Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3768.1.4

Two new species of Phareicranaus Roewer, 1913 (Opiliones: Laniatores: Cranaidae), with notes on gregarious behavior and maternal care in Phareicranaus manauara

PÍO A. COLMENARES, ANA LÚCIA TOURINHO

Abstract


In this paper we describe two new species of Phareicranaus Roewer, 1913: Phareicranaus rohei sp. nov. from the state of Amazonas, Brazil and Phareicranaus tizana sp. nov., from the state of Zulia, Venezuela. The number of known species of this genus increases to 47. We discuss and suggest the possible relationships of these species with their relatives and assign them into the clades proposed by Pinto-da-Rocha & Bonaldo (2011). Additionally, we conducted field observations at the type locality of Phareicranaus manauara (Pinto-da-Rocha, 1994), provide the first descriptions of maternal care and gregarious behavior, and discuss the occurrence of this behavior in the genus.


Keywords


Andes, Amazon, harvestmen, Neotropics, systematics, social behavior, taxonomy.

Full Text:

PDF/A (3.92 MB)

References


Acosta, L.E., Pérez-González, A. & Tourinho, A.L. (2007) Methods for taxonomic study. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., Machado, G. & Giribet, G. (Eds.), Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 494–510.

Avram, S. (1983) Gonyleptidae nouveaux du Venezuela et du Pérou (Opiliones: Gonyleptomorphi). Boletín de la Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleología, 20, 11–18.

Gnaspini, P. (2007) Development. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., Machado, G. & Giribet, G. (Eds.), Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 455–472.

González Sponga, M.A. (2003) Arácnidos de Venezuela. Opiliones del género Santinezia (Laniatores, Cranaidae). Acta Biológica Venezuela, 21 (4), 1–69.

González Sponga, M.A. (1989) Arácnidos de Venezuela. Opiliones Laniatores I. Familias Phalangodidae y Agoristenidae. Adac. Cienc. Físicas, Matemáticas y Naturales, Caracas, 562 pp.

Goodnight, J.C. & Goodnight, M.L. (1943) Phalangida from South America. American Museum Novitates, 1234, 1–19.

Holmberg, R.G., Angerilli, N.P & LaCasse, L.J. (1984) Overwintering aggregations of Leiobunum paessleri in caves and mines (Arachnida, Opiliones). The Journal of Arachnology, 12, 195–204.

Hunter, R.K., Proud, D.N., Burns, J.A., Tibbetts, J.A. & Twonsend Jr., V.R. (2007) Parental care in neotropical harvestment Phareicranaus calcariferus (Opiliones, Cranaidae). The Journal of Arachnology 35, 199–201.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1636/st06-18.1

Kury, A.B. (2003) Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, vol. especial monográfico nº 1, 1–337.

Kury, A.B. (2012) A new genus of Cranaidae from Ecuador (Opiliones: Laniatores). Zootaxa, 3314, 31–44.

Kury, A.B. & Pinto-da-Rocha, R. (2002) Opiliones. In: Adis, J. (Ed.), Amazonian Arachnida and Myriapoda. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, Moscow, pp. 345–362.

Lança, L.S. (2011) Padrões de distribuição espacial de opiliões (Arachnida: Opiliones) em uma área de floresta de terra firme na Amazônia Central. MSc Thesis. Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, 72 pp.

Machado, G., Raimundo, R.L.G. & Oliveira, P.S. (2000) Daily activity schedule, gregariousness and defensive behavior of the neotropical harvestmen Goniosoma longipes (Arachnida: Opiliones: Gonyleptidae). Journal of Natural History, 34, 587–596.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/002229300299453

Machado, G. & Macías-Ordoñez, R. (2007a) Reproduction. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., Machado, G. & Giribet, G. (Eds.), Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 414–454.

Machado, G. & Macías-Ordoñez, R. (2007b) Social Behavior. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., Machado, G. & Giribet, G. (Eds.), Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 400–413.

Machado, G. & Warfel, J. (2006) First case of maternal care in the family Cranaidae (Opiliones, Laniatores). The Journal of Arachnology, 34, 269–272.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1636/s04-63.1

Mello-Leitão, C. (1932) Opiliões do Brasil. Revista do Museu Paulista, 17 (2), 1–505.

Pinto-da-Rocha, R. (1994) A new species of Santinezia from Central Amazonia, with systematic comments on the genus (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cranaidae). Andrias, 13, 29–32.

Pinto-da-Rocha, R. & Bonaldo, A.B. (2011) Species relationships in the neotropical genus Phareicranaus Roewer, 1913 (Opiliones: Cranaidae): two new species and new data from penial morphology. Zootaxa, 3135, 1–34.

Pinto-da-Rocha, R. & Kury, A.B. (2003) Phylogenetic analysis of Santinezia with description of five new species (Opiliones, Laniatores, Cranaidae). The Journal of Arachnology, 31, 173–208.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1636/0161-8202(2003)031[0173:paoswd]2.0.co;2

Pinto-da-Rocha, R. & Kury, A.B. (2007) Cranaidae. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., Machado, G. & Giribet, G. (Eds.), Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 185–188.

Roewer, C.F. (1913) Die Familie der Gonyleptiden der Opiliones-Laniatores. Archives für Naturgeschichte, 79A (4), 257–472.

Roewer, C.F. (1916) 7 neue Opilioniden des Zoolog. Museums in Berlin. Archives für Naturgeschichte, 81A (12), 6–13.

Roewer, C.F. (1917) 52 neue Opilioniden. Archives für Naturgeschichte, 82A (2), 90–158.

Roewer, C.F. (1925) Opilioniden aus Süd-Amerika. Bolletino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della Universita di Torino, NS, 34 (40), 1–34.

Roewer, C.F. (1932) Weitere Weberknechte VII (7. Ergänzung der Weberknechte der Erde 1923). Archiv für Naturgeschichte aus dem Berlin, 1 (2), 275–350.

Roewer, C.F. (1952) Neotropische Arachnida Arthrogastra zumeist aus Peru. Senckenbergiana, 33 (1– 3), 37–58.

Roewer, C.F. (1963) Opiliones aus Peru und Colombia. [Arachnida Arthrogastra aus Peru V]. Senckenbergiana Biologica, 44, 45–72.

Simon, E. (1879) Essai dune classification des Opiliones Mecostethi remarques synonymiques et descriptions despéces nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique, 22, 183–241.

Soares, H.E.M. (1970) Novas espécies de opiliões da Região Amazônica (Opiliones, Cosmetidae, Gonyleptidae, Phalangiidae, Stygnidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 30 (3), 323–338.

Townsend, V.R. Jr. & Milne, M.A. (2010) A new species of Santinezia (Opiliones: Cranaidae) from Panama. The Journal of Arachnology, 38, 460–465.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1636/ha09-55.1

Townsend, V.R. Jr., Rana, N.J., Proud, D.N., Moore, M.K., Rock, P. & Felgenhauer, B.E. (2009) Morphological changes during post-embryonic development in two species of Neotropical harvestmen (Opiliones, Laniatores, Cranaidae). Journal of Morphology, 270, 1055–1068.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmor.10742

Villarreal Manzanilla, O. & Machado, G. (2011) First record of paternal care in the family Stygnidae (Opiliones: Laniatores). The Journal of Arachnology, 39, 500–502.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1636/hi11-29.1

Villarreal Manzanilla, O. & Rodríguez, C.J. (2010) Revalidation of Santinezia albilineata Roewer 1932 (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cranaidae). Journal of Threatened Taxa, 3 (11), 2202–2206.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/jott.o2514.2202-6


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa