Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


Lepiota subvenenata (Agaricaceae, Basidiomycota), a new poisonous species from southwestern China



Lepiota subvenenata, a new species in Lepiota sect. Ovisporae, found on leaf litter, is described based on morphological and molecular evidence. It is characterized macroscopically by a cream to whitish pileus covered with brownish red to violet-brown squamules, subcylindrical stipe with scattered brownish red to violet-brown squamules towards the base and microscopically by elongate, narrow ellipsoid to cylindrical basidiospores. Amatoxins were detected in this species.


Lepiotaceous fungi, litter-inhabiting fungi, taxonomy, phylogeny

Full Text:



Akers, B.P. & Sundberg, W.J. (1998) Lepiotaceae of Florida, I. Lepiota s. str., section Ovisporae. Mycotaxon 69: 429–436.

Bau, T., Bao, H.Y. & Li, Y. (2014) A revised checklist of poisonous mushrooms in China. Mycosystema 33: 517–548.

Bon, M. (1981) Clé monographique des ‘Lépiotes’ d’Europe. Documents Mycologiques 11: 1–77.

Bon, M. & Boiffard, J. (1974) Lepiotes de Vendee et de cote atlantique franciase. Bulletin Trimestriel De La Société Mycologique De France 90 (4): 287–306.

Cai, Q., Chen, Z.H., He, Z.M., Luo, H. & Yang, Z.L. (2018) Lepiota venenata, a new species related to toxic mushroom in China. Journal of Fungal Research 16 (2): 63–69.

Candusso, M. & Lanzoni, G. (1990) Fungi Euroaei 4. Lepiota s.l. Alassio, Giovanna Biella, pp. 1–743.

Chenna, R., Sugawara, H., Koike, T., Lopez, R., Gibson, T.J., Higgins, D.G. & Thompson, J.D. (2003) Multiple sequence alignment with the Clustal series of programs. Nucleic Acids Research 31: 3497–3500.

Dennis, R.W. (1952) Lepiota and allied genera in Trinidad, British West Indies. Kew Bulletin 7: 459–499.

Gray, S.F. (1821) A natural arrangement of British plants. Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, London, pp. 1–824.

Haines, J.H., Lichstein, E. & Glickerman, D. (1986) A fatal poisoning from an amatoxin containing Lepiota. Mycopathologia 93: 15–17.

Hall, T.A. (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series No. 41: 95–98.

Kornerup, A. & Wanscher, J.H. (1981) Taschenlexikon der farben. 3. Aufl. Muster-Schmidt Verlag, Göttingen, pp. 1–242.

Kumar, A.T.K. & Manimohan, P. (2009) The genus Lepiota (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) in Kerala State, India. Mycotaxon 107: 105–138.

Kühner, R. (1936) Recherches sur le genre Lepiota. Bulletin Trimestriel de la Société Mycologique de France 52: 175–238.

Li, H.J., Xie, J.W., Zhang, S., Zhou, Y.J., Ma, P.B., Zhou, J. & Sun, C.Y. (2015) Amanita subpallidorosea, a new lethal fungus from China. Mycological Progress 12: 43.

Liang, J.F. (2016) Taxonomy and phylogeny in Lepiota sect. Stenosporae from China. Mycologia 108 (1): 56–69.

Liang, J.F. & Yang, Z.L. (2011) A new species of Lepiota (Agaricaceae) from southwestern China. Mycotaxon 117: 359–363.

Liang, J.F., Xu, J. & Yang, Z.L. (2009) Divergence, dispersal and recombination in Lepiota cristata from China. Fungal Diversity 38: 105–124.

Liang, J.F., Yang, Z.L. & Xu, D.P. (2011) A New Species in Lepiota from China. Mycologia 103: 820–830.

Liang, J.F., Yu, F., Lu, J.K., Wang, S.K. & Song, J. (2018) Morphological and molecular evidence for two new species in Lepiota from China. Mycologia 110 (3): 494–501.

Nylander, J.A.A. (2004) MrModeltest 2.2. Program distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala.

Paydas, S., Kocak, R., Erturk, F., Erken, E., Zaksu, H.S. & Gurcay, A. (1990) Poisoning due to amatoxin-containing Lepiota species. The British Journal of Clinical Practice 44: 450–453.

Pegler, D.N. (1983) Agaric Flora of the Lesser Antilles. Kew Bulletin Additional Sereries, 9: 1–668.

Pegler, D.N. (1986) Agaric Flora of Sri Lanka. Kew Bulletin Additional Sereries, 12: 282–321.

Qasim, T., Khalida, A.N. & Vellinga, E.C. (2016) A new species of Lepiota, Lepiota lahorensis, from Lahore, Pakistan. Turkish Journal of Botany 40: 419–426.

Ramirez, P., Parrilla, P., Bueno, F.S., Robles, R., Pons, J.A., Bixquert, V., Nicolas, S., Nuñez, R., Alegria, M.S., Miras, M. & Rodriguez, J.M. (1993) Fulminant hepatic failure after Lepiota mushroom poisoning. Journal of Hepatology 19 (1): 51–54.

Ronquist, F. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. (2003) MRBAYES 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19: 1572–1574.

Smith, H.V. (1965) Contributions toward a monograph on the genus Lepiota, I. Type studies in the genus Lepiota. Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium 28: 97–117.

Sgambelluri, R.M., Epis, S., Sassera, D., Luo, H., Evan, R., Angelos, E.R. & Walton, J.D. (2014) Profiling of amatoxins and phallotoxins in the genus Lepiota by liquid chromatography combined with UV absorbance and mass spectrometry. Toxins 6: 2336–2347.

Stamatakis, A. (2006) RAxML-VI-HPC: Maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics 22 (21): 2688–2690.

Swofford, D.L. (2002) PAUP*: Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods). Version 4.0b10. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts.

Sysouphanhong, P., Hyde, K.D., Chukeatirote, E., Bahkali, A.H. & Vellinga, E.C. (2012) Lepiota (Agaricales) in Northern Thailand–2 Lepiota section Lepiota. Cryptogamie Mycologie 31 (1): 25–43.

Vellinga, E.C. (2001) Lepiota. In: Noordeloos, M.E., Kuyper, T.W. & Vellinga, E.C. (Eds.) Flora Agaricina Neerlandica 5. Rotterdam, pp. 109–151.

Vellinga, E.C. (2003) Phylogeny of Lepiota (Agaricaceae)–Evidence from nrITS and nrLSU sequences. Mycological Progress 2: 305–322.

White, T.J., Bruns, T.D., Lee, S. & Taylor, J. (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis, M.A., Gelfand, D.H., Sninsky, J.J. & White, T.J. (Eds.) PCR protocols, a guide to methods and applications. Academic, San Diego, pp. 315–322.

Yilmaz, I., Bakirci, S., Akata, I., Bayram, R. & Kaya, E. (2015) Toxin content and toxicological significance in different tissues and development stages of Lepiota brunneoincarnata mushroom. Toxin Reviews 34 (3): 109–114.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand