Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.355.1.1

The morphology and molecular phylogenetics of some marine diatom taxa within the Fragilariaceae, including twenty undescribed species and their relationship to Nanofrustulum, Opephora and Pseudostaurosira

CHUN L. LI, ANDRZEJ WITKOWSKI, MATT P. ASHWORTH, PRZEMYSŁAW DĄBEK, SHINYA SATO, IZABELA ZGŁOBICKA, MALGORZATA WITAK, JONG SEONG KHIM, CHUN-JUNG KWON

Abstract


Dozens of monoclonal cultures of small-celled araphid diatoms from brackish or marine habitats worldwide were analyzed using morphological observations (light and electron microscopy) and molecular data (nuclear-encoded small subunit ribosomal RNA and chloroplast encoded rbcL and psbC). As a result, we established one new genus Gedaniella, distinguished by a shared morphological character (occlusions of branched volae, projecting from the apical sides of the areolae) and some molecular data, including five new species: G. alfred-wegeneri, G. arenaria, G. boltonii, G. panicellus, G. paucistriata and three new combinations: G. flavovirens, G. guenter-grassii and G. mutabilis. Additionally we describe eleven novel species within the existing genus Serratifera: S. andersonii, S. brevis, S. clavata, S. corallina, S. namibica, S. nosybeana, S. parkii, S. punctata, S. rhombica, S. sourniae, S. takanoi and one new combination S. opephoroides. Furthermore, five new taxa or combinations were described within other genera: such as Cratericulifera crinigera, Nanofrustulum wachnickianum, Plagiostriata baltica, Pseudostaurosira madagascariensis and Stauroforma rinceana. Detailed descriptions for established species are also provided: Nanofrustulum shiloi, Opephora pacifica and Pseudostaurosira elliptica. This study strongly suggests that the complete biodiversity of small-celled araphids is still far from known, and many species currently placed in Opephora and Pseudostaurosira need to be further re-investigated.


Keywords


Araphid diatoms, biodiversity, molecular taxonomy phylogeny, small-celled, Algae

References


Aldegheri, H. (1967) Fleuves et rivières de Madagascar. Centre ORSTOM de Tananarive, 47 pp.

Alverson, A.J., Jansen, R.K. & Theriot, E.C. (2007) Bridging the Rubicon: phylogenetic analysis reveals repeated colonizations of marine and fresh waters by thalassiosiroid diatoms. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 45: 193–210.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2007.03.024

Andrén, E. (1997) A study of the diatom Opephora marina (Gregory) petit. Diatom Research 12: 199–205.

https://doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.1997.9705414

Andresen, N.A., Stoermer, E.F. & Kreis Jr., R.G. (2000) New nomenclatural combinations referring to diatom taxa which occur in the Laurentian great lakes of north America. Diatom Research 15: 413–418.

https://doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.2000.9705505

Ashworth, M.P., Ruck, E., Lobban, C.S., Romanowicz, D.K. & Theriot, E.C. (2012) A revision of the genus Cyclophora and description of Astrosyne gen. nov. (Bacillariophyta), two genera with the pyrenoids contained within pseudosepta. Phycologia 51: 684–699.

https://doi.org/10.2216/12-004.1

Ashworth, M.P. (2013) Rock snot in the age of transcriptomes: using a phylogenetic framework to identify genes involved in diatom extracellular polymeric substance-secretion pathways. PhD thesis. The University of Texas at Austin. Available from: http://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/handle/2152/27631 (accessed 11 June 2018)

Bolton, J.J. (1986) Marine phytogeography of the Benguela upwelling region on the west coast of southern Africa: a temperature dependent approach. Botanica Marina 29: 251–256.

https://doi.org/10.1515/botm.1986.29.3.251

Briceño, H. O. (2012) “2012 Annual Report of the Water Quality Monitoring Project for the Water Quality Protection Program of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary”. SERC Research Reports. 113. Available from: http://digitalcommons.fiu.edu/sercrp/113 (accessed 11 June 2018)

Cejudo-Figueiras, C., Morales, E.A., Wetzel, C.E., Blanco, S., Hoffmann, L. & Ector, L. (2011) Analysis of the type of Fragilaria construens var. subsalina (Bacillariophyceae) and description of two morphologically related taxa from Europe and the United States. Phycologia 50: 67–77.

https://doi.org/10.2216/09-40.1

Chen, S.H. & Wu, J.T. (1999) Paleolimnological environment indicated by the diatom and pollen assemblages in an alpine lake in Taiwan. Journal of Paleolimnology 22: 149–158.

https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008067928365

Cieśliński, R. (2011) Geographic determinations of hydrochemical variability in lakes along the southern Baltic coast. University of Gdańsk Publisher, Gdańsk, 211 pp.

Costello, M.J., Coll, M., Danovaro, R., Halpin, P., Ojaveer, H. & Miloslavich, P. (2010) A Census of Marine Biodiversity Knowledge, Resources, and Future Challenges. PLOS ONE 5: e12110.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012110

Cox, E.J. (2015) Coscinodiscophyceae, Mediophyceae, Fragilariophyceae, Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms). In: Frey, W. (Ed.) Syllabus of plant families. Adolf Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien. 13th Ed. Photoautotrophic eukaryotic algae Glaucocystophyta, Cryptophyta, Dinophyta/Dinozoa, Heterokontophyta/Ochrophyta, Chlorarachniophyta/Cercozoa, Euglenophyta/Euglenozoa, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta pp. Borntraeger Science Publishers, Berlin, pp. 64–103.

Cyberska, B. (1992) Thermohaline conditions. An assessment of the effects of pollution in the Polish coastal area of the Baltic 1984–1989. Studia i Materiały Oceanologiczne 61: 73–92.

De-Toni, G.B. (1890) Sulla Navicula aponina Kuetz. e sui due generi Brachysira Kuetz. e Libellus Cleve. Atti del Rale Instituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti 1890: 967–971.

Edlund, M.B., Morales, E.A. & Spaulding, S.A. (2006) The type and taxonomy of Fragilaria elliptica Schumann, a widely misconstrued taxon: In: Witkowski, A. (Ed.) Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Diatom Symposium, Międzyzdroje, Poland, 2nd-7th September 2004. Biopress Limited, Bristol, pp. 53–59.

Ehrenberg, C.G. (1843) Mittheilungen über 2 neue asiatische Lager fossiler Infusorien-Erden aus dem russischen Trans-Kaukasien (Grusien) und Sibirien. Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlich-Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, pp. 43–49.

Finkl, C. & Vollmer, H. (2011) Interpretation of Bottom Types from IKONOS Satellite Images of the Southern Key West National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, USA. Journal of Coastal Research 64: 731–735.

Frontier, S. (1978) Écosystèmes d'estuaires dans les baies de la côte nord-ouest de Madagascar. Bulletin d'écologie 9: 39–50.

Gasse, F., Barker, P., Gell, P.A., Fritz, S.C. & Chalie, F. (1997) Diatom-inferred salinity in palaeolakes: An indirect tracer of climate change. Quaternary Science Reviews 16: 547–563.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-3791(96)00081-9

Giffen, M.H. (1980) A checklist of marine littoral diatoms from Mahé, Seychelles Islands. Bacillaria 3: 129–159.

Greville, R.K. (1833) Division. IV. Diatomaceae. In: Hooker, W.J. (Ed.) British Flora, Vol. 2 (1). Longman, Rees, Orne, Brown, Green & Longman, London, pp. 262–263.

Grunow, A. (1862) Die Österreichischen Diatomaceen nebst Anschluss einiger neuen Arten von andern Lokalitäten und einer kritischen Uebersicht der bisher bekannten Gattungen und Arten. Verhandlungen der kaiserlich-königlichen zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12: 315–472 [Abt 1], 545–588 [Abt. 2], 7 pls.

https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.64361

Guan, B. (1994) Patterns and structures of the currents in Bohai, Huanghai and East China Seas. In: Zhou, D., Liang, Y.B. & Zeng, C.K. (Eds.) Oceanology of China Seas. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Netherland, pp. 17–26.

Guillard, R.R.L. (1975) Culture of phytoplankton for feeding marine invertebrates. In: Smith, W.L. & Chanley, M.H. (Eds.) Culture of marine invertebrate animals. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 29–60.

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-8714-9_3

Hallegraeff, G.M. & Burford, M.A. (1996) Some new or little known nanoplankton diatoms cultured from tropical and subtropical Australian shelf waters. Nova Hedwigia Beiheft 112: 329–342.

Hassan, G.S., Espinosa, M.A. & Isla, F.I. (2009) Diatom-based inference model for paleosalinity reconstructions in estuaries along the northeastern coast of Argentina. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 275: 77–91.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2009.02.020

Heiberg, P.A.C. (1863) Conspectus criticus diatomacearum danicarum. Kritisk oversigt over de danske Diatomeer. Wilhelm Priors Forlag, Kjøbenhavn, pp. 1–135.

https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.68738

Hustedt, F. (1930) Bacillariophyta (Diatomeae) Zweite Auflage. In: Pascher, A. (Ed.) Die Süsswasser-Flora Mitteleuropas. Heft 10. Jena: Verlag von Gustav Fischer, pp. [i]–vii, [1]–466.

Jakusik, E., Krzymiński, W., Łysiak-Pastuszak, E. & Zalewska, T. (2013) Southern Baltic Sea Environmental Conditions in 2012. In: Instytut Meteorologiii Gospodarki Wodnej (Eds.) Bałtyk południowy. Publikacje Nauki Polskiej, Białystok.

Kooistra, W.H.C.F., Forlani, G., Sterrenburg, F.A.S. & De Stefano, M. (2004) Molecular phylogeny and morphology of the marine diatom Talaroneis posidoniae gen. et sp. nov. (Bacillariophyta) advocate the return of the Plagiogrammaceae to the pennate diatoms. Phycologia 43: 58–67.

https://doi.org/10.2216/i0031-8884-43-1-58.1

Kršinić, F., Čalić M. & Carić Glunčić, M. (2016) The population structure of planktonic protists and small metazoans in the Bay of Mali Ston (Adriatic Sea); implications for determination of trophic state and shellfish culturing potential. Acta Adriatica 57: 17–38.

Largier, J.L., Chapman, P., Peterson, W.T. & Swart, V.P. (1992) The western Agulhas Bank: circulation, stratification and ecology. South African journal of Marine Science 12: 319–339.

https://doi.org/10.2989/02577619209504709

Le Cohu, R. (1988) Fragilaria alpestris, Opephora naveana nov. sp. et le complexe Synedra ulna (Bacillariophycées, Araphidinées): morphologie et ultrastructure. Cryptogamie Algologie 9: 101–116.

Lee, J.J., Reimer, C.W. & McEnery, M.E. (1980) The identification of diatoms isolated as endosymbionts from larger foraminifera from the gulf of Eilat (Red Sea) and the description of 2 new species, Fragilaria shiloi sp. nov. and Navicula reissii sp. nov. Botanica Marina 23: 41–48.

https://doi.org/10.1515/botm.1980.23.1.41

Li, C.L., Ashworth, M.P., Witkowski, A., Dąbek, P., Medlin, L.K., Kooistra, W.H.C.F., Sato, S., Zgłobicka, I., Kurzydłowski, K.J., Theriot, E.C., Sabir, J.S.M., Khiyami, M.A., Mutwakil, M.H.Z., Sabir, M.J., Alharbi, N.S., Hajarah, N.H., Qin, S. & Jansen, R.K. (2015) New insights into Plagiogrammaceae (Bacillariophyta) based on multigene phylogenies and morphological characteristics with the description of a new genus and three new species. PLOS ONE 10: e0139300.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139300

Li, C.L., Ashworth, M.P., Witkowski, A., Lobban, C.S., Zgłobicka, I., Kurzydłowski, K.J. & Qin, S. (2016) Ultrastructural and molecular characterization of diversity among small araphid diatoms all lacking rimoportulae. I. Five new genera, eight new species. Journal of Phycology 52: 1018–1036.

https://doi.org/10.1111/jpy.12460

Li, Y., Gao, Y.H. & Lu, S.H. (2008) Nanofrustulum, a new record of nanodiatom genus in China. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 46: 750–753.

Lobban, C.S. & Navarro, J.N. (2013) Gato hyalinus gen. et sp. nov., an unusual araphid tube-dwelling diatom from Western Pacific and Caribbean islands. Phytotaxa 127: 22–31.

https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.127.1.6

Lobban, C.S. & Ashworth, M.P. (2014) Hanicella moenia, gen. et sp. nov., a ribbon-forming diatom (Bacillariophyta) with complex girdle bands, compared to Microtabella interrupta and Rhabdonema cf. adriaticum: implications for Striatellales, Rhabdonematales, and Grammatophoraceae, fam. nov. Journal of Phycology 50: 860–884.

https://doi.org/10.1111/jpy.12217

Majewski, A. (1990) Ogólna charakterystyka morfometryczna Zatoki Gdańskiej [Morphometric characteristic of the Gulf of Gdańsk]. In: Majewski, A. (Ed.) Zatoka Gdańska [The Gulf of Gdańsk]. Wydawnictwa Geologiczne, Warszawa, pp. 10–15. [in Polish]

Matsuura, R., Hanai, T., Okamoto, K., Ishii, O. & Suzuki, H. (2012) A diatom Rhaphoneis crinigera Takano isolated from deep seawater from a depth of 687 m in Suruga Bay. Deep Ocean Water Research 13: 1–6.

Medlin, L., Elwood, H.J., Stickel, S. & Sogin, M.L. (1988) The characterization of enzymatically amplified eukaryotic 16S-like rRNA-coding regions. Gene 71: 491–499.

https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1119(88)90066-2

Medlin, L.K., Williams, D.M. & Sims, P.A. (1993) The evolution of the diatoms (Bacillariophyta). I. Origin of the group and assessment of the monophyly of its major divisions. European Journal of Phycology 28: 261–275.

https://doi.org/10.1080/09670269300650381

Medlin, L. K.& Kaczmarska, I. (2004) Evolution of the diatoms: V. Morphological and cytological support for the major clades and a taxonomic revision. Phycologia: 245–270.

https://doi.org/10.2216/i0031-8884-43-3-245.1

Medlin, K., Jung, I., Bahulikar, R., Mendgen, K. & Kroth, P. (2008) Evolution of the diatoms. VI. Assessment of the new genera in the araphids using molecular data. Nova Hedwigia Beiheft 133: 81–100.

Medlin, L., Yang, I. & Sato, S. (2012) Evolution of the diatoms. VII. Four gene phylogeny assessed the validity of selected araphid genera. Nova Hedwigia Beiheft 141: 505–514.

Medlin, L.K. (2016) Opinion: Can coalescent models explain deep divergences in the diatoms and argue for the acceptance of paraphyletic taxa at all taxonomic hierarchies? Nova Hedwigia 102: 107–128.

https://doi.org/10.1127/nova_hedwigia/2015/0295

Medlin, K. & Desdevises, Y. (2016) Phylogeny of ‘araphid’ diatoms inferred from SSU and LSU rDNA, rbcL and psbA sequences. Vie et Milieu 66: 129–154.

Møller, M. (1950) The diatoms of Praesto Fiord. (Investigations of the geography and natural history of the Praesto Fiord, Zealand). Folia Geographica Danica 3: 187–237.

Montgomery, R.T. (1978) Environmental and ecological studies of the diatom communities associated with the coral reefs of the Florida Keys. PhD thesis, the Florida State University.

Morales, E.A. (2001) Morphological studies in selected fragilarioid diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) from Connecticut waters (U.S.A.). Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 151: 105–120.

https://doi.org/10.1635/0097-3157(2001)151[0105:MSISFD]2.0.CO;2

Morales, E.A. (2002) Studies in selected fragilarioid diatoms of potential indicator value from Florida (USA) with notes on the genus Opephora Petit (Bacillariophyceae). Limnologica-Ecology and Management of Inland Waters 32: 102–113.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0075-9511(02)80002-0

Morales, E.A. & Edlund, M.B. (2003) Studies in selected fragilarioid diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) from Lake Hovsgol, Mongolia. Phycological Research 51: 225–239.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1835.2003.tb00190.x

Morales, E.A., Edlund, M.B. & Spaulding, S.A. (2010) Description and ultrastructure of araphid diatom species (Bacillariophyceae) morphologically similar to Pseudostaurosira elliptica (Schumann) Edlund, et al. Phycological Research 58: 97–107.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1835.2010.00567.x

Morales, E.A., Novais, M.H., Chavez, G. & Hoffmann, L. (2012) Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) from the Bolivian Altiplano: three new araphid species from the Desaguadero River draining Lake Titicaca. Fottea 12: 41–58.

https://doi.org/10.5507/fot.2012.004

Morales, E.A., Wetzel, C.E., Van de Vijver, B. & Ector, L. (2015) Morphological studies on type material of widely cited araphid diatoms (Bacillariophyta). Phycologia 54: 455–470.

https://doi.org/10.2216/15-21.1

Nawrocki, E. P. (2009) Structural RNA homology search and alignment using covariance models. PhD thesis, Washington University in Saint Louis, School of Medicine.

Nowacki, J. (1993) Termika, zasolenie i gęstość wody [Thermal state, salinity and water density]. In: Korzeniewski, K. (Ed.) Zatoka Pucka [The Puck Bay]. Fundacja Rozwoju Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego, pp. 79–112 [in Polish].

Petit, P. (1888). Diatomées recoltées dans le voisinage du Cap Horn. In: Hariot, P., Petit, P., Müller d'Argovie, J., Bescherelle, E., Massalongo, C. & Franchet, A. (Eds.) Mission scientifique du Cap Horn 1882–1883, Vol. 5, Botanique. Paris: Gauthier-Villas, pp. 111–114.

Piton, B. & Magner, I. (1971) Les régimes hydrologiques de la baie d’Ambaro (nord-ouest de Madagascar). Contribution à l’étude d’une baie eutrophique tropicale. Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M., sér. Océanogr., vol. IX, no 2, pp. 149–166.

Qiao, F.L. (2012) Regional Oceanography of China Seas - Physical Oceanography (in Chinese). Ocean Press, Beijing, pp. 56–200.

Ribeiro, L. (2010) Intertidal benthic diatoms of the Tagus estuary: taxonomic composition and spatial-temporal variation. PhD thesis, University of Lisboa.

Ronquist, F., Teslenko, M., van der Mark, P., Ayres, D., Darling, A., Hohna, S., Larget, B., Liu, L., Suchard, M.A. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. (2011) MrBayes 3.2: efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Systematic Biology 61: 539–542.

https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/sys029

Ross, R., Cox, E.J., Karayeva, N.I., Mann, D.G., Simonsen, P.R. & Sims, P.A. (1979) An amended terminology for the siliceous components of the diatom cell. Nova Hedwigia Beiheft 64: 513– 533.

Round, F.E., Crawford, R.M. & Mann, D.G. (1990) The diatoms: biology and morphology of the genera. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 747 pp.

Round, F.E., Hallsteinsen, H. & Paasche, E. (1999) On a previously controversial “fragilarioid” diatom now placed in a new genus Nanofrustulum. Diatom Research 14: 343–356.

https://doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.1999.9705476

Round, F.E. & Maidana, N.I. (2001) Two problematic freshwater araphid taxa re-classified in new genera. Diatom 17: 21–28.

Ruck, E.C. & Theriot, E.C. (2011) Origin and evolution of the canal raphe system in diatoms. Protist 162: 723–737.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.protis.2011.02.003

Ryves, D.B., Clarke, A.L., Appleby, P.G., Amsinck, S.L., Jeppesen, E., Landkildehus, F. & Anderson, N.J. (2004) Reconstructing the salinity and environment of the Limfjord and Vejlerne Nature Reserve, Denmark, using a diatom model for brackish lakes and fjords. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61: 1988–2006.

https://doi.org/10.1139/f04-127

Sabbe, K. & Vyverman, W. (1995) Taxonomy, morphology and ecology of some widespread representatives of the diatom genus Opephora. European Journal of Phycology 30: 235–249.

https://doi.org/10.1080/09670269500651011

Salomoni, S.E., Rocha, O., Callegano, V.L. & Lobo, E.A. (2006) Epilithic Diatoms as Indicators of Water Quality in the Gravataí River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Hydrobiologia 559: 233–246.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-005-9012-3

Sar, E.A. & Sunesen, I. (2003) Nanofrustulum shiloi (Bacillariophyceae) from the Gulf of San Matías (Argentina): Morphology, distribution and comments about nomenclature. Nova Hedwigia 77: 399–406.

https://doi.org/10.1127/0029-5035/2003/0077-0399

Sato, S., Watanabe, T., Crawford, R.M., Kooistra, W.H.C.F. & Medlin, L.K. (2008a) Morphology of four plagiogrammacean diatoms; Dimeregramma minor var. nana, Neofragilaria nicobarica, Plagiogramma atomus and Psammogramma vigoensis gen. et sp. nov., and their phylogenetic relationship inferred from partial large subunit rDNA. Phycological Research 56: 255–268.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1835.2008.00507.x

Sato, S., Kooistra, W.H.C.F, Watanabe, T., Matsumoto, S. & Medlin, L.K. (2008b) A new araphid diatom genus Psammoneis gen. nov. (Plagiogrammaceae, Bacillariophyta) with three new species based on SSU and LSU rDNA sequence data and morphology. Phycologia 47: 510–528.

https://doi.org/10.2216/08-04.1

Sato, S., Mann, D.G., Matsumoto, S. & Medlin, L.K. (2008c) Pseudostriatella (Bacillariophyta): a description of a new araphid diatom genus based on observations of frustule and auxospore structure and 18S rDNA phylogeny. Phycologia 47: 371–391.

https://doi.org/10.2216/PH08-02.1

Sato, S., Matsumoto, S. & Medlin, L.K. (2009) Fine structure and 18S rDNA phylogeny of a marine araphid pennate diatom Plagiostriata goreensis gen. et sp. nov. (Bacillariophyta). Phycological Research 57: 25–35.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1835.2008.00518.x

Schumann, J. (1867) Preussische Diatomeen. Schriften der koniglichen physikalisch-okonomischen Gesellschaft zu Königsberg 8: 37–68.

Shimodaira, H. & Hasegawa, M. (1999) Multiple comparisons of log-likelihoods with applications to phylogenetic inference. Molecular Biology and Evolution 16: 1114–1116.

https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026201

Silva, P.C. (1962) “Classification of algae”. In: Lewin, R.A. (Ed.) Physiology and Biochemistry of Algae. Academic Press, New York, London, pp. 827–837.

Simonsen, R. (1962) Untersuchungen zur Systematik und Ökologie der Bodendiatomeen der westlichen Ostsee. Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie. Systematische Beihefte 1: 1–144.

Smit, A.J., Roberts, M., Anderson, R.J., Dufois, F., Bornman, T., Olbers, J. & Bolton, J.J. (2013) A coastal seawater temperature dataset for biogeographical studies: large biases between in situ and remotely sensed data sets around the coast of South Africa. PLOS ONE 8: e81944.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081944

Smith, W. (1856) A synopsis of the British Diatomaceae; with remarks on their structure, functions and distribution; and instructions for collecting and preserving specimens. Vol. 2. John van Voorst, London, pp. [i–vi]–xxix, 1–107, pls. 32–60, 61–62, A–E.

Spalding, M.D., Fox, H.E., Allen, G.R., Davidson, N., Ferdaña, Z.A., Finlayson, M., Halpern, B.S., Jorge, M.A., Lombana, A., Lourie, S.A., Martin, K.D., Mcmanus, E., Molnar, J., Recchia, C.A. & Robertson, J. (2007) Marine ecoregions of the world: a bioregionalization of coastal and shelf areas. BioScience 57: 573–583.

https://doi.org/10.1641/B570707

Stamatakis, A. (2014) RAxML Version 8: A tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies. Bioinformatics 30: 1312–1313.

https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btu033

Sundbäck, K. (1987) The epipsammic marine diatom Opephora olsenii Møller. Diatom Research 2: 241–249.

https://doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.1987.9705002

Talgatti, D., Wetzel, C., Morales, E.A., Ector, L. & Carvalho-Torgan, L. (2014) Transfer of Fragilaria atomus Hust. to the genus Stauroforma (Bacillariophyta) based on observation of type and newly collected material. Phytotaxa 158: 43–56.

https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.158.1.3

Takano, H. (1983) New and rare diatoms from Japanese marine waters-IX. A new Rhaphoneis emitting mucilaginous threads. Bulletin of the Tokai Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory 109: 27–37.

Takano, H. (1986) A new diatom in the genus Fragilaria from shallow waters in Mikawa Bay, Japan. Bulletin of the Tokai Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory 120: 27–37.

Takano, H. (1988) Two new diatoms found in marine waters of Japan. Bulletin of the Tokai Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory 125: 33–37.

Teske, P.R., Von der Heyden, S., Mcquaid, C.D. & Barker, N.P. (2011) A review of marine phylogeography in southern Africa. South African Journal of Science 107: 43–53.

https://doi.org/10.4102/sajs.v107i5/6.514

Theriot, E.C., Ashworth, M.P., Ruck, E., Nakov, T. & Jansen, R.K. (2010) A preliminary multigene phylogeny of the diatoms (Bacillariophyta): challenges for future research. Plant Ecology and Evolution 143: 278–296.

https://doi.org/10.5091/plecevo.2010.418

Theriot, E.C., Ashworth, M.P., Nakov, T., Ruck, E. & Jansen, R.K. (2015) Dissecting signal and noise in diatom chloroplast protein encoding genes with phylogenetic information profiling. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 89: 28–36.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2015.03.012

Vanormelingen, P., Hegewald, E., Braband, A., Kitschke, M., Friedl, T., Sabbe, K. & Vyverman, W. (2007) The systematics of a small spineless Desmodesmus species, D. costato-granulatus (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyceae), based on ITS2 rDNA sequence analyses and cell wall morphology. Journal of Phycology 43: 378–396.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2007.00325.x

Vanormelingen, P., Chepurnov, V.A., Mann, D.G., Sabbe, K. & Vyverman, W. (2008) Genetic divergence and reproductive barriers among morphologically heterogeneous sympatric clones of Eunotia bilunaris Sensu Lato (Bacillariophyta). Protist 159: 73–90.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.protis.2007.08.004

Wang, J., Tan, L., Liu, H., Lu, Z., Qiu, S. & Yu, Z. (2011) Biology, Ecology and Chemistry in the coastal sea area of Shandong. Ocean Press, Beijing.

Williams, D.M. (1987) Revision of the genus Fragilaria. Diatom Research 2: 267–288.

https://doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.1987.9705004

Williams, D.M. & Round, F.E. (1988) Fragilariforma, nom. nov., a new generic name for Neofragilaria Williams & Round. Diatom Research 3: 265–267.

https://doi.org/10.1080/0269249X.1988.9705039

Witkowski, A. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (1993) Established and new diatom taxa related to Fragilaria schulzii Brockmann. Limnologica 23: 59–70.

Witkowski, A., Lange-Bertalot, H. & Metzeltin, D. (2000) Diatom flora of Marine Coasts I. Iconographia Diatomologica 7, 925 pp.

Witkowski, A., Broszinski, A., Bennike, O., Janczak-Kostecka, B., Jensen, J.B., Lemke, W., Endler, R. & Kuijpers, A. (2005) Darss Sill as a biological border in the fossil record of the Baltic Sea: evidence from diatoms. Quaternary International 130: 97–109.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2004.04.035

Witkowski, A., Cedro, B., Kierzek, A. & Baranowski, D. (2009) Diatoms as a proxy in reconstructing the Holocene environmental changes in the south-western Baltic Sea: the lower Rega River Valley sedimentary record. Hydrobiologia 631: 155–172.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-009-9808-7

Witkowski, A., Li, C.L., Zgłobicka, I., Yu, S.X., Ashworth, M., Dᶏbek, P., Qin, S., Tang, C., Krzywda, M., Ruppel, M., Theriot, E.C., Jansen, R.K., Car, A., Plocinski, T., Wang, Y.C., Sabir, J.S.M., Daniszewska-Kowalczyk, G., Kierzek, A. & Hajrah, N.H. (2016). Multigene assessment of biodiversity of diatom (Bacillariophyceae) assemblages from the littoral zone of the Bohai and Yellow Seas in Yantai region of Northeast China with some remarks on ubiquitous taxa. In: Harff, J. and Zhang, H. (eds.), Environmental Processes and the Natural and Anthropogenic Forcing in the Bohai Sea, Eastern Asia. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 74: 166–195.

https://doi.org/10.2112/SI74-016.1


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand