 265–266.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.1988.9705039


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand