Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


A new species and a new combination of Rhodophana (Entolomataceae, Agaricales) from Africa



Multiple collections of a new member of the Entolomataceae were found in W National Park of Niger during a survey of macrofungi. This new species with a dark reddish brown scaly pileus surface and a yellow stipe belongs in the genus Rhodophana of the Rhodocybe-Clitopilus clade in the Entolomataceae. Using a three-gene analysis of the phylogenetic position of Rhodophana flavipes it is most closely related to the recently described Rhodophana squamulosa from India and is a sister taxon to Rhodophana nitellina and R. melleopallens. Micromorphological examination of the type of Rhodocybe fibulata, another African species with a scaly cap, confirms that it belongs in Rhodophana, thus a new combination Rhodophana fibulata is proposed.


atp6, rpb2, tef1, molecular phylogeny, Fungi

Full Text:



Baroni, T.J. (1999) Rhodocybe pegleri sp. nov. with notes on Rhodocybe pseudonitellina from East Africa. Kew Bulletin 54: 777–782.

Baroni, T.J., Hofstetter, V., Largent, D.L. & Vilgalys, R. (2011) Entocybe is proposed as a new genus in the Entolomataceae (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) based on morphological and molecular evidence. North American Fungi 6: 1–19.

Baroni, T.J., Kropp, B.R., Evenson, V.S. & Wilhelm, M. (2014) Cercopemyces crocodilinus, a new genus and species related to Ripartitella, is described from North America. Mycologia 106: 785–796.

Baroni, T.J. & Matheny, P.B. (2011) A re-evaluation of gasteroid and cyphelloid species of Entolomataceae from Eastern North America. Harvard Papers in Botany 16: 293–310.

Beeli, M. (1928) Contribution a l’étude de la Flore mycologique du Congo: VI: Fungi Goossensiani. Agaricacées Rhodosporées. Bulletin de la Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique 61 (1): 78–107.

Christan, J. (2008) Die Gattung Ramaria in Deutschland. IHW Verlag, Eching, 352 pp.

Clémençon, H. (2003) Stellate Chlamydospores and Thromboplerous Hyphae in the Mycelium of the agaric Lepista flaccida. Mycological Progress 2 (1): 69–72.

Co-David, D., Langeveld, D. & Noordeloos, M.E. (2009) Molecular phylogeny and spore evolution of Entolomataceae. Persoonia 23: 147–176.

Daniëls, P.P., Hama, O., Justo, A., Infante, F., Barage, M., Ibrahim, D. & Rosas, M. (2015) First records of some Asian macromycetes in Africa. Mycotaxon 130 (2): 337–359.

De Kesel, A. (2001) A Mushroom dryer for the travelling mycologist. Field Mycology 2: 131–133.

Eyi Ndong, H., Degreef, J. & De Kesel, A. (2011) Champignons comestibles des forêts denses d’Afrique central. ABC taxa vol. 10, Belgian National Focal Point to the Global Taxonomy Initiative, 254 pp. Available from: (accessed 1 May 2017)

Horner, H.T., Tiffany, L.H. & Knaphus, G. (1995) Oak-leaf-litter rhizomorphs from Iowa and Texas: Calcium oxalate producers. Mycologia 87(1): 34–40.

Hutchison, L.J., Madzia, S.E. & Barron, G.L. (1996) The presence and antifeedant function of toxin-producing secretory cells on hyphae of the lawn-inhabiting agaric Conocybe lactea. Canadian Journal of Botany 74: 431–434.

Karsten, P.A. (1879) Rysslands, Finlands och den Skandinaviska haflöns Hattsvampar. Förra Delen: Skifsvampar. Bidrag till Kännedom av Finlands Natur och Folk 32: 1–571.

Kauff, F. & Lutzoni, F. (2003) Lutzoni Lab. a program to detect topological conflict between supported clades in phylogenetic trees. Available from: (accessed 1 May 2017)

Kearse, M. et al. 2012. Geneiouis basic: an integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data. Bioinformatics 28: 1647–1649.

Kluting, K.L., Baroni, T.J. & Bergemann, S.E. (2014) Toward a stable classification of genera within the Entolomataceae: a phylogenetic re-evaluation of the Rhodocybe-Clitopilus clade. Mycologia 106: 1127–1142.

Kornerup, A. & Wanscher, J.H. (1981) Taschenlexikon der Farben, Muster-Schmidt, Göttingen, 242 pp.

Krisai, I. & Mrazek, E. (1986) Calcium oxalate crystals in Geastrum. Plant Systematics and Evolution 154: 325–341.

Kühner, R. & Lamoure, D. (1971) Agaricales de la zone alpine. Genre Rhodocybe R. Maire. Bulletin trimestriel de la Société mycologique de France 87: 15–23.

Kummer, P. (1871) Der Führer in die Pilzkunde. C. Luppe, Zerbst. 146 pp.

Lundell, S. & Nannfeldt, J.A. (1942) Fungi Exsiccati Suecici 23–24: 1101–1200.

Luo, H., Li, X., Li, G., Pan, Y. & Zhang, K. (2006) Acanthocytes of Stropharia rugosoannulata. Function as a Nematode-Attacking Device. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72 (4): 2982–2987.

Luo, H., Mo, M., Huang, X., Li, X. & Zhang, K. (2004) Coprinus comatus: A basidiomycete fungus forms novel spiny structures and infects nematode. Mycologia 96 (6): 1218–1224.

Maire, R. (1924 [1926]) Études mycologiques (fascicule 2). Bulletin de la Société Mycologique de France 40 (3): 293–317.

Maire, R. (1937) Le genre Clitopilopsis (Agaricaceae). Bulletin de la Société d’Histoire naturelle de l’Afrique du Nord 28: 112–115.

Malençon, G. & Bertault, R. (1970) Flore des champignons superieurs du Maroc (tome I). Série Botanique et biologie végétale des Travaux de l’Institut scientifique chérifien et de la Faculté des sciences de Rabat, Rabat, 601 pp.

Malençon, G. & Bertault, R. (1975) Flore des champignons superieurs du Maroc (tome II). Série Botanique et biologie végétale des Travaux de l’Institut scientifique chérifien et de la Faculté des sciences de Rabat, Rabat, 541 pp.

Miller, M.A., Pfeiffer, W. & Schwartz, T. (2010) Creating the CIPRES. Science Gateway for inference of large phylogenetic trees, Proceedings of the Gateway Computing Environments Workshop (GCE), 14 Nov 2010, New Orleans, Louisiana, pp. 1–8.

Milne, I., Linder, D., Bayer, M., Husmeier, D., Mcguire, G., Marshall, D.F. & Wright, F. (2008) TOPALi v2: a rich graphical interface for evolutionary analysis of multiple alignments on HPC clusters and multi-core desktops. Bioinformatics 25: 126–127.

Morris, B. (1990) An annotated check-list of the macrofungi of Malawi. Kirkia 13 (2): 323–364.

Pegler, D.N. (1977) A preliminary agaric flora of East Africa. Kew Bulletin Additional Series 6: 1–615.

Raj, K.N.A., Latha, K.P.D., Iyyappan, R. & Manimohan, P. (2016) Rhodophana squamulosa a new species of Entolomataceae from India. Mycoscience 57: 90–95.

Rambaut, A. (2012) Molecular evolution, phylogenetics and epidemiology. FigTree 1.4.0. Available from: (accessed 1 May 2017)

Ricken, A. (1915) Die Blätterpilze 1: 1–480.

Ronquist, F., Teslenko, M., Van Der Mark, P., Ayres, D.L., Darling, A., Höhna, S., Larget B., Liu, L., Suchard, M.A. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. (2012) MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Systematic Biology 61: 539–542.

Singer, R. (1940) Notes sur quelques Basidiomycètes. Revue de Mycologie 5: 3–13.

Stamatakis, A. (2006) RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics 22: 2688–2690.

Stamatakis, A., Hoover, P. & Rougemont, J. (2008) A rapid bootstrap algorithm for RAxML web servers. Systematic Biology 57: 758–771.

Stamatakis, A. (2014) RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies. Bioinformatics 30: 1312–1313.

Thiers, B. (2017) [continuously updated] Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium. Available from: (accessed 1 May 2017)

Vizzini, A. (2014) Index Fungorum 166: 1.

Whitney, K.D. & Arnott, H.J. (1986a) Morphology and development of calcium oxalate deposits in Gilbertella persicaria (Mucorales). Mycologia 78 (1): 42–51.

Zamora, J.C., Calonge, F.D. & Martín, M.P. (2013) New sources of taxonomic information for earthstars (Geastrum, Geastraceae, Basidiomycota): phenoloxidases and rhizomorphs crystals. Phytotaxa 132 (1): 1–20.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand