Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


Annotated Checklist of the large branchiopod crustaceans of Idaho, Oregon and Washington, USA, with the “rediscovery” of a new species of Branchinecta (Anostraca: Branchinectidae)



We present a checklist of the large branchiopod crustaceans of Idaho, Oregon and Washington, USA. New distributional records are presented for most species, including the first records of Branchinecta constricta Rogers, 2006 and Lepidurus cryptus Rogers, 2001 from Idaho, the first record of B. oriena Belk & Rogers 2002 from Oregon, the first record of B. mackini Dexter, 1956 and Artemia franciscana Kellogg, 1906 co-occurring, and the first record of L. cryptus from Washington. Furthermore, we present the first record of Eulimnadia diversa Mattox, 1937 from west of the continental divide, which we interpret as an accidental introduction. In 1959, Lynch collected a new fairy shrimp species from Washington, deposited that material in the US National Museum, labeled “muddy fairy shrimp, Branchinecta lutulenta”, but never described it. Numerous efforts have been made to rediscover extant populations since 1999. We rediscovered this species in 2011, from two small pools from the vicinity of Lynch’s original collection site, which appears to have been destroyed. Branchinecta lutulenta sp. nov. is most closely related to B. lindahli Packard, 1883 and B. oterosanvicentei Obregón-Barboza et al., 2002. Branchinecta lutulenta sp. nov. is readily separable from all other Branchinecta species by the form of the male second antennal distal antennomere and the ornamentation of the female dorsum.



Branchinecta lutulenta sp. nov., Anostraca, Notostraca, Laevicaudata, Spinicaudata, Insular Endemic Species

Full Text:

PDF/A (374 KB)


Ahyong, S.T., Lowry, J.K., Alonso, M., Bamber, R.N., Boxshall, G.A., Castro, P., Gerken, S., Karaman, G.S., Goy, J.W., Jones, D.S., Meland, K., Rogers, D.C. & Svavarsson, J. (2011) Subphylum Crustacea Brünnich, 1772. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.), Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa, 3148, pp. 1–237.

Belk, D. (1975) Key to the Anostraca (fairy shrimps) of North America. The Southwestern Naturalist, 20, 91–103.

Belk, D. (1977a) Evolution of egg size strategies in fairy shrimps. The Southwestern Naturalist, 22, 99–105.

Belk, D. (1977b) Zoogeography of the Arizona Fairy Shrimps, (Crustacea: Anostraca). Arizona Academy of Sciences, 12, 70–78.

Belk, D. (1983) New fairy shrimp distribution records among collections at the California Academy of Sciences. The Southwestern Naturalist, 28, 380–381.

Belk, D. (1992) Observations on the clam shrimps of Arizona. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 26, 132–138.

Belk, D. & Ballantyne, R. (1988) Filamentus algae, an additional food for the predatory anostracan Branchinecta gigas. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 16, 552–555.

Belk, D. & J. Brtek. (1995) Checklist of the Anostraca. Hydrobiologia, 298, 315–354.

Belk, D., Mura, G. & Weeks, S.C. (1998) Untangling Confusion Between Eubranchipus vernalis and Eubranchipus neglectus (Branchiopoda: Anostraca). Journal of Crustacean Biology, 18 (1), 147–152.

Belk, D. & Rogers, D.C. (2002) A confusing trio of Branchinecta (Crustacea: Anostraca) from the western North America with a description of a new species. Hydrobiologia, 486, 49–55.

Broch, E.S. (1988) Osmoregulatory Patterns of Adaptation to Inland Astatic Waters by Two Species of Fairy Shrimps, Branchinecta gigas Lynch and Branchinecta mackini Dexter. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 8 (3), 383–391.

Coopey, R.W. (1946) Phyllopods of southeastern Oregon. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 65, 338–345.

Creaser, E.P. (1930) Revision of the phyllopod genus Eubranchipus, with the description of a new species. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology at the University of Michigan, 208, 1–13.

Eng, L., Belk, D. & Eriksen, C. (1990) Californian Anostraca: Distribution, Habitat, and Status. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 10, 247–277.

Eriksen, C.H. & Belk, D. (1999) The fairy shrimps of California’s pools, puddles, and playas. Mad River Press, Eureka, CA, USA, 196 pp.

Fugate, M.L. ( 1992) Speciation in the fairy shrimp genus Branchinecta (Crustacea: Anostraca) from North America. Ph.D. thesis, University of California at Riverside. Riverside, California, 188 pp.

Hartland-Rowe, R. (1965) The Anostraca and Notostraca of Canada with some new distribution records. The Canadian Field Naturalist, 79, 185–189.

Hill, R.E., Rogers, D.C., Quelvog, B.D. & Gallegher, S.P. (1997) New Records and Observations on the Anostracan Genus Eubranchipus in California. Hydrobiologia, 359, 75–81.

Hill, R.E. & Shepard, W.D. (1997) Observations on the identification of Californian anostracan cysts. Hydrobiologia, 359,113–123.

Hossack, B.R., Newell, R.L. & Rogers, D.C. ( 2010) Branchiopods (Anostraca, Notostraca) from protected areas of western Montana. Northwest Science, 84, 52–59.

International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (2000) 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, compiled by Craig Hilton-Taylor. IUCN-The World Conservation Union Species Survival Commission.

King, J.L. & R. Hanner (1998) Cryptic species in a “living fossil” lineage: taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships within the genus Lepidurus (Crustacea: Notostraca) in North America. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 10, 23–36.

Lynch, J.E. (1936) A new species of Neoechinorhynchus from the western sucker, Catostomus marcocheilus Girard. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 55, 21–43.

Lynch, J.D. (1937) A giant new species of fairy shrimp of the genus Branchinecta from the state of Washington. Proceedings of the United States National Musuem, 84, 555–562.

Lynch, J.E. (1958) Branchinecta cornigera, a new species of anostracan phyllopod from the state of Washington. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 108, 25–37.

Lynch, J.E. (1960) The fairy shrimp Branchinecta campestris from northwestern United States (Crustacea; Phyllopoda). Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 112, 549–561.

Lynch, J.E. (1964) Packard's and Pearse's species of Branchinecta: analysis of a nomenclatural involvement. American Midland Naturalist, 71, 466–488.

Lynch, J.E. (1972a) Branchinecta dissimilis n. sp., a new species of fairy shrimp with a discussion of specific characters in the genus. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 9, 240–243.

Lynch, J.E. (1972b) Lepidurus couesii Packard (Notostraca) redescription with a discussion of specific characters in the genus. Crustaceana, 23, 43–49.

Lynn, D.H. & Berger, J. (1973) The Thyrophylacidae, a family of carnivorous Philasterine ciliates ectocommensal in Strongylocentrotid echinoids. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 92, 533–557.

Maeda-Martínez, H., Obregón-Barboza, H., García-Velazco H. & Prieto-Salazar, M.A. (2002) Branchiopoda: Anostraca, In: Bousquets, J.L. & Morrone, J.J. (ed.s) Biodiversidad, Taxonomia y Biogeografia de Artropodos de Mexico: hacia una sintesis de su conocimiento, Vol. III. Universidad nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 305–322.

Packard, A.S. (1874) Synopsis of the fresh-water phyllopod Crustacea of North America. Annual Report of the US Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, 613–612.

Packard, A.S. (1883) A monograph of the phyllopod Crustacea of North America, with remarks on the order Phyllocarida. Twelfth Annual Report of the US Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories.

Pearse, A.S. (1912) Notes on the phyllopod Crustacea. Report to the Michigan Academy of Sciences, 14, 191–197.

Pearse, A.S. (1918) The fairy shrimps (Phyllopoda), In: Ward, H.B. and G.C. Whipple, ed.s, Fresh-Water Biology, 1st edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 661–665.

Rogers, D.C. (1996) Eubranchipus bundyi Forbes (Anostraca; Crustacea), a new record from California. Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 72, 89−91.

Rogers, D.C. (2000) Eulimnadia texana Packard 1871 (Conchostraca: Crustacea) from northern California: anthropogenic introduction? Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 76, 132–133.

Rogers, D.C. (2001) Revision of the Nearctic Lepidurus (Notostraca). Journal of Crustacean Biology, 21, 991–1006.[0991:rotnln];2

Rogers, D.C. (2002) Female based characters for anostracan (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) identification: a key for species in California and Oregon, USA. Hydrobiologia, 486, 125–132.

Rogers, D.C. (2006) Three new species of Branchinecta (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Anostraca) from the Nearctic. Zootaxa, 1126, 35–51.

Rogers, D.C. (2009) Branchiopoda (Anostraca, Notostraca, Laevicaudata, Spinicaudata, Cyclestherida). In: Likens, G.F. (editor) Encyclopedia of Inland Waters, 2, 242–249.

Rogers, D.C. & Coronel, J.S. (2011) A redescription of Branchinecta pollicifera Harding, 1940, and its placement in a new genus (Branchiopoda: Anostraca: Branchinectidae). Journal of Crustacean Biology, 31, 717–724.

Rogers, D.C. & Fugate, M. (2001) Branchinecta hiberna, a new species of fairy shrimp (Crustacea: Anostraca) from western North America. Western North American Naturalist, 61, 11–18.

Rogers, D.C., Quinney, D., Weaver, J. & Olesen, J. (2006) A new giant species of predatory fairy shrimp from Idaho (Branchiopoda: Anostraca). Journal of Crustacean Biology, 6, 1–16.

Sassaman, C. (1995) Sex determination and evolution of unisexuality in the Conchostraca. Hydrobiologia, 298, 45–65.

Scheerer, P.D., Gunckel, S.L., Heck, M.P. & Jacobs, S.E. (2010) Status and distribution of native fishes in the Goose Lake basin. Northwestern Naturalist, 91, 271–287.

Straskraba, M. (1965) Taxonomical studies on Czechoslovak Conchostraca II. Families Lynceidae and Cyzicidae. Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Spolecnosti Zoologicke Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemoslovenicae, 29, 205–214.

Triantaphyllidis, G.V., Abatzopoulos, T.J. & Sorgeloos, P. (1998) Review of the Biogeography of the genus Artemia (Crustacea, Anostraca). Journal of Biogeography, 25, 213–226.

Van Cleave, H.J. & Lynch, J.E. (1950) The circumpolar distribution of Neoechinorhynchus rutili, an Acanthocephalan parasite of fresh-water fishes. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 69, 156–171.

Vanhaecke, P.W., Tackaert, W. & Sorgeloos, P. (1987) The biogeography of Artemia: an updated review. In: Sorgeloos, P., Bengston, D.A. & Jaspars, E. (eds) Artemia Research and its Applications, Vol. 1. Morphology, Genetics, Strain characterization, Toxicology. Universa Press, Wettern, Belgium.

Weeks, S.C., Sanderson, T.F., Reed, S.K., Zofkova, M., Knott, B., Balaraman, U., Pereira, G., Senyo, D.M. & Hoeh, W.R. (2006) Ancient androdioecy in the freshwater crustacean Eulimnadia. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 273, 725–734.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa