Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


Encyonema aquasedis sp. nov. and Kurtkrammeria salesopolensis sp. nov.: two new freshwater diatom species (Cymbellales, Bacillariophyceae) from an oligotrophic reservoir in southeastern Brazil

Gisele Carolina Marquardt, Angélica Cristina Righetii da Rocha, Carlos Eduardo Wetzel, Luc Ector, Carlos Eduardo de Mattos Bicudo


Recent research of the plankton and the surface sediments from Ribeirão do Campo reservoir (São Paulo, southeast Brazil) led to identification of two new cymbelloid diatom species: Encyonema acquasedis sp. nov. and Kurtkrammeria salesopolensis sp. nov. Their morphology was studied under both light and scanning electron microscopes aiming at describing the two species in detail. The morphology of each species is compared and discussed with morphologically similar taxa. The new species are different from all others in the Cymbellales due to a combination of characteristics including valve outline, striae, areolae structure, and raphe system. Both species were collected from an oligotrophic environment with both low pH and conductivity.


Brazil, diatoms, Encyonema, Kurtkrammeria, new species, reservoir, São Paulo, taxonomy, Algae

Full Text:

PDF/A (7.70 MB)


Agardh, C.A. (1830) Conspectus criticus diatomacearum. Part 1. Litteris Berlingianis, Lund, 16 pp.

Ambühl, H. & Bührer, H. (1975) Zur Technik der Entnahme ungestörter Grossproben von Seesediment: ein verbessertes Bohrlot. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Hydrologie 37: 175–186.

Anonymous (1975) Proposals for a standartization of diatom terminology and diagnoses. In: Simonsen, R. (Ed.) Third Symposium on recent and fossil marine diatoms, Kiel, September 9–13, 1974. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 53: 323–354.

Bahls, L.L. (2013) Encyonopsis from western North America: 31 species from Alberta, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, South Dakota, and Washington, including 17 species described as new. Northwest Diatoms, Volume 5. The Montana Diatom Collection, Helena, 46 pp.

Bahls, L.L. (2015) Kurtkrammeria, a new genus of freshwater diatoms (Bacillariophyta, Cymbellaceae) separated from Encyonopsis. Nova Hedwigia 101: 165–190.

Bahls, L., Pierce, J., Apfelbeck, R. & Olsen, L. (2013) Encyonema droseraphilum sp. nov. (Bacillariophyta) and other rare diatoms from undisturbed floating-mat fens in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Phytotaxa 127 (1): 32–48.

Battarbee, R.W. (1986) Diatoms analysis. In: Berglund, B.E. (Ed.) Handbook of Holocene Palaeoecology and Palaeohydrology. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, pp. 527–570.

Brébisson, A. (1838) Considérations sur les diatomées et essai d’une classification des genres et des espèces appartenant à cette famille. Brée l’Ainé, Imprimeur-Libraire, Falaise & Meilhac, Libraire, Paris, pp. 1–20.

Bruder, K. & Medlin, L.K. (2007) Molecular assessment of phylogenetic relationships in selected species/genera in the naviculoid diatoms (Bacillariophyta). I. The genus Placoneis. Nova Hedwigia 85: 331–352.

Cox, E.J. (2010) Morphogenetic information and the selection of taxonomic characters for raphid diatom systematics. Plant Ecology and Evolution 143: 271–277.

Cox, E.J. & Williams, D.M. (2006) Systematics of naviculoid diatoms (Bacillariophyta): a preliminary analysis of protoplast and frustule characters for family and order level classification. Systematics and Biodiversity 4: 385–399.

De Toni, J.B. (1892) Sylloge algarum omnium hucusque cognitarum. Vol. 2. Bacillarieae. Sectio 2 – Pseudorhaphideae. Typis Seminarii, Patavii, pp. 491–817.

Ehrenberg, C.G. (1832) Über die Entwicklung und Lebensdauer der Infusionsthiere; nebst ferneren Beiträgen zu einer Vergleichung ihrer organischen Systeme. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1831: 1–154, 4 pls.

Ehrenberg, C.G. (1843) Verbreitung und Einflufs des mikroskopischen Lebens in Süd- und Nord-Amerika. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1841: 291–445, 4 pls.

Esteves, F.A. & Camargo, A.F.M. (1982) Caracterização de sedimentos de 17 represas do estado de São Paulo com base no teor de feopigmentos, carbono orgânico e nitrogênio orgânico. Ciência e Cultura 34: 669–674.

Germain, H. (1981) Flore des diatomées: Diatomophycées eaux douces et saumâtres du Massif Armoricain et des contrées voisines d’Europe occidentale. Société Nouvelle des Éditions Boubée, Paris, 444 pp.

Gianesella-Galvão, S.M.F. (1981) Produção primária e suas relações com alguns fatores físico-químicos em reservatórios do Estado de São Paulo. Unpublished PhD dissertation. Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 171 pp.

Giffen, M.H. (1966) Contributions to the diatom flora of Southern Africa. II. Diatoms from the Hog’s Back region of the Amatola Mountains, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Nova Hedwigia 21: 123–150.

Gregory, W. (1854) Notice of the new forms and varieties of known forms occurring in the diatomaceous earth of Mull; with remarks on the classification of the Diatomaceae. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 2: 90–100.

Greville, R.K. (1855) Report on a collection of Diatomaceae made in the district of Braemar by Professor Balfour and Mr. George Lawson. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 2nd series 15: 252–261.

Hartley, B. (1986) A check-list of the freshwater, brackish and marine diatoms of the British Isles and adjoining coastal waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 66: 531–610.

Hustedt, F. (1938) Systematische und ökologische Untersuchungen über die Diatomeen-Flora von Java, Bali und Sumatra nach dem Material der Deutschen Limnologischen Sunda-Expedition, 1: systematischer Teil. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Supplement 15: 131–506.

Hustedt, F. (1955) Neue und wenig bekannte Diatomeen. 8. Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein zu Bremen 34: 47–68.

Jones, H.M., Simpson, G.E., Stickle, A.J. & Mann, D.G. (2005) Life history and systematics of Petroneis (Bacillariophyta), with special reference to British waters. European Journal of Phycology 40: 61–87.

Jüttner, I., Krammer, K., Van de Vijver, B., Tuji, A., Simkhada, B., Gurung, S., Sharma, S., Sharma, C. & Cox, E.J. (2010) Oricymba (Cymbellales, Bacillariophyceae), a new cymbelloid genus and three new species from the Nepalese Himalaya. Phycologia 49: 407–423.

Kellogg, T.B. & Kellogg, D.E. (2002) Non-marine and littoral diatoms from Antarctic and Subantarctic regions: distribution and updated taxonomy. Diatom Monographs 1: 1–795.

Kermarrec, L., Ector, L., Bouchez, A., Rimet, F. & Hoffmann, L. (2011) A preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the Cymbellales based on 18S rDNA gene sequencing. Diatom Research 26: 305–315.

Kociolek, J.P. & Stoermer, E.F. (1988) A preliminary investigation of the phylogenetic relationships among the freshwater, apical pore field-bearing cymbelloid and gomphonemoid diatoms (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 24: 377–385.

Kociolek, J.P. & Stoermer, E.F. (1989) Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the diatom genus Gomphoneis. Phycologia 28: 438–454.

Kociolek, J.P. & Stoermer, E.F. (1993) Freshwater gomphonemoid diatom phylogeny: preliminary results. Hydrobiologia 269/270: 31–38.

Krammer, K. (1997a) Die cymbelloiden Diatomeen. Eine Monographie der weltweit bekannten Taxa. Teil 1. Allgemeines und Encyonema Part. Bibliotheca Diatomologica 36: 1–382.

Krammer, K. (1997b) Die cymbelloiden Diatomeen. Eine Monographie der weltweit bekannten Taxa. Teil 2. Encyonema part, Encyonopsis and Cymbellopsis. Bibliotheca Diatomologica 37: 1–469.

Krammer, K. (2002) Cymbella. Diatoms of Europe 3: 1–584.

Krammer, K. (2003) Cymbopleura, Delicata, Navicymbula, Gomphocymbellopsis, Afrocymbella. Diatoms of Europe 4: 1–529.

Krasske, G. (1939) Zur Kieselalgenflora Südchiles. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 35: 349–468.

Krasske, G. (1948) Diatomeen tropischer Moosrasen. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 42: 404–443.

Kützing, F.T. (1833) Synopsis diatomearum oder Versuch einer systematischen Zusammenstellung der Diatomeen. Linnaea 8: 529–620.

Kützing, F.T. (1844) Die kieselschaligen Bacillarien oder Diatomeen. W. Köhne, Nordhausen, 152 pp.

Lange-Bertalot, H. (1993) 85 Neue Taxa und über 100 weitere neu definierte Taxa ergänzend zur Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa Vol. 2/1–4. Bibliotheca Diatomologica 27: 1–164.

Lange-Bertalot, H. (1999) Neue Kombinationen von Taxa aus Achnanthes Bory (sensu lato). Iconographia Diatomologica 6: 276–289.

Lange-Bertalot, H. & Metzeltin, D. (1996) Oligotrophie-Indikatoren. 800 Taxa repräsentativ für drei diverse Seen-Typen. Kalkreich - Oligodystroph - Schwach gepuffertes Weichwasser. Iconographia Diatomologica 2: 1–390.

Le Cohu, R. & Azémar, F. (2011) Étude morphologique de quelques Cymbellaceae des Pyrénées françaises incluant la description d’une espèce nouvelle: Delicata couseranensis sp. nov. Cryptogamie Algologie 32: 131–155.

Le Cohu, R., Gassiole, G. & Coste, M. (2014) Three new species of Cymbellales (Bacillariophyceae) from Réunion Island. Phytotaxa 156 (3): 117–132.

Le Cohu, R., Azémar, F. & Tudesque, L. (2015) Cymbella marvanii sp. nov., a new Cymbella species from the French Pyrenees. Diatom Research 30: 257–262.

Matsuzaki, M. (2007) Transposição das águas do braço Taquacetuba da represa Billings para a represa Guarapiranga: aspectos relacionados à qualidade de água para abastecimento. Unpublished PhD dissertation. Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 182 pp.

Mayama, S. & Kobayasi, H. (1990) Studies on Eunotia species in the classical “Degernäs materials” housed in the Swedish Museum of Natural History. Diatom Research 5: 351–366.

Metzeltin, D. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (1998) Tropische Diatomeen in Südamerika I. 700 überwiegend wenig bekannte oder neue Taxa repräsentativ als Elemente der neotropischen Flora. Iconographia Diatomologica 5: 1–695.

Metzeltin, D. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (2007) Tropical diatoms of South America II. Special remarks on biogeographic disjunction. Iconographia Diatomologica 18: 1–876.

Metzeltin, D., Lange-Bertalot, H. & García-Rodríguez, F. (2005) Diatoms of Uruguay compared with other taxa from South America and elsewhere. Iconographia Diatomologica 15: 1–736.

Nakov, T., Ruck, E.C., Galachyants, Y., Spaulding, S.A. & Theriot, E.C. (2014) Molecular phylogeny of the Cymbellales (Bacillariophyceae, Heterokontophyta) with a comparison of models for accommodating rate variation across sites. Phycologia 53: 359–373.

Nascimento, R.L.D. (2003) Proposição de valores de referência para concentração de metais e metaloides em sedimentos límnicos e fluviais da bacia hidrográfica do rio Tietê, São Paulo. Unpublished PhD dissertation. Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, 120 pp.

Novelo, E., Tavera, R. & Ibarra, C. (2007) Bacillariophyceae from karstic wetlands in Mexico. Bibliotheca Diatomologica 54: 1–136.

Potapova, M. (2014) Encyonema appalachianum (Bacillariophyta, Cymbellaceae), a new species from Western Pennsylvania, USA. Phytotaxa 184 (2): 115–120.

Ross, R. (1950) Studies in the Post-Glacial history of British vegetation. XI. Late-Glacial deposits in Cornwall: appendix: report on diatom flora from Hawks Tor, Cornwall. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 234: 461–469.

Ross, R., Cox, E.J., Karayeva, N.I., Mann, D.G., Paddock, T.B.B., Simonsen, R. & Sims, P.A. (1979) An amended terminology for the siliceous components of the diatom cell. Nova Hedwigia, Beihefte 64: 513–533.

Round, F.E. & Mann, D.G. (1981) The diatom genus Brachysira I. Typification and separation from Anomoeoneis. Archiv für Protistenkunde 124: 221–231.

Round, F.E., Crawford, R.M. & Mann, D.G. (1990) The diatoms: biology & morphology of the genera. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 747 pp.

Rumrich, U., Lange-Bertalot, H. & Rumrich, M. (2000) Diatomeen der Anden. Von Venezuela bis Patagonien/Feuerland. Iconographia Diatomologica 9: 1–673.

Schaarschmidt, G. (1881) Algae. In: Kanitz, A. (Ed.) Plantas Romaniae hucusque cognitas. Magyar Novenytani Lapok 5: 151–165, 261–268.

Silva, W.J. & Souza, M.G.M. (2015) New species of the genus Encyonema (Cymbellales, Bacillariophyta) from the Descoberto River Basin, Central-western Brazil. Phytotaxa 195 (2): 154–162.

Silva, W.J., Jahn, R., Ludwig, T.A.V. & Menezes, M. (2013a) Typification of seven species of Encyonema and characterization of Encyonema leibleinii comb. nov. Fottea 13: 119–132.

Silva, W.J., Souza, M.G.M. & Proença, C.E.B. (2013b) Cymbella neolanceolata sp. nov., a species formerly known as Cymbella lanceolata. Diatom Research 28: 131–138.

Simonsen, R. (1987) Atlas and Catalogue of the Diatom Types of Friedrich Hustedt. 3 Vols. J. Cramer, Berlin & Stuttgart, 1741 pp.

Smith, W. (1853) Synopsis of British Diatomaceae. John Van Voorst, London, 89 pp.

Tremarin, P.I., Wetzel, C.E., Ludwig, T.A.V. & Ector, L. (2011) Encyonema exuberans sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae) from southern Brazilian lotic systems. Nova Hedwigia 92: 107–120.

Tynni, R. (1978) Über Finnlands rezente und subfossile Diatomeen, 10. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin 296: 1–55.

Vouilloud, A.A., Sala, S.E., Avellaneda, M.N. & Duque, S.R. (2010) Diatoms from the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon: the genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema (Cymbellales: Bacillariophyceae). Revista de Biologia Tropical 58: 45–62.

Vyverman, W. (1988) Three new diatom taxa from the Central Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Diatom Research 3: 259–264.

Vyverman, W. (1991) Diatoms from Papua New Guinea. Bibliotheca Diatomologica 22: 1–224.

Wengrat, S., Marquardt, G.C., Bicudo, D.C., Bicudo, C.E.M., Wetzel, C.E. & Ector, L. (2015) Type analysis of Cymbella schubartii and two new Encyonopsis species (Bacillariophyceae) from southeastern Brazil. Phytotaxa 221 (3): 247–264.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand