Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


Acrothoracican barnacles (Lithoglyptida) in Taiwan, including the taxonomic status of Balanodytes taiwanus Utinomi, 1950 and cryptic diversity of Auritoglyptes bicornis (Aurivillius, 1892)

Benny K.K. CHAN, Chi Chiu CHEANG, I-Han CHEN, Gregory A. KOLBASOV


We list five acrothoracican barnacles of the order Lithoglyptida currently found in Taiwanese waters, including two new records, Trypetesa habei Utinomi, 1962 and Berndtia purpurea Utinomi, 1950 and a new undescribed species of the genus Lithoglyptes. We also investigate the morphology and molecular genetics of Balanodytes taiwanus Utinomi, from its type locality, Taiwan. The original description of B. taiwanus in Utinomi (1950a) reported the absence of caudal appendages. Re-examination of the somatic body of one of the syntype specimens (the other syntype only having an opercular bar remaining) of B. taiwanus deposited in the Seto Marine Laboratory in Japan, revealed the presence of caudal appendages. The morphology of our specimens collected in various locations in Taiwan fits the description in Utinomi (1950a) and all have caudal appendages. The diagnosis of Balanodytes Utinomi, 1950 is revised herein. The genus Armatoglyptes Kolbasov & Newman, 2005 is a nomen nudum and a junior synonym of Balanodytes. Our results also show that the widespread species Lithoglyptes habei Tomlinson, 1963 is a junior synonym of B. taiwanensis. The molecular sequence divergencse of the 16S RNA and COI genes were studied for samples of another monotypic genus Auritoglyptes (A. bicornis) from different regions of Taiwan. It was shown that there are at least three phylogenetic clades in Taiwan, suggesting that Auritoglyptes represents a cryptic species complex.


16S rDNA, Armatoglyptes, Auritoglyptes, Balanodytes, Cytochrome oxidase subunit I, cryptic species, Taiwan

Full Text:

PDF/A (9.97 MB)


Aurivillius, C.W.S. (1892) Neue Cirripeden aus dem Atlantischen, Indischen und Stillen Ocean. Ofversigt af Kongliga Veterskaps-Akademiens Forhandlingar, Stockholm, 3, 123–134.

Aurivillius, C.W.S. (1894) Studien über Cirripeden. Ofversigt af Kongliga Veterskaps-Akademiens Forhandlingar, Stockholm, 4, 1–107.

Chan, B.K.K., Tsang, L.M. & Chu, K.H. (2007a) Morphological and genetic differentiation of the acorn barnacle Tetraclita squamosa (Crustacea, Cirripedia) in East Asia and description of a new species of Tetraclita. Zoologica Scripta, 36, 79–91.

Chan, B.K.K., Tsang, L.M. & Chu, K.H. (2007b) Cryptic diversity of Tetraclita squamosa complex (Crustacea, Cirripedia) in Asia: Description of a new species from Singapore. Zoological Studies, 46, 46–56.

Chan, B.K.K., Akihisa, M. & Lee, P.F. (2008) Latitudinal gradient in the distribution of the intertidal acorn barnacles of the Tetraclita species complex (Crustacea: Cirripedia) in NW Pacific and SE Asian waters. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 362, 201–210.

Chan, B.K.K., Kolbasov, G.A. & Cheang, C.C. (2012) Cryptic diversity of the acrothoracican barnacle Armatoglyptes taiwanus in the Indo-Pacific waters, with description of a new species from the Mozambique Channel collected from the French MAINBAZA Cruise. Zoosystema, 34, 5–20.

Chan, B.K.K. & Lee, P.F. (2012) Biogeography of intertidal barnacles in different marine ecosystems of Taiwan – potential indicators of climate change? In: L. Stevens (Ed). Global Advances in Biogeography, pp. 119–136. [USA: In-Tech Open. ISBN 978-953-51-0454-4]

Crandall, K.A. & Fitzpatrick, J.F. Jr. (1996) Crayfish molecular systematics: Using a combination of procedures to estimate phylogeny. Systematic Biology, 45, 1–26.

CIPRES (Cyberinfrastructure for Phylogenetic Research) (2010) Available from: (Accessed 2 Aug. 2013)

Darwin, C.R. (1854) A monograph on the sub-class Cirripedia, with figures of all the species. The Balanidae (or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidae, etc., etc., etc. Ray Society, London, 684 pp. + pls. 1–30.

Edmands, A. (2001) Phylogeography of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus reveals substantially reduced population at northern latitudes Molecular Ecology, 10, 1743–1750.

Folmer, O., Black, M., Hoeh, W., Lutz, R. & Vrijenhoek, R. (1994) DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology, 3, 294–299.

Gerstaecker, A. (1866–1879) Arthropoda. In: Bronn’s Klassen und Odnungen des Tierreichs. Leipzig and Heidelberg: C.F. Winter. Bd. 5, 406–589.

Gruvel, A. (1905) Monographie des Cirrhipèdes our Thécostracés. Masson and Cie, Paris, France, 472 pp.

Hancock, A. (1849) Notice of the occurrence on the British coast burrowing barnacle belonging to a new order of the class Cirripedia. Annals and Magazines of Natural History, 4, 305–314.

Harada, E. (1991) Inventory of zoological type specimens in the Museum of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 35 (1–3), 171–233.

Jones, D.S., Anderson, J.T. & Anderson, D.T. (1990) Checklist of the Australian Cirripedia. Technical Reports of the Australian Museum, 3, 1–28.

Kelly, R.P. & Palumbi, S. (2010) Genetic structure among 50 species of the northeastern Pacific rocky intertidal community. PLoS One, 5, 1–13.

Kimura, M. (1980) A simple method for estimating evolutionary rate of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 16, 111–120.

Kolbasov, G.A. (2000a) A new species of the genus Lithoglyptes (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Acrothoracica) from the Fiji Sea, with some data on its ultrastructure. Arthropoda Selecta, 9, 85–89.

Kolbasov, G.A. (2000b) External morphology of the burrowing barnacle Lithoglyptes bicornis (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Acrothoracica: Lithoglyptidae). Hydrobiologia, 438, 193–204.

Kolbasov, G.A. (2009) Acrothoracica, Burrowing Crustaceans. KMK Scientific Press, Moscow, Russia, 452 pp.

Kolbasov, G.A., Høeg, J.T. & Elfimov, A.S. (1999) Scanning electron microscopy of acrothoracican cypris larvae (Crustacea, Thecostraca, Cirripedia, Acrothoracica, Lithoglyptidae). Contribution to Zoology, 68, 143–160.

Kolbasov, G.A. & Newman, W.A. (2005) Revision of the Lithoglytidae sensu Tomlinson, 1969 and Lithoglyptes Aurivillius, 1892 (Cirripedia, Acrothoracica), including a new species from Bermuda. Zootaxa, 1013, 35–64.

Kolbasov, G.A. & Høeg, J.T. (2007) Cypris larvae of acrothoracican barnacles (Thecostraca: Cirripedia: Acrothoracica). Zoologischer Anzeiger, 246, 127–151.

Krüger, P. (1940) Cirripedia. In: H.G Bronn (Ed). Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs, Band 5, Abt.1, Buch 3, Teil III. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig, Germany, pp. 297–342.

Librado, P. & Rozas, J. (2009) DnaSP v5: A software for comprehensive analysis of DNA polymorphism data. Bioinformatics, 25, 1451–1452.

Marko, P.B. (2004) ‘What ‘s larvae got to do with it?’ Disparate patterns of post-glacial population structure in two benthic marine gastropods with identical dispersal potential. Molecular Ecology, 13, 597–611.

Maggs, C.A., Castilho, R., Foltz, D., Henzler, C., Jolly, M.T., Kelly, J., Olsen, J., Perez, K.E., Stam, W., Väinöl, R., Viard, F. & Wares, J. (2008) Evaluating signatures of glacial refugia for North Atlantic benthic marine taxa. Ecology, 89, S108–S122.

McCusker, M.R. & Bentzen, P. (2010) Historical influences dominate the population genetic structure of a sedentary marine fish, Atlantic wolfish (Anarhichas lupus), across the North Atlantic Ocean. Molecular Ecology, 19, 4228–4241.

Newman, W.A. (2011) Book Review, Acrothoracica, by G.A. Kolbasov (2009). Journal of Crustacean Biology, 31, 209–211.

Newman, W.A. & Tomlinson, J.T. (1974) Ontogenic dimorphism in Lithoglyptes (Cirripedia: Acrothoracica). Crustaceana, 27, 204–208.

Noll, F.C. (1872) Kochlorine hamata. Zur Verbreitung von Kochlorine. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 6, 471–472.

Norman, A.M. (1903) New genetic names for some Entomostraca and Cirripedia. Annals of the Natural History Museum, 11, 367–369.

Poore, G.C.B. (2012) Superorder Acrothoracica. Australian Faunal Directory. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra Available from: (Accessed 6 Nov. 2012)

Stamatakis, A., Ott, M. & Ludwig, T. (2005) RAxML-OMP: An efficient program for phylogenetic inference on SMPs. In: V. Malyshkin (Ed). Parallel Computing Technologies. Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Parallel Computing Technologies (PaCT2005); September 2005, Krasnoyarsk, Russia. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 288–302.

Tamura, K., Dudley, J., Nei, M. & Kumar, S. (2007) MEGA4: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 24, 1596–1599.

Thompson, J.D., Higgins, D.G. & Gibson, T.J. (1994) Clustal W: Improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 22, 4673–4680.

Tomlinson, J.T. (1963) Two new acrothoracican cirripeds from Japan. Publications of the Seto Marine Biology Laboratory, 11, 263–280.

Tomlinson, J.T. (1969) The burrowing barnacles (Cirripedia: order Acrothoracica). Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 296, 1–162.

Tomlinson, J.T. (1973) Distribution and structure of some burrowing barnacles, with four new species (Cirripedia: Acrothoracica). The Wasmann Journal of Biology, 31, 263–288.

Tomlinson, J.T. (1987) The burrowing barnacles (Acrothoracica). In: A.J. Southward (Ed). Barnacle Biology, Crustacean Issues 5. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 63–71.

Tomlinson, J.T. & Newman, W.A. (1960) Lithoglyptes spinatus, a new burrowing barnacle from Jamaica. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 113, 517–526.

Utinomi, H. (1950a) On another form of Acrothoracica, newly found from Formosa. Memoirs of the College of Science, University of Kyoto, Series B, 19, 91–96.

Utinomi, H. (1950b) A new remarkable coral-boring acrothoracican cirriped. Memoirs of the College of Science, University of Kyoto, Series B, 18, 83–89.

Utinomi, H. (1950c) General account of Acrothoracica. In: K. Nakamura (Ed). Some Problems of Modern Biology, Zoshindo, Osaka. pp. 428–461. (In Japanese)

Utinomi, H. (1957) Studies on the Cirripedia Acrothoracica. I. Biology and external morphology of the female Berndtia purpurea Utinomi. Publications of the Seto Marine Biology Laboratory, 6, 1–26.

Utinomi, H. (1960) Studies on Cirripedia Acrothoracica. II. Internal Anatomy of the female of Berndtia purpurea Utinomi. Publications of the Seto Marine Biology Laboratory, 3, 223–279.

Utinomi, H. (1961) Studies on the Cirripedia Acrothoracica. III. Development of the female and male of Berndtia purpurea Utinomi. Publications of the Seto Marine Biology Laboratory, 9, 413–446.

Utinomi, H. (1962) Occurrence of a Trypetesa in Japan (in Japanese). Zoological Magazine, 71, 399.

Voris, H.K. (2000) Maps of Pleistocene sea levels in Southeast Asia: shorelines, river systems and time durations. Journal of Biogeography, 27, 1153–1167.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa