Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


Two new diatom species (Bacillariophyceae) from Brazilian floodplain: Actinella hermes-moreirae sp. nov. and Gomphonema mutunensis sp. nov.



Floodplains are heterogeneous ecosystems that occupy a large area in the neotropic regions, which show great diatom diversity. During a floristic survey of periphytic and sedimentary samples in a swamp from the Upper Paraná River Floodplain in Brazil, a new species of Actinella Lewis and Gomphonema Ehrenberg (Bacillariophyceae) were found. We detailed their morphology using light and scanning electron microscopy. Actinella hermes-moreirae sp. nov. is distinguished by its small valve lengths, low length to width ratio, moderately arched valves, absence of spines and the slightly arched termination of the raphe. Gomphonema mutunensis sp. nov. differs by the rostrate and sub-rostrate headpole, attenuated-rounded footpole and differently-shaped areolae.


Brazilian, freshwater, fluvial island, taxonomy, Algae

Full Text:



Abarca, N., Jahn, R., Zimmermann, J. & Enke, N. (2014) Does the cosmopolitan diatom Gomphonema parvulum (Kützing) Kützing have a biogeography? PLoS ONE 9: e86885.

Algarte, V.M., Dunck, B., Leandrini, J.A. & Rodrigues, L. (2016) Periphytic diatom ecological guilds in floodplain: ten years after dam. Ecological Indicators 69: 407–414.

Battarbee, R.W., Jones, V.J., Flower, R.J., Cameron, N.G. & Bennion, H. (2001) Diatoms. In: Smol, J.P., Birks, H.J.B. & Last, W.M. (Eds.) Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, pp. 382.

Bichoff, A., Osório, N.C., Dunck, B. & Rodrigues, L. (2016) Periphytic algae in a floodplain lake and river under low water conditions. Biota Neotropica 16 (3).

Bichoff, A., Osorio, N.C., Ruwer, D.T., Montoya, K.L.A., Dunck, B. & Rodrigues, L. (2017) Influence of tributaries on the periphytic diatom community in a floodplain. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia 29: e110.

Biolo, S. & Rodrigues, L. (2013) Structure of the periphytic algae associated with a floating macrophyte in an open lake on the upper Paraná river floodplain, Brazil. Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences 35 (4): 513–519.

Costa, J.C.F. (1995) Diatomáceas (Bacillariophyceae) da Reserva Biológica de Poço das Antas, Município de Silva Jardim, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Iheringia Série Botânica 46: 57‒143.

Dunck, B., Junqueira, M.G., Bichoff, A. da Silva, M.V., Pineda, A., de Paula, A.C.M., Zanco, B.F., Moresco, G.A., Iatskiu, P., Bortolini, J.C., de Souza, Y.R., Train, S., Rodrigues, L.C., Jati, S. & Rodrigues, L. (2018) Periphytic and planktonic algae records from the upper Paraná river floodplain, Brazil: an update. Hoehnea 45 (4): 560–590.

Hendey, N.I. (1964) An introductory account of the smaller algae of British coastal Waters. V. Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms). Fishery Investigations Series, London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office 4 (5): 1–317.

Junk, W.J., Bayley, P.B. & Sparks, R.E. (1989) The flood pulse concept in river- floodplain systems. Canadian Special Publications in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 106: 110–127.

Junk, W.J. & Furch, K. (1993) A general review of tropical South American floodplains. Wetlands Ecology Managment 2: 231–238.

Kociolek, J.P. & Stoermer, E.F. (1993) Freshwater gomphonemoid diatom phylogeny: Preliminary results. Hydrobiologia 269/270: 31–38.

Kociolek, J.P., Lyon, D. & Spaulding, S. (2001) Revision of the South American species of Actinella. In: Jahn, R., Kociolek, J.P., Witkowski, A. & Compère, P. (Eds.) Studies on Diatoms. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G. Koenigstein, pp. 1–326.

Lange-Bertalot, H. & Metzeltin, D. (1996) Indicators of oligotrophy - 800 taxa representative of three ecologically distinct lake types, Carbonate buffered - Oligodystrophic - Weakly buffered soft water. In: Lange-Bertalot, H. (Ed.) Iconographia Diatomologica, vol. 2. Annotated Diatom Micrographs. Koeltz Scientific Books. Königstein, Germany, pp. 1–390.

Levkov, Z., Mitić-Kopanja, D. & Reichardt, E. (2016) Diatoms of the European inland waters and comparable habitats. The diatom genus Gomphonema in the Republic of Macedonia. In: Lange-Bertalot, H. (Ed.) Diatoms of Europe. Koeltz Botanical Books, Oberreifenberg, pp. 1–552.

Mackereth, F.Y.H., Heron, J.G. & Talling, J. (1978) Water analysis: some revised methods for limnologist. Freshwater Biological Association 36: 1–120.

Melo, S., Torgan, L.C. & Raupp, S.V. (2010) Actinella species (Bacillariophyta) from an Amazon black water floodplain lake (Amazonas – Brazil). Acta Amazonica 40 (2): 269–274.

Metzeltin, D. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (1998) Tropical diatoms of South America I. In: Lange-Bertalot, H. (Ed.) Iconographia Diatomologica, vol. 5. Koeltz Scientific Books, pp. 1–695.

Moreira-Filho, H. & Valente-Moreira, I.M. (1981) Avaliação taxonômica e ecológica das diatomáceas (Bacillariophyceae) epífitas em algas pluricelulares obtidas nos litorais dos Estados do Paraná, Santa Catarina e São Paulo. Boletim Museu Botânico Municipal 47: 1–17.

Neiff, J.J. (1990) Ideas para la interpretación ecológica del Paraná. Interciencia 15 (6): 424–441.

Osório, N.C., Tremarin, P.I., Ludwig, T.A.V. & Rodrigues, L. (2017) Gomphonema Ehrenberg (Bacillariophyceae) in a lotic environment of the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences 39: 135.

Patrick, R. & Reimer, C.W. (1966) The diatoms of the United States, exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 688 pp.

Reichardt, E. (1999) Zur Revision der Gattung Gomphonema. In: Lange-Bertalot, H. (Ed.) Iconographia Diatomologica, vol. 8. Koeltz Scientific Books, pp. 1–203.

Round, F.E., Crawford, R.M. & Mann, D.G. (1990) The Diatoms: Biology and Morphology of the Genero. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 747 pp.

Ruwer, D.T. & Rodrigues, L. (2018a) Abundance of Diadesmis confervacea Kützing and Eunotia camelus Ehrenberg indicates the historical water level variation in a marsh. Brazilian Journal of Botany 41 (1): 241–246.

Ruwer, D.T. & Rodrigues, L. (2018b) Subfossil and periphytic diatoms from the upper Paraná river, Brazil: last ~1000 years of a transition period. Hoehnea 45 (3): 431–449.

Ruwer, D.T., Bernardes, M.C. & Rodrigues, L. (2018b) Diatom responses to environmental changes in the Upper Paraná River floodplain (Brazil) during the last ~ 1000 years. Journal of Paleolimnology 60 (4): 543–551.

Sabbe, K., Vanhoutte, K., Lowe, R.L., Bergey, E.A., Biggs, B.J.F. Francoeur, S., Hodgson, D. & Vyverman, W. (2001) Six new Actinella (Bacillariophyta) species from Papua New Guinea, Australia and New Zealand: further evidence for widespread diatom endemism in the Australasian region. European Journal of Phycology 36: 321–340.

Schindler, S., Kropik, M., Euller, K., Bunting, S.W., Schulz-Zunkel, C., Hermann, A., Hainz-Renetzeder, C., Kanka, R., Mauerhofer., V., Gasso, V., Krug, A., Lauwaars, S.G., Zulka, K-P., Henle, K., Hoffmann, M., Biró, M., Essl, F., Jaquier, S., Balázs, L., Borics, G., Hudin, S., Damm, C., Pusch, M., van der Sluis, T., Sebesvari, Z. & Wrbka, T. (2013) Floodplain management in temperate regions: is multifunctionality enhancing biodiversity? Environmental Evidence 2: 10.

Simonsen, R. (1974) The diatom plankton of the Indian Ocean expedition of R/V “Meteor”. Meteor-forscheingsergeb Reihe D-Biologie 19: 1-66.

Tremarin, P.I., Bertolli, L.M., Faria, D.M., Costin, J.C. & Ludwig, T.A.V. (2009) Gomphonema Ehrenberg e Gomphosphenia Lange-Bertalot (Bacillariophyceae) do Rio Maurício, Paraná, Brasil. Biota Neotropica 9 (4): 111–130.

Tremarin, P.I., Kim, K.I.M.B., Marra, R.C. & Ludwig, T.A.V. (2016) Additional data on morphology of Actinella leontopithecus-rosalia Costa (Bacillariophyta, Eunotiaceae). Phytotaxa 247 (4): 259–266.

Ward, J.V., Tockner, K., & Schiemer, F. (1999) Biodiversity of Floodplain River Ecosystems: Ecotones and Connectivity. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management 15: 125–139.<125::AID-RRR523>3.0.CO;2-E

Ward, J.V., Tockner, K., Arscott, D.B. & Clatret, C. (2002) Riverine landscape diversity. Freshwater Biology 47: 517–539.

Wetzel, R.G. & Likens, G.E. (1981) Limnological analyses. Sringer-Verlag, New York, 429 pp.

Wetzel, R.G. (1983) Recommendations for future research on periphyton. In: Wetzel, R.L. (Ed.) Periphyton of freshwater ecosystems developments in hidrobiology. Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, pp. 339–346.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand