Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


A new species of Amazophrynella (Anura:Bufonidae) from the southwestern part of the Brazilian Guiana Shield



Amazophrynella is a genus of the family Bufonidae, currently represented by three species. The type species of the genus, Amazophrynella minuta, however, is a complex of species occurring throughout the Amazonian biome. This group remains problematic taxonomically; the difficulty lays principally in the lack of diagnostic characters in the original description of A. minuta, the lack of molecular data and refined taxonomic comparison of individuals through its wide distribution. We describe a new species of the genus Amazophrynella, distributed in the southwestern part of the Guiana Shield of Brazil based on a series of morphological and molecular characters. The new species differs from others of the genus by presenting a slightly truncated triangular snout, ventral texture covered by many fine granules, white belly covered with black spots and by fifteen molecular autapomorphies in the 16S rDNA fragment. Uncorrected p-distances of a fragment of the 16S mitochondrial rDNA gene revealed high divergence among other Amazophrynella species (9%–14%). Additionally we provide a new diagnosis of topotypic material of Amazophrynella minuta including molecular data. Our results show the existence of a subestimated diversity in the genus Amazophrynella.



Amphibian, Anura, Bufonidae, Amazophrynella, Brazil


Ávila, R.W., Carvalho, V.T., Gordo, M., Ribeiro, K. & Morais, D. (2012) A new species of Amazophrynella (Anura: Bufonidae) from southern Amazonia. Zootaxa, 3484, 65–74.

Baum, D.A. & Donoghue, M.J. (1995) Choosing among alternative “phylogenetic” species concepts. Systematic Botany, 20, 560–573.

Bocxlaer, I. Van, Loader, S.P., Roelants, K., Biju, S.D., Menegon, M. & Bossuyt, F. (2010) Gradual adaptation toward a range-expansion phenotype initiated the global radiation of toads. Science, 327, 679–682.

Cracraft, J. (1983) Species concepts and speciation analysis. Current Ornithology, 1, 159–187.

Cruz, C.A.G. & Fusinatto, L.A. (2008) A new species of Dendrophryniscus, Jiménez de la Espada, 1871 (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae) from the Atlantic Rain Forest of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. South American Journal of Herpetology, 3, 22–26.[22:ansodj];2

Darst, C.R. & Cannatella, D.C. (2004) Novel relationships among hyloid frogs inferred from 12S and 16S mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 31, 462–75.

Davis, J.I. & Nixon, K.C. (1992) Populations, genetic variation, and the delimitation of phylogenetic species. Systematic Biology, 41, 421–435.

de Queiroz, K. (2007) Species concepts and species delimitation. Systematic Biology, 56, 879–886.

Duellman, W.E. & Mendelson, J.R. (1995) Amphibians and reptiles from northern Departamento Loreto, Peru: Taxonomy and biogeography. University of Kansas Science Bulletin, 55, 329–376.

Duellman, W.E. (1978) The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. Miscellaneous Publications, University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, 65, 1–352.

Felsenstein, J. (1981) Evolutionary trees from DNA sequences: a maximum likelihood approach. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 17, 396–376.

Felsenstein, J. (1981) Confidence limits on phylogenies: An approach using the bootstrap. Evolution, 39, 783–791.

Fouquet, A., Gilles, A., Vences, M., Marty, C., Blanc, M. & Gemmell, N.J. (2007) Underestimation of species richness in Neotropical frogs revealed by mtDNA analyses. PLoS ONE, 2, e1109.

Fouquet, A., Recoder, R., Teixeira Jr., M., Cassimiro, J., Amaro, R.C., Camacho, A., Damasceno, R., Carnaval, A.C., Moritz, C. & Rodrigues, M.T. (2012a) Molecular phylogeny and morphometric analyses reveal deep divergence between Amazonian and Atlantic Forest species of Dendrophryniscus. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 62, 823–838.

Fouquet, A., Recoder, R., Teixeira Jr., M., Cassimiro, J., Amaro, R.C., Camacho, A., Damasceno, R., Carnaval, A.C., Moritz, C. & Rodrigues, M.T. (2012b) Amazonella Fouquet et al., 2012 (Anura: Bufonidae) junior homonym of Amazonella Lundblad, 1931 (Acari: Unionicolidae): proposed replacement by Amazophrynella nom. nov. Zootaxa, 3244, 68.

Frost, D.R. (2013) Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.4 (9 January 2013) American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available from: (accessed 20 May 2013)

Jobb, G. (2008) TREEFINDER version of March 2011, distributed by the author, Munich, Germany. Available from: (accessed 27 May 2013)

Hall, T.A. (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series, 41, 95–98.

Izecksohn, E. (1968) Nova espécie de Dendrophryniscus do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Amphibia, Salientia). Revista Brasileira Biologia, 28, 357–362.

Izecksohn, E. (1993) Nova espécie de Dendrophryniscus da região amazônica (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 10, 407–412.

Lima, A.P., Magnusson, W.E., Menin, M., Erdtmann, L.K., Rodrigues, D.J., Keller, C. & Hödl, W. (2006) Guia de sapos da Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Amazônia CentralGuide to the frogs of Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Central Amazonian. Áttema Design Editorial, Manaus, 168 pp.

Magnusson, W.E. & Hero, J.H. (1991) Predation and the evolution of complex oviposition behaviour in Amazon rainforest frogs. Oecologia, 86, 310–318.

McDiarmid, R.W. (1971) Comparative morphology and evolution of frogs of the Neotropical genera Atelopus, Dendrophryniscus, Melanophryniscus and Oreophrynella. Bulletin of the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History, 12, 1–66.

Melin, D.E. (1941) Contributions to the knowledge of the Amphibia of South America. Göteborgs Kungl. Vetenskaps– och Vitterhets–samhälles. Handlingar. Serien B, Matematiska och Naturvetenskapliga Skrifter, 1, 1–71.

Palumbi, S.R. (1996) Nucleic acids II: the polymerase chain reaction. In: Hillis, D.M., Moritz, C. & Mable, K.B. (Eds.), Molecular Systematics. Sinauer & Associates Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts, pp. 205–247.

Pramuk, J.B. (2006) Phylogeny of South American Bufo (Anura: Bufonidae) inferred from combined evidence. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 146, 407–452.

Pramuk, J.B., Robertson, B., Sites, J.W. & Noonan, B.P. (2008) Around the world in 10 million years: biogeography of the nearly cosmopolitan true toads (Anura: Bufonidae). Global Ecology and Biogeography, 17, 72–83.

Rach, J., DeSalle, R., Sarkar, I.N., Schierwater, B. & Hadrys, H. (2008) Character-based DNA barcoding allows discriminations of genera, species and populations in Odonata. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 275, 237–247.

Rodríguez, L.O. & Duellman, W.E. (1994) Guide to the Frogs of the Iquitos Region. Amazonian Peru. University of Kansas Natural History Museum, special Publications, 22, 80 pp.

Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F. & Maniatis, T. (1989) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, second edition. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Springs Harbor, NY, 1626 pp.

Tamura, K., Dudley, J., Nei, M. & Kumar, S. (2007) MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 24, 1596–1599.

Thompson, J.D., Higgins, D.G. & Gibson, T.J. (1996) CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Research, 22, 4673–4680.

Vences, M., Teschke, M., van der Meijden, A., Chiari, Y. & Vieites, D. (2005) Comparative performance of the 16S rRNA gene in DNA barcoding of amphibians. Frontiers in Zoology, 2, 7–12.

Zimmerman, B.L. & Rodrigues, M.T. (1990) Frogs, snakes, and lizards of INPA-WWF reserves near Manaus, Brazil. In: Gentry, A.H. (Eds.), Four Neotropical Rainforests. Yale University Press, Connecticut, USA, pp. 426–454.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa