Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.401.4.1

Extreme diversity in fine-grained morphology reveals fourteen new species of conopeate Nitzschia (Bacillariophyta: Bacillariales)

CHRISTOPHER S. LOBBAN, MATT P. ASHWORTH, JERILYN J.M. CALAOR, EDWARD C. THERIOT

Abstract


A study was made of the ultrastructural variation in a group of conopeate Nitzschia species, primarily marine species from Guam but also including one freshwater species from Costa Rica. Fourteen new species are described: Nitzschia alcyoneae, Nitzschia asteropeae, Nitzschia carahii, Nitzschia celaenoae, Nitzschia dagmannii, Nitzschia electrae, Nitzschia guamensis, Nitzschia jordanii, Nitzschia lascrucensis, Nitzschia maiae, Nitzschia meropeae, Nitzschia schefterae, Nitzschia spathulatoides, and Nitzschia taygeteae. The valves in all these taxa had a central raphe-sternum on a raised keel; from the keel arise silica flaps, the conopea, and the valve face was depressed below the conopea to form conopeal canals. The valve surface was thus differentiated into three regions, in which the areola pattern sometimes differed: the exposed valve face, the valve depression, and the peri-raphe zone, i.e., the exposed part of the keel wall between the conopeum and the raphe-sternum. We refer to this suite of characters as the tholophora (canopy-bearing) morphology. In one species, N. maiae sp. nov., the conopea occurred only at the apex and there was no valve depression. Thirty-eight morphological characters were used in addition to the usual morphometric data (length, width, densities of striae and fibulae); these included, inter alia, a remarkable range of areola shapes on the three valve regions and the copulae—oval/circular pores, transapical slits, longitudinal slits, small pores fields, continuous pores fields, and larger quadrate pores closed by hymenes or cribra; the extent of the conopea along the valve; the presence of longitudinal ribs on the valve, conopea, or copulae; and the extent of internal development of silica below the striae. Phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences from six species was entirely congruent with analysis of morphological characters.


Keywords


coral reefs, phylogeny, species flocks, Algae

References


Agardh, C.A. (1827) Aufzählung einiger in den östreichischen Ländern gefundenen neuen Gattungen und Arten von Algen, nebst ihrer Diagnostik und beigefügten Bemerkungen. Flora oder Botanische Zeitung, Regensburg 10 (no. 40 of the second volume): 625–640. Available from: http://img.algaebase.org/pdf/AC100CF3119af25C1BjoLMsF808A/10399.pdf (accessed 16 April 2019)

Al-Handal, A.Y., Compère, P. & Riaux-Gobin, C. (2016) Marine benthic diatoms in the coral reefs of Reunion and Rodrigues Islands, West Indian Ocean. Micronesica 2016-03: 1–78.

Álvarez-Blanco, I. & Blanco, S. (2014) Benthic diatoms from Mediterranean coasts. Bibliotheca Diatomologica 60: 1–409.

Al-Yamani, F.Y. & Suburova, M.A. (2012) Illustrated Guide on the Benthic Diatoms of Kuwait’s Marine Environment. Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat, Kuwait, 352 pp.

Anonymous (1975) Proposals for a standardization of diatom terminology and diagnoses. In: Simonsen, R. (Ed.) Third Symposium on Recent and Fossil Marine Diatoms. J. Cramer, Vaduz, Germany, pp. 323–354.

Cannone, J.J., Subramanian, S., Schnare, M.N., Collett, J.R., D’Souza, L.M., Du, Y., Feng, B., Lin, N., Madabusi, L.V., Müller, K.M., Pande, N., Shang, Z., Yu, N. & Gutell, R.R. (2002) The Comparative RNA Web (CRW) Site: an online database of comparative sequence and structure information for ribosomal, intron, and other RNAs. BMC Bioinformatics 3: 2.

https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-3-2

Clements, K. (2017) Look back in hope: an ecumenical life. Resource Publications, Eugene, Oregon, USA.

Cleve, P.T. & Grunow, A. (1880) Beiträge zur Kenntniss der arctischen Diatomeen. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 17 (2): 1–121, 7 pls.

Cox, E.J. (2012) Ontogeny, homology, and terminology—wall morphogenesis as an aid to character recognition and character state definition for pennate diatom systematics. Journal of Phycology 48: 1–31.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2011.01081.x

Cracraft, J. (1981) Pattern and process in paleobiology: the role of cladistic analysis in systematic paleontology. Paleobiology 7: 456–468.

https://doi.org/10.1017/S0094837300025513

Edgar, S.M. & Theriot, E.C. (2003) Heritability of mantle areolar characters in Aulacoseira subarctica (Bacillariophyta). Journal of Phycology 39: 1057–1066.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3646.2003.02-141.x

Edgar, S.M. & Theriot, E.C. (2004) Phylogeny of Aulacoseira (Bacillariophyta) based on morphology and molecules. Journal of Phycology 40: 772–788.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2004.03126.x

Fernandes, L.F., Eskinazi-Leça, E., Moura, A.N. & Gomes de Oliveira, G. (2002) The occurrence of Nitzschia martiana (C.A. Agardh) Van Heurck (Nitzschiaceae—Bacillariophyta) in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Hoehnea 29: 119–131.

Foged, N. (1975) Some littoral diatoms from the coast of Tanzania. Bibliotheca Phycologia 16: 1–128.

Hassall, A.H. (1845) A History of the British Freshwater Algae. Taylor, Walton and Maberly, London, 462 pp.

Hauser, D.L. (1992) Similarity, falsification and character state order—A reply to Wilkinson. Cladistics 8: 339–344.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.1992.tb00075.x

Hein, M.K., Winsborough, B.M. & Sullivan, M.J. (2008) Bacillariophyta (diatoms) of the Bahamas. Iconographia Diatomologica 19. Gantner Verlag, Ruggell, Germany, 303 pp.

Hlúbiková, D., Monnier, O., Van de Vijver, B., Hoffmann, L. & Ector, L. (2012) Une nouvelle espèce de Nitzschia dans les eaux douces européennes: comparaison avec le matériel type de quelques espèces de la section Dissipatae. [Abstract] 31ème Colloque de l’ADLaF, 11–13 septembre 2012, Le Mans, p. 50.

Hofmann, G., Werum, M. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (2011) Diatomeen in Süßwasser-Benthos Mitteleuropas. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag, Rugell, Germany, 908 pp.

Hustedt, F. (1930) Bacillariophyta (Diatomeae). In: Pascher, A. (Ed.) Die Süßwasser-Flora Mitteleuropas 10. Zweite Auflage. G. Fischer, Jena, 466 pp.

Hustedt, F. (1958) Diatomeen aus der Antarktis und dem Südatlantik. Deutsche Antarktische Expedition 1938/1939. Geographisch-kartographische Anstalt Mundus 2: 103–191.

Kociolek, P., Hamsher, S.E., Kulikovskyi, M. & Bramburger, A. (2017) Are there species flocks in freshwater diatoms? A review of past reports and a look to the future. Hydrobiologia 792: 17–35.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-016-3075-1

Kützing, F.T. (1844) Die Kieselschaligen Bacillarien oder Diatomeen. Nordhausen: zu finden bei W. Köhne, pp. 1–152, pls. 1–30.

Lanfear, R., Calcott, B., Kainer, D., Mayer, C. & Stamatakis, A. (2014) Selecting optimal partitioning schemes for phylogenomic datasets. BMC Evolutionary Biology 14: 82.

https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-14-82

Li, C.L., Ashworth, M.P., Witkowski, A., Dąbek, P., Medlin, L.K., Kooistra, W.H.C.F., Sato, S., Zgłobicka, I., Kurzydłowski, K.J., Theriot, E.C., Sabir, J.S.M., Khiyami, M.A., Mutwakil, M.H.Z., Sabir, M.J., Alharbi, N.S., Hajarah, N.H., Qing, S. & Jansen, R.K. (2015) New insights into Plagiogrammaceae (Bacillariophyta) based on multigene phylogenies and morphological characteristics with the description of a new genus and three new species. PLoS ONE 10: e013930.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139300

Lipscomb, D.L. (1992) Parsimony, homology and the analysis of multistate characters. Cladistics 8: 45–65.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.1992.tb00050.x

Liu, B., Blanco, S. & Huang, B. (2015) Two new Nitzschia species (Bacillariophyceae) from China, possessing a canal-raphe-conopeum system. Phytotaxa 231: 260–270.

https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.231.3.4

Lobban, C.S. (2015) A second species of Microtabella (Grammatophoraceae, Bacillariophyta) from Guam. Marine Biodiversity Records 8, e151: 1–5.

https://doi.org/10.1017/S1755267215001293

Lobban, C.S. & Mann, D.G. (1987) The systematics of the tube-dwelling diatom Nitzschia martiana and Nitzschia section Spathulatae. Canadian Journal of Botany 65: 2396–2402.

https://doi.org/10.1139/b87-326

Lobban, C.S., Schefter, M., Jordan, R.W., Arai, Y., Sasaki, A., Theriot, E.C., Ashworth, M., Ruck, E.C. & Pennesi, C. (2012) Coral-reef diatoms (Bacillariophyta) from Guam: new records and preliminary checklist, with emphasis on epiphytic species from farmer-fish territories. Micronesica 43, 237–479.

Mann, D.G. (1978) Studies in the Nitzschiaceae (Bacillariophyta). Vols. 1 & 2. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Bristol, xxxiii + 386 pp. + 146 pls. Available from: http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/algae/publications_mann_thesis.html (accessed 9 December 2015)

Michels-Estrada, A. (2003) Ökologie und Verbreitung von Kieselalgen in Fließgewässern Costa Ricas als Grundlage für eine biologische Gewässergütebeurteilung in den Tropen. Dissertationes Botanicae 377: 1–244. [Cramer Verlag, Stuttgart]

Mischler, B.D. & Theriot, E.C. (2000) A defense of the phylogenetic species concept sensu Mischler and Theriot: monophyly, apomorphy, and phylogenetic species concepts. In: Wheeler, Q.D. & Meier, R. (Eds.) Species Concepts and Phylogenetic Theory: a debate. Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 179–184.

Navarro Ramas, N. (2009) Glosario Diatomológico Ilustrado. Ponce, Puerto Rico, published by the author.

Nawrocki, E.P., Kolbe, D.L., Eddy, S.R (2009) Infernal 1.0: inference of RNA alignments. Bioinformatics 25: 1335–1337.

https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btp157

Nixon, K. (2002) Winclada ver. 1.00.08. published by the author. Ithaca, NY. Available from: http://www.diversityoflife.org/winclada/ (accessed 16 April 2019)

Oguchi, K. (2011) Planktonic Diatom Assemblages in Palauan Lagoons. Dissertation, Yamagata University, Japan.

Okuno, H. (1974) Freshwater diatoms. In: Helmcke, J.G., Krieger, W. & Gerloff, J. (Eds.) Diatomeenschalen im elektronenmikroskopischen Bild. Volume IX. J. Cramer, Stuttgart, Germany, pls. 825–923.

O’Leary, M.A. & Kaufman, S. (2011) MorphoBank: phylophenomics in the ‘cloud’. Cladistics 27: 1–9.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00355.x

O’Leary, M.A. & Kaufman, S.G. (2012) MorphoBank 3.0: Web application for morphological phylogenetics and taxonomy. Available from: http://www.morphobank.org/ (accessed 16 April 2019)

Patterson, C. (1988) Homology in classical and molecular biology. Molecular Biology and Evolution 5: 603–625.

https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a040523

Peragallo, H. & Peragallo, M. (1897–1908) Diatomées Marines de France et des Districts Maritimes Voisins. M.J. Tempère, Grez-sur-Loing, France, 491 pp. + 137 pls.

Rabenhorst, L. (1848–1860) Die Algen Sachsens. Resp. Mittel-Europa’s Gesammelt und herausgegeben von Dr. L. Rabenhorst, Dec. 1–100. No. 1–1000. [Exsiccata, issued at various dates]. Dresden.

Riaux-Gobin, C., Romero, O.E., Compère, P. & Al-Handel, A.Y. (2011) Small-sized Achnanthales (Bacillariophyta) from coral sands off Mascarenes (Western Indian Ocean). Bibliotheca Diatomologica 57: 1–234.

Riaux-Gobin, C., Coste, M., Jordan, R.W., Romero, O.E. & Cohu, R.L. (2014) Xenococconeis opunohusiensis gen. et sp. nov. and Xenococconeis neocaledonica comb. nov. (Bacillariophyta) from the tropical South Pacific. Phycological Research 62: 153–169.

https://doi.org/10.1111/pre.12046

Ross, R., Cox, E.J., Karayeva, N.I., Mann, D.G., Paddock, N.B., Simonsen, R. & Sims, P.A. (1979) An amended terminology for the siliceous components of the diatom cell. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 64: 513–533.

Sanderson, M.J. & Donoghue, M.J. (1989) Patterns of variation in levels of homoplasy. Evolution 43: 1781–1795.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.1989.tb02626.x

Schütt, F. (1896) Bacillariales (Diatomeae). In: Engler, A. & Prantl, K. (Eds.) Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien I (1b). Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, pp. 31–150.

Simonsen, R. (1987) Atlas and catalogue of the diatom types of Friedrich Hustedt. Vols. 1–3. J. Cramer, Stuttgart, Germany, 525 pp.

Smith, W. (1853) Synopsis of British Diatomaceae. Vol. 1. John Van Voorst, London, 89 pp., pls. 1–31.

Sober, E. (1983) Parsimony in systematics: Philosophical issues. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 14: 335–357.

https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.14.110183.002003

Stamatakis, A. (2014) RAxML version 8: A tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies. Bioinformatics 30: 1312-1313.

https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btu033

Sutherland, J.E., S.C. Lindstrom, S.C., Nelson, W.A., Brodie, J., Lynch, M.D.J., Hwang, M.S., Choi, H.-G., Miyata, M., Kikuchi, N., Oliveira, M.C., Farr, N., Neefus, C., Mols-Mortensen, A., Milstein, D. & Müller, K.M. (2011) A new look at an ancient order: generic revision of the Bangiales (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 47: 1131–1151.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2011.01052.x

Theriot, E.C. (1992) Clusters, species concepts, and morphological evolution of diatoms. Systematic Biology 41: 141–157.

https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/41.2.141

Theriot, E.C., Fritz, S.C., Whitlock, C. & Conley, D.J. (2006) Late Quaternary rapid morphological evolution of an endemic diatom in Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming. Paleobiology 32: 38–54.

https://doi.org/10.1666/0094-8373(2006)032[0038:LQRMEO]2.0.CO;2

Theriot, E.C., Ashworth, M., Ruck, E., Nakov, T. & Jensen, R.K. (2010) A preliminary multigene phylogeny of the diatoms (Bacillariophyta): challenges for future research. Plant Ecology and Evolution 143: 278–296.

https://doi.org/10.5091/plecevo.2010.418

Turland, N.J., Wiersema, J.H., Barrie, F.R., Greuter, W., Hawksworth, D.L., Herendeen, P.S., Knapp, S., Kusber, W.-H., Li, D.-Z., Marhold, K., May, T.W., McNeill, J., Monro, A.M., Prado, J., Price, M.J. & Smith, G.F. (Eds.) (2018) International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code) adopted by the Nineteenth International Botanical Congress Shenzhen, China, July 2017. Regnum Vegetabile 159. Glashütten: Koeltz Botanical Books.

https://doi.org/10.12705/Code.2018

Van de Vijver, B. & Mataloni, G. (2008) New and interesting species in the genus Luticola D.G. Mann (Bacillariophyta) from Deception Island (South Shetland Islands). Phycologia 47: 451–467.

https://doi.org/10.2216/07-67.1

Van Heurck, H. (1880–1885) Synopsis des Diatomées de Belgique. Ducaju & Co., Anvers, Belgium. [A digital edition compiled by John Jeffrey Dodd, 2005. Available from: http://sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/algae/vanheurck/vanheurck1/about.htm]

Van Heurck, H. (1896) A Treatise on the Diatomaceae. William Wesley, London.

Vanormelingen, P., Verleyen, E. & Vyverman, W. (2008) Diversity and geographic distribution of diatoms: from cosmopolitanism to narrow endemism. Biodiversity and Conservation 17: 393–405.

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2801-3_12

Witkowski, A., Lange-Bertalot, H. & Metzeltin, D. (2000) Diatom Flora of Marine Coasts, I. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag, Ruggell, Germany.

Witkowski, A., Lange-Bertalot, H., Kociolek, J.P., Bąk, M., Kulikovskiy, M.S. & Kuznetsova, I. (2015) Diatom flora of San Francisco Bay and vicinity. III. New species in the genus Nitzschia Hassall. Nova Hedwigia Beihefte 144: 211–228.

Witkowski, A., Li, C.L., Zgłobicka, I., Yu, S.X., Ashworth, M., Dᶏbek, P., Qin, S., Tang, C., Krzywda, M., Ruppel, M., Theriot, E.C., Jansen, R.K., Car, A., Płocinìski, N., Wang, Y.C., Sabir, J.S.M., Daniszewska-Kowalczyk, G., Kierzek, A. & Hajrah, N.H. (2016) Multigene assessment of biodiversity of diatom (Bacillariophyceae) assemblages from the littoral zone of the Bohai and Yellow Seas in Yantai region of Northeast China with some remarks on ubiquitous taxa. Journal of Coastal Research 74 (Special Issue): 166–195.

https://doi.org/10.2112/SI74-016.1


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand