Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


Muyocopronales, ord. nov., (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) and a reappraisal of Muyocopron species from northern Thailand



Muyocopron species are associated with a wide variety of plant substrates worldwide and presently 57 species epithets are listed in Index Fungorum. Species in this genus form distinctive black, dull, rounded regions on the surface of plants and the genus is probably polyphyletic. The present study clarifies the phylogenetic placement of Muyocopron and related species, using fresh tropical collections from northern Thailand. Three Muyocopron species are characterized based on analyses of combined LSU and SSU sequence datasets. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Muyocopron species form a distinct lineage with the Dyfrolomycetales and Acrospermales lineages. The new order Muyocopronales with three new Muyocopron species is introduced based on its distinct phylogeny and unique morphological characteristics. The taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of tropical Muyocopron species are reappraised with suggestions for future work.


Muyocopronaceae, Muyocopronales, new species, phylogeny, taxonomy, Fungi, Thailand

Full Text:

PDF/A (3.33 MB)


Ariyawansa, H.A., Hyde, K.D., Jayasiri, S.C., Buyck, B., Chethana, K.W.T., Dai, D.Q., Dai, Y.C., Daranagama, D.A., Jayawardena, R.S., Lücking, R., Ghobad-Nejhad, M., Niskanen, T., Thambugala, K.M., Voigt, K., Zhao, R.L., Li, G.J., Doilom, M., Boonmee, S., Yang, Z.L., Cai, Q., Cui, Y.Y., Bahkali, A.H., Chen, J., Cui, B.K., Chen, J.J., Dayarathne, M.C., Dissanayake, A.J., Ekanayaka, A.H., Hashimoto, A., Hongsanan, S., Jones, E.B.G., Larsson, E., Li, W.J., Li, Q.R., Liu, J.K., Luo, Z.L., Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N., Mapook, A., McKenzie, E.H.C., Norphanphoun, C., Konta, S., Pang, K.L., Perera, R.H., Phookamsak, R., Phukhamsakda, C., Pinruan, U., Randrianjohany, E., Singtripop, C., Tanaka, K., Tian, C.M., Tibpromma, S., Abdel-Wahab, M.A., Wanasinghe, D.N., Wijayawardene, N.N., Zhang, J.F., Zhang, H., Abdel-Aziz, F.A., Wedin, M., Westberg, M., Ammirati, J.F., Bulgakov, T.S., Lima, D.X., Callaghan, T.M., Callac, P., Chang, C.H., Coca, L.F., Dal-Forno, M., Dollhofer, V., Fliegerová, K., Greiner, K., Griffith, G.W., Ho, H.M., Hofstetter, V., Jeewon, R., Kang, J.C., Wen, T.C., Kirk, P.M., Kytövuori, I., Lawrey, J.D., Xing, J., Li, H., Liu, Z.Y., Liu, X.Z., Liimatainen, K., Lumbsch, H.T., Matsumura, M., Moncada, B., Nuankaew, S., Parnmen, S., Santiago, A., Sommai, S., Song, Y., Souza, C.A.F., Souza-Motta, C.M., Su, H.Y., Suetrong, S., Wang, Y., Wei, S.F., Yuan, H.S., Zhou, L.W., Réblová, M., Fournier, J., Camporesi, E., Luangsa-ard, J.J., Tasanathai, K., Khonsanit, A., Thanakitpipattana, D., Somrithipol, S., Diederich, P., Millanes, A.M., Common, R.S., Stadler, M., Yan, J.Y., Li, X.H., Eberhardt, U., Simonini, G., Wen, H.A. & Chen, X.H. (2015) Fungal diversity notes 111–252—taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal taxa. Fungal Diversity 75 (1): 27–274.

Chomnunti, P., Hongsanan, S., Aguirre-hudson, B., Tian, Q., Peršoh, D., Dhami, M.K., Alias, A.S., Xu, J.C., Liu, X.Z., Stadler, M. & Hyde, K.D. (2014) The sooty moulds. Fungal Diversity 66: 1–36.

Dennis, R.W.G. (1981) British Ascomycetes. J. Cramer, Printed in Germany, pp. 480–481.

Doidge, E.M. (1942) South African Microthyriaceae. Bothalia 4: 273–344.

Eriksson, O.E. (1981) The families of bitunicate Ascomycetes. Opera Botanica 60: 1–209.

Eriksson, O.E. & Hawksworth, D.L. (1993) Notes on ascomycete systematics – Nos 1418–1529. Systema Ascomycetum 11: 163–194.

Hall, T.A. (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. In: Nucleic Acids Symposium Series 41: 95−98.

Hofmann, T.A. & Piepenbring, M. (2006) New records and host plants of fly-speck fungi from Panama. Fungal Diversity 22: 55–70.

Hofmann, T.A. (2010) Plant parasitic Asterinaceae and Microthyriaceae from the Neotropics (Panama). PhD thesis, The Faculty of Biological Sciences at the J.W. Goethe-University Frankfurt am in, Germany, 408pp.

Hongsanan, S., Li, Y.M., Liu, J.K., Hofmann, T., Piepenbring, M., Bhat, J.D., Boonmee, S., Doilom, M., Singtripop, C., Tian, Q., Mapook, A., Zeng, X.Y., Bahkali, A.H., Xu, J.C., Mortimer, P.E., Wu, H.X., Yang, J.B. & Hyde, K.D. (2014) Revision of genera in Asterinales. Fungal Diversity 68 (1): 1–68.

Hyde, K.D., Jones, E.B.G., Liu, J.K., Ariyawansa, H., Boehm, E., Boonmee, S., Braun, U., Chomnunti, Crous, P.W., Dai, D.Q., Diederich, P., Dissanayake, A., Doilom, M., Doveri, F., Hongsanan, S., Jayawardena, R., Lawrey, J.D., Li, Y.M., Liu, Y.X., Lücking, R., Monkai, J., Muggia, L., Nelsen, M.P., Pang, K.L., Phookamsak, R., Senanayake, L.C., Shearer, C.A., Suetrong, S., Tanaka, K., Thambugala, K.M., Wijayawardene, N.N., Wikee, S., Wu, H.X., Zhang, Y., Aguirre-Hudson, B., Alias, S.A., Aptroot, A., Bahkali, A., Bezerra, J.L., Bhat, D.J., Camporesi, E., Chukeatirote, E., Gueidan, C., Hawksworth, D.L., Hirayama, K., De Hoog, S., Kang, J.C., Knudsen, K., Li, W.J., Li, X.H., Liu, Z.Y., Mapook, A., McKenzie, E.H.C., Miller, A.N., Mortimer, P., Phillips, A.J.L., Raja, H.A., Scheuer,C., Schumm, C., Taylor, J.E., Tian, Q., Tibpromma, S., Wanasinghe, D.N., Wang, Y., Xu, J.C., Yacharoen, S., Yan, J.Y. & Zhang, M. (2013) Families of Dothideomycetes. Fungal Diversity 63: 1−313.

Jayasiri, S.C., Hyde, K.D., Ariyawansa, H.A., Bhat, J., Buyck, B., Cai, L., Dai, Y.C., Abd-Elsalam, K.A., Ertz, D., Hidayat, I., Jeewon, R., Jones, E.B.G., Bahkali, A.H., Karunarathna, S.C., Liu, J.K., Luangsa-ard, J.J., Lumbsch, H.T., Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N., McKenzie, E.H.C., Moncalvo, J.M., Ghobad-Nejhad, M., Nilsson, H., Pang, K.A., Pereira, O.L., Phillips, A.J.L., Raspé, O., Rollins, A.W., Romero, A.I., Etayo, J., Selçuk, F., Stephenson, S.L., Suetrong, S., Taylor, J.E., Tsui, C.K.M., Vizzini, A., Abdel-Wahab, M.A., Wen, T.C., Boonmee, S., Dai, D.Q., Daranagama, D.A., Dissanayake, A.J., Ekanayaka, A.H., Fryar, S.C., Hongsanan, S., Jayawardena, R.S., Li, W.J., Perera, R.H., Phookamsak, R., de Silva, N.I., Thambugala, K.M., Tian, Q., Wijayawardene, N.N., Zhao, R.L., Zhao, Q., Kang, J.C., & Promputtha, I. (2015) The Faces of Fungi database: fungal names linked with morphology, phylogeny and human impacts. Fungal Diversity 74 (1): 3–18.

Lumbsch, H.T. & Huhndorf, S.M. (2007) Outline of Ascomycota – 2007. Myconet 13: 1−99.

Lumbsch, H.T. & Huhndorf, S.M. (2010) Outline of Ascomycota – 2009. Fieldiana Life and Earth Sciences 1: 1–60.

Luttrell, E.S. (1951) Taxonomy of Pyrenomycetes. University of Missouri Studies 24 (3): 1–120.

Luttrell, E.S. (1973) Loculoascomycetes. In: Ainsworth, G.C., Sparrow, F.K. & Sussman, A.S. (Eds.) The fungi, an advanced treatise, a taxonomic review with keys: ascomycetes and fungi imperfecti. Academic, New York, pp. 135–219.

Mapook, A., Boonmee, S., Ariyawansa, H.A., Tibpromma, S., Campesori, E., Jones, E.B.G., Bahkali, A.H. & Hyde, K.D. (2016) Taxonomic and phylogenetic placement of Nodulosphaeria. Mycological Progress 15 (4) 34.

Minter, D.W., Peredo, H.L. & Watson, A.T. (2007) Acrospermum chilense sp. nov. from Chile and the Acrospermales ord. nov. Bulletin of the Botanical Society of Argentina 42: 107–112.

Müller, E. & Arx, J.A. von (1962) Die Gattungen der didymosporen Pyrenomyceten. Beiträge zur Kryptogamenflora der Schweiz 11(2): 1–922.

Nylander, J.A.A. (2004) MrModeltest 2.0. Program distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.

Pang, K.L., Hyde, K.D., Alias, S.A., Suetrong, S. & Jones, E.B.G. (2013) Dyfrolomycetaceae, a new family in the Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota. Cryptogamie, Mycologie 34(1): 223–232.

Page, R.D.M. (1996) TreeView: an application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers. Computer Applications in the Biosciences 12: 357−358.

Phipps, C.J. & Rember, W.C. (2004) Epiphyllous fungi the Miocene of Clarkia, Idaho reproductive structures. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 129: 67–79.

Riddle, L.W. (1920) Observations on the genus Acrospermum. Mycologia 12: 175–181.

Saccardo, P.A. (1883) Sylloge Fungorum. Omnium hucusque cognitorum 2: 658–661.

Spegazzini, C.L. (1881) Fungi argentini additis nonnullis brasiliensibus montevideensibusque. Pugillus quartus (Continuacion) Anales de la Sociedad Científica Argentina 12(3): 97–117.

Spegazzini, C.L. (1889) Fungi nonnulli Paraguariae et Fuegiae. Revue Mycologique Toulouse 11 (42): 93–95.

Spegazzini, C.L. (1905) Cactearum Platensium Tentamen. Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 11: 477–521.

Spegazzini, C.L. (1909) Mycetes Argentinenses. Series 4. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires Series. 3 19 (12): 257–458.

Spegazzini, C.L. (1911) Enfermedades de los frutales. La viruela Holandesa. Gaceta Rural, Buenos Aires 4: 521–523.

Spegazzini, C.L. (1917) Revisión de las Laboulbeniales Argentinas. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 29: 445–688.

Spegazzini, C.L. (1919) Reliquiae mycologicae tropicae. Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias en Córdoba. 23(3–4): 365–541.

Taylor, J.E. & Hyde, K.D. (2003) Microfungi of tropical and temperate palms. Fungal Diversity Research Series 12: 1−459.

Telle, S. & Thines, M. (2008) Amplification of cox2 (~620 bp) from 2 mg of Up to 129 Years Old Herbarium Specimens, Comparing 19 Extraction Methods and 15 Polymerases. PLoS ONE 3 (10): e3584.

Vilgalys, R. & Hester, M. (1990) Rapid genetic identification and mapping of enzymatically amplified ribosomal DNA from several Cryptococcus species. Journal of Bacteriology 172: 4239–4246.

von Arx, J.A. & Müller, E. (1954) Die Gattungen der amerosporen Pyrenomyceten. Beitrage zur Kryptogamenflora der Schweiz 11(1): 434.

von Arx, J.A. & Müller, E. (1975) A re-evaluation of the bitunicate ascomycetes with keys to families and genera. Studies in Mycology 9: 1–159.

White, T., Bruns, T., Lee, S. & Taylor, J. (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis, M., Gelfand, D., Shinsky, J. & White, T. (Eds.) PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, New York, 315−322 pp.

Wu, H.X., Jaklitsch, W.M., Voglmayr, H. & Hyde, K.D. (2011a) Epitypification, morphology and phylogeny of Tothia fuscella. Mycotaxon 118: 203–211.

Wu, H.X., Schoch, C.L., Boonmee, S., Bahkali, A.H., Chomnunti, P. & Hyde, K.D. (2011b) A reappraisal of Microthyriaceae. Fungal Diversity 51: 189–248.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand