Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


The ascidian-associated mysid Corellamysis eltanina gen.nov., sp.nov. (Mysida, Mysidae, Heteromysinae): a new symbiotic relationship from the Southern Ocean



A new mysid species representing a new genus is described based on specimens collected in the 1968 cruise of the U.S. Navy Ship Eltanin from the Macquarie Island region (Southern Ocean). The new mysid, Corellamysis eltanina, is characterized by the globular eyes lacking definite eyestalks, the seven and eighth thoracic endopods specialized as gnathopods forming a strong subchela, and by the armature and shape of the uropod endopod and telson. Corellamysis eltanina lives only in the branchial sacs of the ascidian Corella brewinae suggesting an obligate endocommensal symbiotic association. Therefore, this is the first known report of a mysid living symbiotically with a benthic tunicate, as well as the first report of a mysid symbiosis from the Southern Ocean. The distribution and habitats of known symbiont mysids are reviewed. An update of identification key to world genera and subgenera of Heteromysinae is suggested.



new genus, Heteromysinae, Symbiosis, Ascidians, Macquarie Island


Bacescu, M. (1968) Heteromysini nouveaux des eaux cubaines: Trois espèces nouvelles de Heteromysis et Heteromysoides spongicola n.g. n.sp. Revue Roumaine de Biologie. Serie de Zoologie, 13 (4), 221–237.

Bacescu, M. (1970) New spongicolous Heteromysis of the Caribbean Sea (H. gomezi n.sp. and H. mariani n.sp.). Revue Roumaine de Biologie. Serie de Zoologie, 15 (1), 11–16.

Bacescu, M. (1973) A new case of commensalism in the Red Sea: The mysid Idiomysis tsurnamali n.sp. with the Coelenterata Megalactis and Cassiopea. Revue Roumaine de Biologie. Serie de Zoologie, 18 (1), 3–7.

Bacescu, M. (1976) Contribution à la connaisance des Mysidacés (Crustacés) de la Côte Lybienne, avec la description de deux nouvelles espèces, Neoheteromysis mülleri n.sp. et Heteromysis lybiana n.sp. Revue Roumaine de Biologie. Série de Biologie Animale, 21 (2), 85–91.

Bacescu, M. (1979) A small contribution to the knowledge of the mysids from the north-eastern Great Barrier Reef of Australia. Travaux du Muséum d´Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa", 20 (1), 143–147.

Bacescu, M. (1986) Two new species of Heteromysis from the coral reefs of northern Australia. Travaux du Muséum d´Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa", 28, 19–24.

Bacescu, M. & Bruce, A.J. (1980) New contributions to the knowledge of the representatives of genus Heteromysis s.l. from the Australian coral reefs. Travaux du Muséum d´Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa", 21 (1), 63–72.

Bacescu, M. & Illife, A.J. (1986) Bermudamysis g.n., Platyops g.n. and other mysids from Bermudian caves. Stygologia, 2 (1/2), 93–104.

Bacescu, M. & Ortiz, M. (1984) Contribution to the knowledge of the Mysidacea (Crustacea) of the Cuban insular shelf waters. Travaux du Muséum d´Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa", 24, 15–23.

Baeza, J.A. (2007) The origins of symbiosis as a lifestyle in marine crabs (genus Petrolisthes) from the eastern Pacific: Does interspecific competition play a role? Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía, 42 (1), 7–21.

Baeza, J.A. & Díaz-Valdés, M. (2011) The symbiotic shrimp Ascidonia flavomaculata lives solitarily in the tunicate Ascidia mentula: implications for its mating system. Invertebrate Biology, 130 (4), 351–361.

Bamber, R.N. (2000) Mysids (Crustacea, Mysidacea) from Hong Kong, with a description of a new species of Heteromysis (Mysinae: Heteromysini). In: Morton, B. (Ed.), The Marine Flora and Fauna of Hong Kong and Southern China V. Proceedings of the Tenth International Marine Biological Workshop: The Marine Flora and Fauna of Hong Kong and Southern China, Hong Kong, 6–26 April, 1998. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong, pp. 57–64,

Boltovskoy, D., Correa, N. & Boltovskoy, A. (2005) Diversity and endemism in cold waters of the South Atlantic: contrasting patterns in the plankton and the benthos. Scientia Marina, 69 (2), 17–26.

Bonnier, J. & Pérez, C, (1902) Sur un crustacé commensal des pagures, Gnathomysis gerlachei, nov. sp., type d´une famille, nouvelle de schizopodes. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l´Académie des Sciences, 134, 117–119.

Bowman, T.E. (1973) Two new American species of Spelaeomysis (Crustacea: Mysidacea) from a Mexican cave and land crab burrows. Association for Marine Cave Studies, 5, 13–20.

Bowman, T.E. (1981) First description of the male opossum shrimp, Heteromysis bermudensis bermudensis (Crustacea: Mysidacea). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 94 (2), 458–461.

Bowman, T.E. & Orsi, J.J. (1992) Deltamysis holmquistae, a new genus and species of Mysidacea from the Sacramento-San Joaquin estuary of California (Mysidae: Mysinae: Heteromysini). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 105 (4), 733–742.

Boxshall, G.A. & Marchenkov, A. (2007) A revision of the Brementia group of genera (Copepoda, Notodelphyidae) with description of a new genus and four new species. Zootaxa, 1459, 37–68.

Brandt, A., Mühlenhardt-Siegel, U. & Siegel, V. (1998) An account of the Mysidacea (Crustacea, Malacostraca) of the Southern Ocean. Antarctic Science, 10 (1), 3–11.

Brattegard, T. (1969) Marine biological Investigations in the Bahamas 10. Mysidacea from shallow water in the Bahamas and southern Florida. Part 1. Sarsia, 39, 17–106.

Brattegard, T. (1970) Mysidacea from shallow water in the Caribbean Sea. Sarsia, 43, 111–154.

Brattegard, T. (1973) Mysidacea from shallow water on the Caribbean Coast of Colombia. Sarsia, 54, 1–65.

Brattegard, T. (1974) Additional Mysidacea from shallow water on the Caribbean Coast of Colombia. Sarsia, 57, 47–86.

Brattegard, T. (1980) Platymysis facilis gen. et sp. nov. (Crustacea: Mysidacea: Heteromysini) from the Saba Bank, Caribbean Sea. Sarsia, 65 (1), 49–52.

Bravo, M.F. & Murano, M. (1996) A new species of the genus Pseudomysidetes (Mysidacea) from Japan and reallocation of this genus to the Heteromysini. Crustaceana, 69 (4), 476–484.

Brusca, R.C. & Brusca, G.J. (1990) Invertebrates. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Publishers, Massachusetts, 1–922.

Clarke, W.D. (1955) A new species of the genus Heteromysis (Crustacea, Mysidacea) from the Bahama Islands, commensal with a sea-anemone. American Museum Novitates, 1716, 1–13.

Clarke, A. & Crame, J.A. (1989) The origin of the Southern Ocean marine fauna. In: Crame, J.A. (Ed.), Origins and evolution of the Antarctic biota. Geological Society, London, Special Publication, 47, 253–268.

Clarke, A. & Johonston, N.M. (2003) Antarctic marine benthic diversity. Oceanography Marine Biology Annual Revue, 41, 47–114.

Corbera, J., San Vicente, C. & Sorbe, J.C. (2008) Cumaceans (Crustacea) from the Bellingshausen Sea and off the western Antarctic Peninsula: a deep-water link with fauna of the surrounding oceans. Polar Biology, 32, 611–622.

Dalby, J.E. Jr. (1996) Nemertean, copepod and amphipod symbionts of the dimorphic ascidian Pyura stolonifera near Melbourne, Australia: specificities to host morphs, and factors affecting prevalences. Marine Biology, 126, 231–243.

Dana, J.D. (1852) Tribe II. Mysidea. In: Dana, J.D. (Ed.), Crustacea. United States Exploring Expedition. During the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, Under the Command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N., XIII, I, C. Sherman, Philadelphia, 635–685.

Darwin, T.J. (1997) Systematics, ecology and phylogeny of the Anamixidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Records of the Australian Museum, 49 (1), 35–98.

Escobar-Briones, E. & Soto, L.A. (1990) Heteromysis mexicana, a new species from Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mexico (Crustacea: Mysidacea). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 103 (1), 131–139.

Emery, A.R. (1968) Preliminary observations on coral reef plankton. Limnology and Oceanography, 13, 169–177.

Fransen, C.H.J.M. (2006) On Pontoniinae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae) collected from ascideans. Zoosystema, 28 (3), 713–746.

Fukuoka, K. (2005) A new species of Heteromysis (Mysida, Mysidae) associated with sponges, from the Uraga Channel, Central Japan, with notes on distribution and habitats within the genus Heteromysis. Crustaceana, 77 (11), 1353–1373.

Gage, J. (1966) Seasonal cycles of Notodelphys and Ascidicola, copepod associates with Ascidiella (Ascidiacea). Journal of Zoology, 150, 223–233.

Garm, A. (2004) Revising the definition of the crustacean seta and setal classification systems based on examinations of the mouthpart setae of seven species of decapods. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 142, 233–252.

Gasca, R., Suárez-Morales, E. & Haddock, S.H.D. (2007) Symbiotic associations between crustaceans and gelatinous zooplankton in deep and surface waters off California. Marine Biology, 151, 233–242.

Gili, J.M., Arntz, W.E., Palanques, A., Orejas, C., Clarke, A., Dayton, P.K, Isla, E., Teixidó, N., Rossi, S. & López-González, P.J. (2006) A unique assemblage of epibenthic sessile suspension feeders with archaic features in the high-Antarctic. Deep-Sea Research, II 53, 1029–1052.

Gleye, L.G. (1982) Two new species of leptomysinid mysids (Crustacea, Mysidacea) from southern California. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 95 (2), 319–324.

Greenwood, J.G. & Hadley, D.J. (1982) A redescription of the mysid Idiomysis inermis Tattersall, 1922 (Mysidacea) to include the previously unknown female. Crustaceana, 42 (2), 174–178.

Hancock, A. (1870) On the larval state of Molgula with description of several species of simple ascidians. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 6 (4), 353–368.

Hay, M.E., Parker, J.D., Burkepile, D.E., Caudill, C.C., Wilson, A.E., Hallinan, Z.P. & Chequer, A.D. (2004) Mutualisms and aquatic community structure: the enemy of my enemy is my friend. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematicts, 35, 175–197.

Haworth, A.H. (1825) A new binary arrangement of the macrurous Crustacea. The Philosophical Magazine, 65, 183–184.

Heller, C. (1863) Die Crustaceen des Südlichen Europa. Crustacea Podophthalmia. Mit einer Übersicht über die Horizontale Verbreitung Sämmtlicher Europäischer Arten. W. Braumüller, Wien, 336 pp.

Hilgendorf, F. (1879) Die von Herrn W. Peters in Mocambique gesammelten Crustaceen. Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie des Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1879, 782–851.

Holmquist, C. (1958) Proposed use of the plenary powers to validate a neotype for the nominal species "Cancer oculatus" Fabricius (O.) 1780, to designate the species so named to be the type species of the genus "Mysis" Latreille, (1802-1803) (Class Crustacea, Order Mysidacea) and matters incidental thereto. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 16 (2), 51–61.

Holt, E.W.L. & Tattersall, W.M. (1905) Schizopodous Crustacea from the north-east Atlantic slope. Report on the Sea and Inland Fisheries of Ireland, 1902–1903, Part II, App, 4, 99–152.

Holt, E.W.L. & Tattersall, W.M. (1906) Preliminary notice of the Schizopoda collected by H.M.S. "Discovery" in the Antarctic region. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Ser. 7, 17 (97), 1–11.

Ii, N. (1964) Fauna Japonica/ Mysidae (Crustacea). Biogeographical Society of Japan, National Science Museum, Tokyo, 1–597.

Illg, P.L. (1958) North American copepods of the family Notodelphyidae. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum, 107, 463–649.

Illg, P.L. & Dudley, P.L. (1980) The family Ascidicolidae and its subfamilies (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) with description of new species. Mémoires du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle ser. A, Zoologie, 117, 1–192.

Illig, G. (1906) Bericht über die neuen Schizopodengattungen und -arten der deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition 1898–1899. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 30, 194–211.

Jaume, D. & Garcia, L. (1993) Burrimysis palmeri, a new genus and species of Heteromysini (Crustacea: Mysidacea) from an anchihaline cave lake of Cabrera (Balearic Islands, Mediterranean). Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde, 62 (4), 227–235.

Jonsson, L.G., Lundälv, T. & Johannesson, K. (2001) Symbiotic associations between anthozoans and crustaceans in a temperate coastal area. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 209, 189–195.

Kneer D., Monniot F., Stach, T. & Christianen, M.J.A. (2013) Ascidia subterranea sp. nov. (Phlebobranchia: Ascidiidae) a new tunicate belonging to the A. sydneiensis Stimpson, 1855 group, found as burrow associate of Axiopsis serratifrons A. Milne-Edwards, 1873 (Decapoda: Axiidae) on Derawan Island, Indonesia. Zootaxa, 3616 (5), 485–494.

Krøyer, H.N. (1861) Et bidrag til Kundskab om Krebsdyrfamilien Mysidae. Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift, 3, 1, 1–75.

Ledoyer, M. (1989) Les Mysidaces (Crustacea) des grottes sous-marines obscures de Mediterranee nord-occidentale et du proche Atlantique (Portugal et Madere). Marine Nature : International Journal on Marine Natural Sciences, 2 (1), 39–62.

Ledoyer, M. (1995) Mysidacés (Crustacea) de Kerguelen, Crozet et Bouvet (Océan Austral) récoltés par la Japonaise, le Marion-Dufresne (1972–82) et dans des contenus stomacaux d´oiseaux. Journal of Natural History, 29, 601–618.

Levinton, J.S. (1982) Marine Ecology. Prentice-Hall INC, New Jersey, 526 pp.

Marchenkov, A. & Boxshall, G.A. (2005) A new genus of notodelphyid copepod (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopoida) from a compound ascidian host collected in the Suez canal. Zootaxa, 27 (3), 483–497.

Margulis, L. & Sagan, D. (1995) ¿What is life?. Nevraumont Publishing Co., New York, 207 pp.

Marin, I. & Anker, A. (2008) A new species of Pontonia Latreille, 1829 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae) associated with sea squirts (Tunicata, Ascidiacea) from the Pacific coast of Panama. Zoosystema, 30 (2), 501–515.

Martin, J.W. & Kuck, H.G. (1991) Faunal associates of an undescribed species of Chrysaora (Cnidaria, Schyphozoa) in the Southern California Bight, with notes on unusual occurrences of other warm water species in the area. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, 90 (3), 89–101.

Mauchline, J. (1980) The biology of mysids and euphausiids. Advances in Marine Biology, 18, 1–680.

Mees, J. & Meland, K. (Eds.) (2012) World List of Lophogastrida, Stygiomysida and Mysida. Available from: (accessed 16 october 2013)

Meland, K. & Willassen, E. (2007) The disunity of “Mysidacea” (Crustacea). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 44, 1083–1104.

Modlin, R.F. (1984) Mysidacea from the Florida middle ground, Northeast Gulf of Mexico, with descriptions of three new species of Heteromysis and a key to the Heteromysini of the Western Atlantic. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 4 (2), 278–297.

Modlin, R.F. (1987) Heteromysis kensleyi and H. coralina, new species from the shallow waters off Looe Key, Florida (Mysidacea: Heteromysini). Proceedings of the biological Society of Washington, 100, 653–658.

Monniot, C. (1961) Les parasites de Microcosmus Heller et les modalités de leur répartition. Vie et Milieu, 12 (1), 97–103.

Monniot, C. (1990) Diseases of Urochordata. In: Kinne, O. (Ed.), Diseases of marine animals. Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, 3, pp. 569–636.

Monniot, F. (2013) The genus Corella (Ascidiacea, Phlebobranchia, Corellidae) in the Southern Hemisphere with description of a new species. Zootaxa, 3702 (2), 135–149.

Monniot, C. & Monniot, F. (1983) Ascidies antarctiques et subantarctiques: Morphologie et Biogéographie. Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 125, 1–168.

Murano, M. (1988) Heteromysids (Crustacea; Mysidacea) from northern Australia with description of six new species. The Beagle, Records of the Northern Territory Museum of Arts and Sciences, 5, 27–50.

Murano, M. (1998) Further study on Australian heteromysids (Crustacea; Mysidacea). The Beagle, Records of the Museum of Arts and Sciences of the Northern Territory, 14, 29–39.

Nardon, P. & Charles, H. (2002) Morphological aspects of symbiosis. Symbiosis: Mechanisms and Systems. Dordercht/boson/London, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 4, 15–44.

Norman, M. (1892) On British Mysidae, a family of Crustacea Schizopoda. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 6 (56), 10, 143–166.

Nouvel, H. (1964) Heteromysis gerlachei (Bonnier & Pérez) et les espèces actuellement confondues sous le nom d´Heteromysis harpax (Crustacea Mysidacea). Zoologische Mededelingen, 39, 37–44.

Ooishi, S. (2009) Four new species of Haplostoma (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Ascidicolidae) living in compound ascidians from Madagascar. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 122 (4), 426–448.

Ooishi, S. (2012) Two new species of Botryllophilus (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Ascidicolidae) living in compound ascidians from Madagascar. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 125 (2), 122–144.

Ortiz, M., Lalana, R. & Sánchez-Díaz, A. (2000) Una nueva especie de misidáceo marino del género Amathimysis Brattegard, 1969 (Mysidacea, Mysidae), de aguas cubanas. Avicennia, 12/13, 55–62.

Panampunnayil, S.U. & Biju, A. (2007) A new genus and species of Heteromysini (Crustacea-Mysidacea) from the backwater of Kochi (Kerala, India). Journal of Natural History, 41 (29–32), 1955–1963.

Patzner, R.A. (2004) Associations with sea anemones in the Mediterranean Sea: A review. Ophelia, 58 (1), 1–11.

Petryashov, V.V. (2007) Biogeographical division of the Antarctic and subantarctic by mysid (Crustacea: Mysidacea) fauna. Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 33 (1), 1–16.

Price, W.W. & Heard, R.W. (2000) Studies of the Crustacea of the Turks and Caicos Islands, British West Indies. IV. Heteromysis (Heteromysis) spottei, a new species (Peracarida: Mysidacea: Mysidae) from Pine Cay. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 113 (1), 88–94.

Price, W.W. & Heard, R.W. (2004) Studies on the Crustacea of the Turks and Caicos Islands, British West Indies. V. Records of mysids from Pine Cay, Fort George Cay, Water Cay and adjacent waters. Gulf and Caribbean Research, 16, 147–159.

Price, W.W. & Heard, R.W. (2011) Two new species of Heteromysis (Olivemysis) (Mysida, Mysidae, Heteromysinae) from the tropical northwest Atlantic with diagnostics on the subgenus Olivemysis Bacescu, 1968. Zootaxa, 2823, 32–46.

Price, W.W., Heard, R.W., Harris, J.T. & McCoy, C.M.R. (2002) Crustacea of the Cayman Islands, British West Indies. I. Records of mysids from shallow water non-reef habitats. Gulf and Caribbean Research, 14, 35–52.

Randall, J.E., Schroeder, R.E. & Stark II, W.A. (1964) Notes on the biology of the echinoid Diadema antillarum. Caribbean Journal of Science, 4 (2–3), 421–433.

Ross, D.M. (1983) Symbiotic relations. In: Abele, L.G. (Ed.), The biology of Crustacea. Vol. 7. Academic Press, New York, pp. 163–212.

Roughgarden, J. (1975) Evolution of marine symbiosis -a simple cost-benefit model. Ecology, 56, 1201–1208.

Saito, N. & O. Hosino (2011) Ecological notes on the infaunal mysid, Heteromysis komaii Fukuoka 2004 (Crustacea: Mysida: Mysidae) associated with sponges Callyspongia confoederata (Ridley, 1884) from Izu-Oshima Island, Sagami Sea, Central Japan. Bull. Kanagawa Prefect. Mus. (Nat.Sci.), 32, 51–54. Available from:–054_saito_s.pdf (accessed 25 October 2013)

San Vicente, C. (2010) Species diversity of Antarctic Mysids (Crustacea: Lophogastrida and Mysida). In: Antarctica: Global, Environmental and Economic Issues, Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Ed. Thomas J. Mulder, 1–80.

Sars, G.O. (1866) II. Beretning om en i Sommeren 1865 foretagen zoologisk Reise ved Kysterne af Christianias og Christiansands Stifter. Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne, 15, 84128.

Sars, G.O. (1882) Oversigt af Norges Crustaceer med foreløbige Bemaerkninger over de nye eller mindre bekjendte Arter. I. (Podophthalmata - Cumacea - Isopoda - Amphipoda). Forhandlinger i Videnskabs-Selskabet I Christiania, 1882, 18, 1–124.

Sars, G.O. (1885) Report on the Schizopoda collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873–76. Report on the Scientic Results of the Voyage of H. M. S. “Challenger” during the Years 1873–76, Zoology, 13, 1–225.

Shick, J.M. (1991) A functional biology of sea anemones. Chapman & Hall, London, 395 pp.

Smith, S.I. (1873) Report upon the invertebrate animals of Vineyard Sound and adjacent waters. In: Verril, A.E. (Ed.), Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries, 1871–2, pt 1, 18, pp. 295–747.

Smith, S.I. (1879) The stalk-eyed crustaceans of the Atlantic coast of North America north of Cape Cod. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 5, 27–138.

Tattersall, O.S. (1955) Mysidacea. Discovery Reports, 28, 1–190.

Tattersall, O.S. (1962) Report on a collection of Mysidacea from South African off-shore and coastal waters (1957–59) and from Zanzibar (1961). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 139, 221–247.

Tattersall, O.S. (1967) A survey of the genus Heteromysis (Crustacea: Mysidacea) with descriptions of five new species from tropical coastal waters of the Pacific and Indian Ocean, with a key for the identification of the known species of the genus. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, 31, 157–193.

Tattersall, W.M. (1922) Indian Mysidacea. Records of the Indian Museum, 24 (4), 445–504.

Tattersall, W.M. (1936) Mysidacea and Euphausiacea. Great Barrier Reef Expedition 1928–29. Scientific Reports (Great Barrier Reef Expedition) (British Museum (Natural History), 5, 143–176.

Tattersall, W.M. (1951) A review of the Mysidacea of the United States National Museum. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 201, 1–292.

Tattersall, W.M. & Tattersall, O.S. (1951) The British Mysidacea. Ray Society, London, 460 pp.

Thiel, M. (1999) Host-use and population demographics of the ascidian-dwelling amphipod Leucothoe spinicarpa -indication for extended parental care and advanced social behaviour. Journal of Natural History, 33, 193–206.

Thiel, M. (2000) Population and reproductive biology of two sibling amphipods species from ascidian and sponges. Marine Biology, 137, 661–674.

Thiel, M. & Baeza, J.A. (2001) Factors affecting the social behaviour of crustaceans living symbiotically with other marine invertebrates: a modelling approach. Symbiosis, 30, 163–190.

Thomas, J.D. (1997) Systematics and phylogeny of the commensal amphipod family Anamixidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Records of the Australian Museum, 49, 35–98

Thomsen, M.S., Altieri, A., Wernberg, B., Tuya, F., Gulbransen, D., McGlathery, K., Holmer, M. & Silliman, B.R. (2010) Habitat cascades: The conceptual context and global relevance of facilitation cascades via habitat formation and modification. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 50, 158–175.

Thorell, T.T.T. (1859) Bidrag till kännendomen om krustaceer som lefva i arter af slägtet Ascidia L. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar, 3 (8), 1–84.

Traustedt, M.P.A. (1882) Vestindiske Ascidiae simplices (Phallusiadae). Videnskabelige Meddelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, 1–32.

Vader, W. (1983) Associations between amphipods (Crustacea: Amphipoda) and sea anemones (Anthozoa, Actiniaria). Australian Museum Memoir, 18, 141–153.

Vader, W. (1984) Notes on Norwegian marine Amphipoda. 8. Amphipods found in association with sponges and tunicates. Fauna Norvegica: Series A, 5, 16–21.

Vannini, M., Innocenti, G. & Ruwa, R.K. (1993) Family group structure in mysids, commensals of hermit crabs (Crustacea). Tropical Zoology, 6, 189–205.

Vannini, M., Ruwa, R.K. & Innocenti, G. (1994) Notes on the behaviour of Heteromysis harpax, a commensal mysid living in hermit crab shells. Ethology, Ecology & Evolution, Special Issue, 3, 137–142.

Vermeij, G.J. (1983) Intimate Associations and Coevolution in the Sea. In: Futuyma, D.J. & Slatkin, M. (Eds.), Coevolution. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, pp. 311–327.

Verrill, A.E. (1923) Crustacea of Bermuda: Schizopoda, Cumacea, Stomatopoda, and Phyllocarida. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 26, 181–211.

Walker, A.O. (1898) Crustacea collected by W.A. Herdman, F.R.S., in Puget Sound, Pacific coast of North America, September 1897. Proceedings of the Liverpool Biological Society, 12, 268–287.

Watling, L. (1989) A classification system for crustacean setae based on the homology concept. In: Felgenhauer, B., Watling, L. & Thistle, A.B. (Eds.), Functional morphology of feeding and grooming in Crustacea. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 15–26.

Wittmann, K.J. (1978) Biotop- und Standortbindung mediterraner Mysidacea, 1–211. (Diss., Univ. Wien). Abstract in: Dissertation Abstr. internat. [1981], (C) 41 (3) (5/3444c), 515.

Wittmann, K.J. (1986) Saisonale und morphogeographische Differenzierung bei Leptomysis lingvura und zwei verwandten Spezies (Crustacea, Mysidacea). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien. B, Für Botanik und Zoologie, 87, 265–294.

Wittmann, K.J. (1996) Morphological and reproductive adaptations in Antarctic meso- to bathypelagic Mysidacea, with description of Mysifaun erigens n.g. n.sp. In: Uiblein, F. Ott, J. & Stachowitsch, M. (Eds.), Deep-sea and Extreme Shallow-water Habitats: Affinities and Adaptations. Biosystematics and Ecology Series, 11, 221–231.

Wittmann, K.J. (2000) Heteromysis arianii sp. n., a new benthic mysid (Crustacea, Mysidacea) from coralloid habitats in the Gulf of Naples (Mediterranean Sea). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien. Serie B, Für Botanik und Zoologie, 102, 279–290.

Wittmann, K.J. (2004) Retromysis nura new genus and species (Mysidacea, Mysidae, Heteromysini) from a superficial marine cave in Minorca (Balearic Islands, Mediterranean Sea). Crustaceana, 77 (7), 769–783.

Wittmann, K.J. (2008) Two new species of Heteromysini (Mysida, Mysidae) from the island of Madeira (N.E. Atlantic), with notes on sea anemone and hermit crab commensalisms in the genus Heteromysis S.I. Smith, 1873. Crustaceana, 81 (3), 351–374.

Wittmann, K.J. (2013) Mysids associated with sea anemones from the tropical Atlantic: descriptions of Ischiomysis new genus, and two new species in this taxon (Mysida, Mysidae, Heteromysinae). Crustaceana, 86 (4), 487–506.

Wittmann, K.J. & Wirtz, P. (1998) A first inventory of the mysid fauna (Crustacea: Mysidacea) in coastal waters of the Madeira and Canary archipelagos. Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal Suplemento, 5, 511–533.

Yanagisawa, Y. & Hamaishi, A. (1986) Mate acquisition by a solitary crab Zebrida adamsii, a symbiont of the sea urchin. Journal of Ethology, 4, 153–162.

Zimmer, C. (1914) Die Schizopoden der Deutschen Südpolar-Expedition 19011903. G. Reimer, Berlin, 379–445.

Zimmer, C. (1915) Schizopoden des Hamburger Naturhistorischen (Zoologischen) Museums. Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen Museum in Hamburg, 32, 159–182.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa