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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3631.1.1

Systematic revision and review of the extant and fossil snout butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Libytheinae)

AKITO Y. KAWAHARA

Abstract


Extant and fossil genera and species in the Libytheinae (Nymphalidae) are revised and reviewed. The Libytheinae includes two genera: Libythea Fabricius and Libytheana Michener. Fifteen species and an additional 24 subspecies are recognized and 41 names are synonymized. Species recognized are: Libythea celtis (Laicharting), L. collenettei Riley, L. cinyras Trimen revised status, L. geoffroyi Godart, L. labdaca Westwood, L. laius Trimen, L. lepita Moore, L. myrrha Godart, L. narina Godart, Libytheana carinenta (Cramer), L. florissanti (Scudder), L. fulvescens (Lathy), L. motya (Hübner), L. terena (Godart), and L. vagabunda (Scudder). New synonymies that are established for Libythea celtis (Laicharting [1782]) include: Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. obscura Millière 1879 syn. nov.; Libythea celtis f. denudata Dannehl 1925 syn. nov.; Libythea celtis f. separata Dannehl 1925 syn. nov.; Libythea celtis livida Saggara 1926 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. albonervulata Verity 1950 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. latefulva Verity 1950 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. obscurenervulata Verity 1950 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. pallida Verity 1950 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. pygmaea Verity 1950 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. rubescens Verity 1950 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. subochracea Verity 1950 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. violacea Verity 1950 syn. nov.; and Libythea celtis platooni Korb 2005 syn. nov. Synonyms of Libythea geoffroyi geoffroyi Godart 1822 include: Libythea antipoda Boisduval, 1859 syn. nov.; Libythea orientalis Godman and Salvin, 1888 syn. nov.; Libythea hauxwelli Moore, 1901 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) geoffroy var. sumbensis Pagenstecher, 1901 syn. nov.; Libythea geoffroy deminuta Fruhstorfer, 1909 syn. nov.; and Libythea geoffroy maenia Fruhstorfer, 1909 syn. nov. Libythea batchiana Wallace 1869 syn. nov. is a synonym of Libythea geoffroyi ceramensis Wallace 1869. Synonyms of Libythea geoffroyi philippina Staudinger 1889 include: Libythea geoffroyi var. celebensis Staudinger 1889 syn. nov.; and Libythea geoffroyi bardas Fruhstorfer 1914 syn. nov. Libythea labdaca subintegra Aurivillius 1921 syn. nov. is a synonym of Libythea labdaca ancoata Grose-Smith 1891. Synonyms of Libythea lepita lepita Moore [1858] include: Libythea celtis celtoides Fruhstorfer 1909 syn. nov.; Libythea celtis chinensis Fruhstorfer 1909 syn. nov.; and Libythea celtis sophene Fruhstorfer 1914 syn. nov. Libythea celtis yayeyamana Fujioka, 1975 syn. nov. is a synonym of Libythea lepita amamiana Shirôzu 1956. Libythea myrrha myrrhina Fruhstorfer 1909 syn. nov. and Libythea myrrha yawa Fruhstorfer 1914 syn. nov. are synonyms of Libythea myrrha myrrha Godart 1819. Libythea myrrha borneensis Fruhstorfer 1914 syn. nov. and Libythea myrrha iwanagai Hayashi 1976 syn. nov. are synonyms of Libythea myrrha hecura Fruhstorfer 1914. Libythea myrrha carma Fruhstorfer 1914 syn. nov. is a synonym of Libythea myrrha rama Moore 1872. Libythea myrrha thira Fruhstorfer 1914 syn. nov. is a synonym of Libythea myrrha sanguinalis Fruhstorfer 1898. Subspecies of L. narina Godart 1819 have been synonymized with the nominal species as there are no diagnostic characters that can be used to separate subspecies. Synonyms of Libythea narina include: Libythea rohini Marshall 1880 syn. nov. Libythea luzonica Moore 1901 syn. nov. Libythea narina canuleia Fruhstorfer, 1909 syn. nov.; Libythea narina neratia Fruhstorfer 1909 syn. nov.; Libythea narina sangha Fruhstorfer 1914 syn. nov.; Libythea narina sumbawana Fruhstorfer 1914 syn. nov. The status of the North American taxon has been confused in the literature, and it is here treated as Libytheana carinenta bachmanii (Kirtland 1851) revised status. The fossil Oligodonta florissantensis Brown, 1976 (Pieridae) is a new synonym of Libytheana florissanti (Scudder 1892). Keys to genera, species, and subspecies are included along with a discussion of the taxonomic history of the subfamily. Diagnostic characters are also presented along with brief comments on the distribution and biology of each species.


Keywords


Classification, Libythea, Libytheana, nomenclature, snout butterfly, systematics, taxonomy, tree-nettle butterfly

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ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa