Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


First report of Agaricus sect. Brunneopicti from Pakistan with descriptions of two new species



Agaricus is a genus of saprophytic fungi in the Basidiomycota. As part of ongoing studies on the genus Agaricus in Pakistan, we here describe and discuss two new species, A. pakistanicus sp. nov. and A. sparsisquamosus sp. nov. Morphological characters and phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences were used to clarify their taxonomic affinities. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both species belong to A. sect. Brunneopicti. This palaeotropical section, which has been recently reconstructed, is reported in Pakistan for the first time. Interestingly, these two new species exhibit a reddish or brown discoloration. With these two new species, the distribution of this section, which was previously restricted to tropical and subtropical humid regions, now extends to semi-arid and desert climate regions and the total number of species in the section increases to 20, including eight unnamed species.


Species-specific ITS marker, Köppen-Trewartha climate classification, Fungi

Full Text:



Ahmad, S., Iqbal, S.H. & Khalid, A.N. (1997) Fungi of Pakistan. Sultan Ahmad Mycological Society of Pakistan, Lahore, 248 pp.

Belda, M., Holtanová, E., Halenka, T. & Kalvová, J. (2014) Climate classification revisited: from Köppen to Trewartha. Climate Research 59 (1): 1–13.

Callac, P. & Guinberteau, J. (2005) Morphological and molecular characterization of two novel species of Agaricus section Xanthodermatei. Mycologia 97: 416–424.

Challen, M.P., Kerrigan, R.W. & Callac, P. (2003) A phylogenetic reconstruction and emendation of Agaricus section Duploannulatae. Mycologia 95: 61–73.

Chen, J., Zhao, R.L., Parra, L.A., Guelly, A.K., Kesel, A.D., Rapior, S., Hyde, K.D., Chukeatirote, E. & Callac, P. (2015) Agaricus section Brunneopicti: a phylogenetic reconstruction with descriptions of four new taxa. Phytotaxa 192: 145–168.

Edgar, R.C. (2004) MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Research 32 (5): 1792–1797.

Gardes, M. & Bruns, T.D. (1993) ITS primers with enhanced specificity for basidiomycetes – application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Molecular Ecology 2: 113–118.

Geml, J., Geiser, D.M. & Royse, D.J. (2004) Molecular evolution of Agaricus species based on ITS and LSU rDNA sequences. Mycological Progress 3: 157–176.

Genevier, L.G. (1876) Étude sur les champignons consommés à Nantes sous le nom de champignon rose ou de couche (Agaricus campestris L.). Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 23: 28–35.

Hama, O., Maes, E., Guissou, M.L., Ibrahim, D.M., Barage, M., Parra Sánchez, L.A., Raspé, O. & De Kesel, A. (2010) Agaricus subsaharianus, une nouvelle espèce comestible et consommée au Niger, au Burkina Faso et en Tanzanie. Cryptogamie Mycologie 31 (3): 221–234.

Heinemann, P. (1956) Champignons récoltés au Congo Belge par Mme M. Goossens—Fontana, II. Agaricus Fr. s.s. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l’État à Bruxelles 26: 1–127.

Heinemann, P. (1971) Quelques psalliotes du Congo-Brazzaville. Cahiers de La Maboké 9 (1): 5–10.

Heinemann, P. (1980) Les genres Agaricus et Micropsalliota en Malaisie et en Indonésie. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 50: 3–68.

Heinemann, P. (1990) Agarici Austro-Americani VII. Agariceae des zones tempérées de l’Argentine et du Chili. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 60: 331–370.

Hotson, J.W. & Stunz, D.E. (1938) The genus Agaricus in western Washington. Mycologia 30: 204–234.

Karunarathna, S.C., Guinberteau, J., Chen, J., Vellinga, E.C., Zhao, R.L., Chukeatirote, E., Yan, J., Hyde, K.D. & Callac, P. (2014) Two new species in Agaricus tropical clade I. Chiang Mai Journal of Science 41: 771–780.

Kauffman, C.H. (1925) The fungus flora of Mt. Hood, with some new species. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Sciences 5: 115–148.

Kerrigan, R.W., Callac, P., Guinberteau, J., Challen, M.P. & Parra, L.A. (2005) Agaricus section Xanthodermatei: a phylogenetic reconstruction with commentary on taxa. Mycologia 97: 1292–1315.

Largent, D.L. (1986) How to Identify Mushrooms to Genus I: Macroscopic Features. Mad River Press, Eureka, California.

Mahdizadeh, V., Parra, L. A., Safaie, N., Goltapeh, E. M., Chen, J., Guinberteau, J. & Callac, P. (2018) A phylogenetic and morphological overview of sections Bohusia, Sanguinolenti, and allied sections within Agaricus subg. Pseudochitonia with three new species from France, Iran, and Portugal. Fungal Biology 122 (1): 34–51.

Miller, M.A., Holder, M.T., Vos, R., Midford, P.E., Liebowvitz, T., Chan, L., Hoover, P. & Warnow, T. (2009) The CIPRES Portals. Available from: (accessed 3 March 2017)

Møller, F.H. (1950) Danish Psalliota species I. Friesia 4 (1–2): 1–60.

Munsell, A.H. (1975) Munsell soil color charts. Macbeth Division of Kollmorgen Corporation. Baltimore, Maryland.

Nylander, J.A.A. (2004) MrModeltest v2. Program distributed by the author, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.

Parra, L.A. (2008) Agaricus L. Allopsalliota Nauta & Bas, Fungi Europaei 1. Edizioni Candusso, Alassio, 858 pp.

Peck, C.H. (1873) V. Descriptions of new species of fungi. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences 1: 41–72.

Peel, M.C., Finlayson, B.L. & McMahon, T.A. (2007) Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Science 11: 1633–1644.

Pilát, A. (1951) České druhy žampiónů (Agaricus). The Bohemian species of the genus Agaricus. Sborník Národníko Musea v Praze. Rada B: Přirodní Vědy 7B (1): 1–142.

Posada, D. (2008) jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging. Molecular biology and evolution 25 (7): 1253–1256.

Priyamvada, H., Akila, M., Singh, R.K., Ravikrishna, R., Verma, R.S., Philip, L., Marathe, R.R., Sahu L.K., Sudheer K.P. & Gunthe, S.S. (2017) Terrestrial Macrofungal Diversity from the Tropical Dry Evergreen Biome of Southern India and Its Potential Role in Aerobiology. PLoS ONE 12 (1): e0169333.

Rambaut, A. (2014) FigTree 1.4. 2 software. Institute of Evolutionary Biology, Univ. Edinburgh.

Rambaut, A., Suchard, M.A. & Xie, D. (2014) Tracer v. 1.6. Available from: (accessed 9 January 2018)

Ratnasingham, S. & Hebert, P. D. N. (2007) BOLD: The Barcode of Life Data System ( Molecular Ecology Notes 7: 355–364.

Ronquist, F. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. (2003) MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19: 1572–1574.

Stamatakis, A. (2014) RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies. Bioinformatics 30 (9): 1312–1313.

Thongklang, N., Nawaz, R., Khalid, A.N., Chen, J., Hyde, K.D., Zhao, R.L., Parra, L.A., Hanif, M., Moinard, M. & Callac, P. (2014) Morphological and molecular characterization of three Agaricus species from tropical Asia (Pakistan, Thailand) reveals a new group in section Xanthodermatei. Mycologia 106: 1220–1232.

Vellinga, E.C., Sysouphanthong, P. & Hyde, K.D. (2011) The family of Agaricaceae: phylogenies and two new white-spored genera. Mycologia 103 (3): 494–509.

White, T.J., Bruns, T., Lee, S. & Taylor, J.W. (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis, M.A., Gelfand, D.H., Sninsky, J.J., White, T.J. (Eds.) PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, New York, pp 315–322.

Zhao, R.L., Desjardin, D.E., Callac, P., Parra, L.A., Guinberteau, J., Soytong, K., Karunarathna, S., Zhang, Y. & Hyde, K.D. (2013) Two species of Agaricus sect. Xanthodermatei from Thailand. Mycotaxon 122 (1): 187–195.

Zhao, R.L., Karunarathna, S., Raspé, O., Parra, L.A., Guinberteau, J., Moinard, M., Kesel, A.D., Barroso, G., Courtecuisse, R., Hyde, K., Guelly, A.K., Desjardin, D.E. & Callac, P. (2011) Major clades in tropical Agaricus. Fungal Diversity 51: 279–296.

Zhou, J.L., Su, S.Y., Su, H.Y., Wang, B., Callac, P., Guinberteau, J., Hyde, K.D. & Zhao, R.L. (2016) A description of eleven new species of Agaricus sections Xanthodermatei and Hondenses collected from Tibet and the surrounding areas. Phytotaxa 257: 99–121.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand