Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


Introducing Arthrinium phyllostachium sp. nov. (Apiosporaceae, Xylariales) on Phyllostachys heteroclada from Sichuan Province, China



Arthrinium phyllostachium sp. nov. collected in Sichuan Province is described and illustrated from decaying culms of Phyllostachys heteroclada. Its phylogenetic placement is explored with a combined ITS, LSU, TUB2 and TEF 1-α dataset. It is introduced as a new novelty mainly based on phylogeny, and phylogenetic close to A. euphorbiae, A. malaysianum and A. vietnamensis, however it can be split from other taxa with a distinct clade and base pair differences. It is characterized by uni-loculate conidiomata with a slit-like opening, holoblastic conidiogenous cells and olive to dark brown conidia usually with a longitudinal germ-slit. An updated phylogram for Arthrinium based on multi-loci analysis is also provided.


1 new species, Asexual morph, Bambusicolous fungi, Phylogeny, Taxonomy, Fungi

Full Text:



Aiello, D., Gulisano, S., Gusella, G., Polizzi, G. & Guarnaccia, V. (2018) First Report of Fruit Blight Caused by Arthrinium xenocordella on Pistacia vera in Italy. Plant Disease 102: 1853.

Chomnunti, P., Hongsanan, S., Aguirre-Hudson, B., Tian, Q., Peršoh, D., Dhami, M.K., Alias, A.S., Xu, J.C., Liu, X.Z., Stadler, M. & Hyde, K.D. (2014) The sooty moulds. Fungal Diversity 66: 1–36.

Carbone, I. & Kohn, L.M. (1999) A method for designing primer sets for speciation studies in filamentous ascomycetes. Mycologia 91: 553–556.

Crous, P.W. & Groenewald, J.Z. (2013) A phylogenetic re-evaluation of Arthrinium. IMA Fungus 4: 133–154.

Dai, D.Q., Jiang, H.B., Tang, L.Z. & Bhat, D.J. (2016) Two new species of Arthrinium (Apiosporaceae, Xylariales) associated with bamboo from yunnan, China. Mycosphere 7: 1332–1345.

Dai, D.Q., Phookamsak, R., Wijayawardene, N.N., Li, W.J., Bhat, D.J., Xu, J.C., Taylor, J.E., Hyde, K.D. & Chukeatirote, E. (2017) Bambusicolous fungi. Fungal Diversity 82:1–105.

Dylag, M., Hryncewicz-Gwóźdź, A. & Jagielski, T. (2017) Onychomycosis due to Arthrinium arundinis: A case report. Acta Dermato-Venereologica 97: 860–861.

Ellis, M.B. (1971) Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, 608 pp.

Elissawy, A.M., Ebada, S.S., Ashour, M.L., Özkayab, F.C., Ebrahim, W., Singab, A.B. & Proksch, P. (2017) Spiroarthrinols A and B, two novel meroterpenoids isolated from the sponge-derived fungus Arthrinium sp. Phytochemistry letters 20: 246–251.

Farr, D.F. & Rossman, A.Y. (2018) Fungal Databases, U.S. National Fungus Collections, ARS, USDA. Available from: (accessed 9 June 2018)

Glass, N.L. & Donaldson, G.C. (1995) Development of primer sets designed for use with the PCR to amplify conserved genes from filamentous ascomycetes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61: 1323–1330.

Goodenough, A.E., Stallwood, B., Dandy, S., Nicholson, T.E., Stubbs, H. & Coker, D.G. (2017) Like mother like nest: similarity in microbial communities of adult female Pied Flycatchers and their nests. Journal of Ornithology 158: 233–244.

Greven, S., Egberts, F., Buchner, M., Beck-Jendroschek, V., Voss, K. & Brasch, J. (2018) Cutaneous chromomycosis caused by Arthrinium arundinis. Journal of the German Society of Dermatology 16: 621–623.

Guo, L.D., Hyde, K.D. & Liew, E.C.Y. (2001) Detection and taxonomic placement of endophytic fungi within frond tissues of Livistona chinensis based on rDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 20: 1–13.

Hall, T.A. (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series 41: 95–98.

Hawksworth, D.L. & Lücking, R. (2017) Fungal Diversity Revisited: 2.2 to 3.8 Million Species. Microbiology Spectrum 5: FUNK-0052-2016.

Hyde, K.D. & Fröhlich, J. (1997) A new species of Appendicospora from Hong Kong. Mycoscience 38: 395–397.

Hyde, K.D., Fröhlich, J. & Taylor, J.E. (1998) Fungi from palms. XXXVI. Reflections on unitunicate ascomycetes with apiospores. Sydowia 50: 21–80.

Hyde, K.D., Hongsanan, S., Jeewon, R., Bhat, D.J., McKenzie, E.H.C., Jones, E.B.G., Phookamsak, R., Ariyawansa, H.A., Boonmee, S., Zhao, Q., Abdel-Aziz, F.A., Abdel-Wahab, M.A., Banmai, S., Chomnunti, P,, Cui, B.K., Daranagama, D.A., Das, K., Dayarathne, M.C., de Silva, N.I., Dissanayake, A.J., Doilom, M., Ekanayaka, A.H., Gibertoni, T.B., Góes-Neto, A., Huang, S.K., Jayasiri, S.C., Jayawardena, R.S., Konta, S., Lee, H.B., Li, W.J., Lin, C.G., Liu, J.K., Lu, Y.Z., Luo, Z.L., Manawasinghe, I.S., Manimohan, P., Mapook, A., Niskanen, T., Norphanphoun, C., Papizadeh, M., Perera, R.H., Phukhamsakda, C., Richter, C., de A. Santiago, A.L.C.M., Drechsler-Santos, E.R., Senanayake, I.C., Tanaka, K., Tennakoon, T.M.D.S., Thambugala, K.M., Tian, Q., Tibpromma, S., Thongbai, B., Vizzini, A., Wanasinghe, D.N., Wijayawardene, N.N., Wu, H.X., Yang, J., Zeng, X.Y., Zhang, H., Zhang, J.F., Bulgakov, T.S., Camporesi, E., Bahkali, A.H., Amoozegar, M.A., Araujo-Neta, L.S., Ammirati, J.F,, Baghela, A., Bhatt, R.P., Bojantchev, D., Buyck, B., da Silva, G.A., de Lima, C.L.F., de Oliveira, R.J.V., de Souza, C.A.F., Dai, Y.C., Dima, B., Duong, T.T., Ercole, E., Mafalda-Freire, F., Ghosh, A., Hashimoto, A., Kamolhan, S., Kang, J.C., Karunarathna, S.C., Kirk, P.M., Kytövuori, I., Lantieri, A., Liimatainen, K., Liu, Z.Y., Liu, X.Z., Lücking, R., Medardi, G., Mortimer, P.E., Nguyen, T.T.T., Promputtha, I., Raj, K.N.A., Reck, M.A., Lumyong, S., Shahzadeh-Fazeli, S.A., Staler, M., Soudi, M.R., Su, H.Y., Takahashi, T., Tangthirasunun, N., Uniyal, P., Wang, Y., Wen, T.C., Xu, J.C., Zhang, Z.K., Zhao, Y.C., Zhou, J.L. & Zhu, L. (2016) Fungal diversity notes 367–490: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal taxa. Fungal Diversity 80: 1–270.

Hyde, K.D., Norphanphoun, C., Chen, J., Dissanayake, A.J., Doilom, M., Hongsanan, S., Jayawardena, R.S., Jeewon, R., Perera, R.H., Thongbai, B., Wanasinghe, D.N., Wisitrassameewong, K., Tibpromma, S. & Stadler, M. (2018) Thailand’s amazing diversity: up to 96% of fungi in northern Thailand may be novel. Fungal Diversity 93: 215–239.

Index Fungorum (2019) Available from: (accessed 13 June 2019)

Jayasiri, S.C., Hyde, K.D., Ariyawansa, H.A., Bhat, J., Buyck, B., Cai, L., Dai, Y.C., Abd-Elsalam, K.A., Ertz, D., Hidayat, I., Jeewon, R., Jones, E.B.G., Bahkali, A.H., Karunarathna, S.C., Liu, J.K., Luangsa-ard, J.J., Lumbsch, H.T., Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N., McKenzie, E.H.C., Moncalvo, J.M., Ghobad-Nejhad, M., Nilsson, H., Pang, K.L., Pereira, O.L., Phillips, A.J.L., Raspé, O., Rollins, A.W., Romero, A.I., Etayo, J., Selçuk, F., Stephenson, S.L., Suetrong, S., Taylor, J.E., Tsui, C.K.M., Vizzini, A., Abdel-Wahab, M.A., Wen, T.C., Boonmee, S., Dai, D.Q., Daranagama, D.A., Dissanayake, A.J., Ekanayaka, A.H., Fryar, S.C., Hongsanan, S., Jayawardena, R.S., Li, W.J., Perera, R.H., Phookamsak, R., de Silva, N.I., Thambugala, K.M., Tian, Q., Wijayawardene, N.N., Zhao, R.L., Zhao, Q., Kang, J.C. & Promputtha, I. (2015) The faces of fungi database: fungal names linked with morphology, phylogeny and human impacts. Fungal Diversity 74: 3–18.

Jeewon, R. & Hyde, K.D. (2016) Establishing species boundaries and new taxa among fungi: recommendations to resolve taxonomic ambiguities. Mycosphere 7: 1669–1677.

Jiang, J.R., Cai, L. & Liu, F. (2017) Oligotrophic fungi from a carbonate cave, with three new species of Cephalotrichum. Mycology 8: 164–177.

Jiang, N., Li, J. & Tian, C.M. (2018) Arthrinium species associated with bamboo and reed plants in China. Fungal Systematics and Evolution 2: 1–9.

Katoh, K. & Standley, D.M. (2013) MAFFT multiple sequence alignment software version 7: improvements in performance and usability. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30: 772–780.

Konta, S., Hongsanan, S., Tibpromma, S., Thongbai, B., Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N., Bahkali, A.H., Hyde, K.D. & Boonmee, S. (2016) An advance in the endophyte story: Oxydothidaceae fam. nov. with six new species of Oxydothis. Mycosphere 7: 1425–1446.

Kunze, G. (1817) Zehn neue Pilzgattungen. Mykologische Hefte 1: 1–18.

Liu, Y.J., Whelen, S. & Hall, B.D. (1999) Phylogenetic relationships among ascomycetes: evidence from an RNA polymerse II subunit. Molecular Biology and Evolution 16: 1799–1808.

Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N., Hyde, K.D., Jones, E.B.G., McKenzie, E.H.C., Huang, S.K., Abdel-Wahab, M.A., Daranagama, D.A., Dayarathne, M., D’souza, M.J., Goonasekara, I.D., Hongsanan, S., Jayawardena, R.S., Kirk, P.M., Konta, S., Liu, J.K., Liu, Z.Y., Norphanphoun, C., Pang, K.L., Perera, R.H., Senanayake, I.C., Shang, Q.J., Shenoy, B.D., Xiao, Y.P., Bahkali, A.H., Kang, J.C., Somrothipol, S., Suetrong, S., Wen, T.C. & Xu, J.C. (2015) Towards a natural classification and backbone tree for Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 72: 199–301.

Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N., Hyde, K.D., Jones, E.B.G., McKenzie, E.H.C., Huang, S.K., Abdel-Wahab, M.A., Daranagama, D.A., Dayarathne, M., D’souza, M.J., Goonasekara, I.D., Hongsanan, S., Jayawardena, R.S., Kirk, P.M., Konta, S., Liu, J.K., Liu, Z.Y., Norphanphoun, C., Pang, K.L., Perera, R.H., Senanayake, I.C., Shang, Q.J., Shenoy, B.D., Xiao, Y.P., Bahkali, A.H., Kang, J.C., Somrothipol, S., Suetrong, S., Wen, T.C. & Xu, J.C. (2016) Families of Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 79: 1–317.

Maddison, W. & Maddison, D. (1997–2016) Mesquite, version 3.11 (build 766) Copyright (c).

Miao, L., Kwong, T.F.N. & Qian, P.Y. (2006) Effect of culture conditions on mycelial growth, antibacterial activity, and metabolite profiles of the marine-derived fungus Arthrinium c.f. saccharicola. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 72: 1063–1073.

Miller, M.A., Pfeiffer, W. & Schwartz, T. (2010) Creating the CIPRES Science Gateway for inference of large phylogenetic trees. In: Proceedings of the Gateway Computing Environments Workshop (GCE), 14 Nov. 2010, New Orleans, LA. pp. 1–8.

Nylander, J.A.A. (2004) MrModeltest 2.0. Program distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.

O’Donnell, K. & Cigelnik, E. (1997) Two divergent intragenomic rDNA ITS2 types within a monophyletic lineage of the fungus Fusarium are nonorthologous. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 7: 103–116.

O’Donnell, K., Kistler, H.C., Cigelnik, E. & Ploetz, R.C. (1998) Multiple evolutionary origins of the fungus causing Panama disease of banana: concordant evidence from nuclear and mitochondrial gene genealogies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95: 2044–2049.

Phukhamsakda, C., Ariyawansa, H.A., Phillips , A.J.L., Wanasinghe, D.N., Bhat, D.J., McKenzie , E.H.C., Singtripop, C., Camporesi, E. & Hyde, K.D. (2016) Additions to Sporormiaceae: Introducing two novel genera, Sparticola and Forliomyces, from Spartium. Cryptogamie, Mycologie 37: 75–97.

Pintos, Á., Alvarado, P., Planas, J. & Jarling, R. (2019) Six new species of Arthrinium from Europe and notes about A. caricicola and other species found in Carex spp. hosts. MycoKeys 49: 15–48.

Promputtha, I., Lumyong, S., Dhanasekaran, V., McKenzie, E.H.C., Hyde, K.D. & Jeewon, R. (2007) A phylogenetic evaluation of whether endophytes become saprotrophs at host senescence. Microbial Ecology 53: 579–590.

Promputtha, I., Hyde, K.D., McKenzie, E.H.C., Peberdy, J.F. & Lumyong, S. (2010) Can leaf degrading enzymes provide evidence that endophytic fungi becoming saprobes? Fungal Diversity 41: 89–99.

Rannala, B. & Yang, Z. (1996) Probability distribution of molecular evolutionary trees: a new method of phylogenetic inference. Journal of Molecular Evolution 43: 304–311.

Rehner, S. (2001) Primers for elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α). Available from: http://ocid.NACSE.ORG/research/deephyphae/EF1primer.pdf (accessed 13 June 2019)

Rehner, S.A. & Samuels, G.J. (1994) Taxonomy and phylogeny of Gliocladium analysed from nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Mycological Research 98: 625–634.

Réblová, M., Miller, A.N., Rossman, A.Y., Seifert, K.A., Crous, P.W., Hawksworth, D.L., Abdel-Wahab, M.A., Cannon, P.F., Daranagama, D.A., De Beer, Z.W., Huang, S.K., Hyde, K.D., Jayawardena, R., Jaklitsch, W., Jone, E.B.G., Ju, Y.M., Judith, C., Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N., Pang, K.L., Petrini, L.E., Raja, H.A., Romero, A.I., Shearer, C., Senanayake, I.C., Voglmayr, H., Weir, B.S. & Wijayawardene, N.N. (2016) Recommendations for competing sexual-asexually typified generic names in Sordariomycetes (except Diaporthales, Hypocreales, and Magnaporthales). IMA Fungus 7: 131–153.

Ronquist, F., Teslenko, M., van der Mark, P., Ayres, D.L., Darling, A., Höhna, S., Larget, B., Liu, L., Suchard, M.A. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. (2012) MrBayes 3.2: efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Systematic Biology 61: 539–542.

Samuels, G.J., McKenzie, E.H.C. & Buchanan, D.E. (1981) Ascomycetes of New Zealand 3. Two new species of Apiospora and their Arthrinium anamorphs on bamboo. New Zealand Journal of Botany 19: 137–149.

Seifert, K., Morgan-Jones, G., Gams, W. & Kendrick, B. (2011) The Genera of Hyphomycetes. [CBS Biodiversity Series 9]. Utrecht: CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre.

Senanayake, I.C., Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N., Hyde, K.D., Bhat, J.D., Jones, E.B.G., McKenzie, E.H.C., Dai, D.Q., Daranagama, D.A., Dayarathne, M.C., Goonasekara, I.D., Konta, S., Li, W.J., Shang, Q.J., Stadler, M., Wijayawardene, N.N., Xiao, Y.P., Norphanphoun, C., Li, Q.R., Liu, X.Z., Bahkali, A.H., Kang, J.C., Wang, Y., Wen, T.C., Wendt, L., Xu, J.C. & Camporesi, E. (2015) Towards unraveling relationships in Xylariomycetidae (Sordariomycetes). Fungal Diversity 73: 73–144.

Serrano, M., Coluccia, F., Torres, M., L’Haridon, F. & Métraux, J.P. (2014) The cuticle and plant defense to pathogens. Frontiers in Plant Science 5: 274.

Sharma, R., Kulkarni, G., Sonawane, M.S., Shouche & Y.S. (2014) A new endophytic species of Arthrinium (Apiosporaceae) from Jatropha podagrica. Mycoscience 55: 118–123.

Singh, S.M., Yadav, L.S., Singh, P.N., Hepat, R., Sharma, R. & Singh, S.K. (2012) Arthrinium rasikravindrii sp. nov. from Svalbard, Norway. Mycotaxon 122: 449–460.

Tang, C.X., Xu, E.X., Tang, Y., Wang, P.Y. & Zhang, H.M. (2007) Adaptability of giant panda to a new habitat in Bifengxia, Ya’an, Sichuan. Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology 13: 686–690.

Wang, H., Umeokoli, B.O., Eze, P., Heering, C., Janiak, C., Müller, W.E.G., Orfali, R.S., Hartmann, R., Dai, H.F., Lin, W.H., Liu, Z. & Proksch, P. (2017a) Secondary metabolites of the lichen-associated fungus Apiospora montagnei. Tetrahedron letters 58: 1702–1705.

Wang, M., Liu, F., Crous, P.W. & Cai, L. (2017b) Phylogenetic reassessment of Nigrospora: ubiquitous endophytes, plant and human pathogens. Persoonia 39: 118–142.

Wang, M., Tan, X.M., Liu, F. & Cai, L. (2018) Eight new Arthrinium species from China. MycoKeys 34: 1–24.

White, T.J., Bruns, T., Lee, S. & Taylor, J. (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis, M.A., Gelfand, D.H., Sninsky, J.J. & White, T.J. (Eds.) PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic, San Diego, pp 315–322.

Wijayawardene, N.N., Hyde, K.D., Lumbsch, H.T., Liu, J.K., Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N., Ekanayaka, A.H., Tian, Q. & Phookamsak, R. (2018) Outline of Ascomycota: 2017. Fungal Diversity 88: 167–263.

Xu, M.Q., Dai, Y.C., Fan, S.H., Jin, L.X., Lu, Q., Tian, G.Z. & Wang, L.F. (2006) Records of bamboo diseases and the taxonomy of their pathogens in China (I). Forest Research 19: 692–699.

Yan, H., Jiang, N., Liang, L.Y., YANG, Q. & Tian, C.M. (2019) Arthrinium trachycarpum sp. nov. from Trachycarpus fortunei in China. Phytotaxa 400: 203–210.

Yang, C.L., Xu, X.L., Liu, Y.G., Hyde, K.D. & Mckenzie, E.H.C. (2019a) A new species of Phyllachora (Phyllachoraceae, Phyllachorales) on Phyllostachys heteroclada from Sichuan, China. Phytotaxa 392: 186–196.

Yang, C.L., Xu, X.L., Wanasinghe, D.N., Jeewon, R., Phookamsak, R., Liu, Y.G., Liu, L.J. & Hyde, K.D. (2019b) Neostagonosporella sichuanensis gen. et sp. nov. (Phaeosphaeriaceae, Pleosporales) on Phyllostachys heteroclada (Poaceae) from Sichuan Province, China. MycoKeys 46: 119–150.

Yi, T.P. (1997) Bamboos flora of Sichuan. China Forestry Publishing, Beijing, China.

Yi, T.P., Shi, J.Y., Ma, L.S., Wang, H.T. & Yang, L. (2008) Iconographia bambusoidearum sinicarum. Science Press, Beijing, China.

Yu, Y.N. & Wang, Y.L. (1996) Notes on some fungi isolated from freshwater in Antarctica. Mycosystema 15: 81–85.

Zhang, Z.Y., Zheng, H., Han, Y.F., Chen, W.H. & Liang, Z.Q. (2017) Diversity of keratin-degrading fungi from body surfaces of different pet dogs. Mycosystema 36: 563–572.

Zhaxybayeva, O. & Gogarten, J.P. (2002) Bootstrap, Bayesian probability and maximum likelihood mapping: exploring new tools for comparative genome analyses. BMC Genomics 3: 1–15.

Zhou, Y.K., Shen, X.Y. & Hou, C.L. (2017) Diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable fungi from fishscale bamboo (Phyllostachys heteroclada) in China. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 33: 104.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)

Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand