Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3814.1.2

An annotated checklist and a family key to the pseudoscorpion fauna (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones) of Sri Lanka

Sudesh Batuwita, Suresh P. Benjamin

Abstract


Sri Lanka is part of the Western Ghats & Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot. Thus, the conservation of Sri Lanka’s unique biodiversity is crucial. The current study is part of an ongoing survey of pseudoscorpion fauna of Sri Lanka. We carried out an island-wide survey of pseudoscorpions using a range of collection methods to sample a diverse set of habitats around the country. This produced 32 species, four of which might be new to science, belonging to 25 genera. The family Cheiridiidae was discovered on the island for the first time. One new combination, Indogarypus ceylonicus (Beier, 1973) comb. nov., is proposed. Out of the 47 species now recorded, 20 (43 %) are potentially endemic to Sri Lanka. We provide a checklist of all known species, document their distribution and give a key to the families.


Keywords


biodiversity, Deccan plate, endemics, India, Knuckles Range, Central Hills, arachnids

Full Text:

PDF/A (8.13 MB)

References


Adams, F.D. (1929) The geology of Ceylon. Canadian Journal of Research, 1, 425–511.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjr29-025

Aguiar, N.O. & Bührnheim, P.F. (1998) Phoretic pseudoscorpions associated with flying insects in Brazilian Amazonia. Journal of Arachnology, 26, 452–459.

Ashton, P.S. & Gunatilleke, C.V.S. (1987) New light on the plant geography of Ceylon, I. Historical plant geography. Journal of Biogeography, 14, 249–285.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2844895

Audley-Charles, M.G., Hurley, A.M. & Smith, A.G. (1981) Continental movements in the Mesozoic and Coenozoic. In: Whitmore, T.C. (Ed.) Wallace's Line and Plate Tectonics. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 9–23.

Axelrod, D.I. (1974) Plate tectonics in relation to the history of angiosperm vegetation in India. Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Special Publications, 1, 5–18.

Bahir, M.M. & Ng, P.K.L. (2005) Descriptions of ten new species of freshwater crabs (Crustacea: Brachyura: Parathelphusidae: Ceylonthelphusa, Mahatha, Perbrinckia) from Sri Lanka. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement 12, 47–75.

Balzan, L. (1892) Voyage de M. E. Simon au Venezuela (Décembre 1887 – Avril 1888). Arachnides. Chernetes (Pseudoscorpiones). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 60, 497–552.

Bambaradeniya, C. & Edirisinghe, J. (2001) The ecological role of spiders in the rice fields of Sri Lanka. Biodiversity, 2, 3–10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14888386.2001.9712671

Beenaerts, N., Pethiyagoda, R., Ng, P.K.L., Yeo, D.C.J., Bex, G.J., Bahir, M.M. & Artois, T. (2010) Phylogenetic diversity of Sri Lankan freshwater crabs and its implications for conservation. Molecular Ecology, 19, 183–196.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04439.x

Beier, M. (1930) Die Pseudoskorpione der Sammlung Röwer. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 91, 284–300.

Beier, M. (1932a) Pseudoscorpionidea I. Subord. Chthoniinea et Neobisiinea. Tierreich, 57, i–xx+1–258.

Beier, M. (1932b) Pseudoscorpionidea II. Subord. C. Cheliferinea. Tierreich, 58, i–xxi+1–294.

Beier, M. (1932c) Revision der Atemnidae (Pseudoscorpionidea). Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der Tiere, 62, 547–610.

Beier, M. (1948) Phoresie und Phagophilie bei Pseudoscorpionen. Österreichische Zoologische Zeitschrift, 1, 441–497.

Beier, M. (1951) Die Pseudoscorpione Indochinas. Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, nouvelle série, 1, 47–123.

Beier, M. (1955) Pseudoscorpionidea, gesammelt während der schwedischen Expeditionen nach Ostafrika 1937-38 und 1948. Arkiv för Zoologi, 7, 527–558.

Beier, M. (1957) Pseudoscorpionida. Insects of Micronesia, 3, 1–64.

Beier, M. (1967) Pseudoscorpione vom kontinentalen Südost-Asien. Pacific Insects, 9, 341–369.

Beier, M. (1973) Pseudoscorpionidea von Ceylon. Entomologica Scandinavica, 4, 39–55.

Beier, M. (1974) Pseudoscorpione aus Südindien des Naturhistorischen Museums in Genf. Revue suisse de Zoologie, 81, 999–1017.

Beier, M. (1951) Die Pseudoscorpione Indochinas. Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, nouvelle série, 1, 47–123.

Benjamin, S.P. (2001) The genus Oxytate L. Koch 1878 from Sri Lanka, with description of Oxytate taprobane sp. n. (Araneae: Thomisidae). Journal of South Asian Natural History, 5, 153–158.

Benjamin, S.P. (2004) Taxonomic revision and phylogenetic hypothesis for the jumping spider subfamily Ballinae (Araneae, Salticidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 142, 1–82.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2004.00123.x

Benjamin, S.P. (2010) Revision and cladistic analysis of the jumping spider genus Onomastus (Araneae: Salticidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 159, 711–745.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00580.x

Benjamin, S.P. & Bambaradeniya, C.N.B. (2006) Systematics and conservation of spiders in Sri Lanka: current status and future prospects. In: Bambaradeniya, C.N.B. (Ed.) The Fauna of Sri Lanka. IUCN - The World Conservation Union, Colombo, pp. 70–76.

Bhattacharyya, S. (1990) A survey of pseudoscorpions in the nests of Passer domesticus (Linnaeus) in West Bengal. Environment and Ecology, 8, 245–247.

Bossuyt, F., Meegaskumbura, M., Beenaerts, N., Gower, D.J., Pethiyagoda, R., Roelants, K., Mannaert, A., Wilkinson, M., Bahir, M.M., Manamendra-Arachchi, K., Ng, P.K.L., Schneider, C.J., Oommen, O.V. & Milinkovitch, M.C. (2004) Local endemism within the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot. Science, 306, 479–481.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1100167

Brinck, P., Andersson, H. & Cederholm, L. (1971) Reports from the Lund University Ceylon Expedition in 1962 Vol. 1: Introduction. Entomologica Scandinavica, Supplement 1, 1–36.

Chamberlin, J.C. (1929). A synoptic classification of the false scorpions or chela-spinners, with a report on a cosmopolitan collection of the same. Part 1. The Heterosphyronida (Chthoniidae) (Arachnida-Chelonethida). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 10, 50–80.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222932908673028

Chamberlin, J.C. (1930) A synoptic classification of the false scorpions or chela-spinners, with a report on a cosmopolitan collection of the same. Part II. The Diplosphyronida (Arachnida-Chelonethida). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 10, 1–48, 585–620.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222933008673104

Chamberlin, J.C. (1931) The arachnid order Chelonethida. Stanford University Publications, Biological Sciences, 7, 1–284.

Chamberlin, J.C. (1947). Three new species of false scorpions from the islands of Guam (Arachnida, Chelonethida). Occasional Papers of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, 18, 305–316.

Chamberlin, J.C. (1949) New and little-known false scorpions from various parts of the world (Arachnida, Chelonethida), with notes on structural abnormalities in two species. American Museum Novitates, 1430, 1–57.

Chamberlin, J.C. (1962) New and little-known false scorpions, principally from caves, belonging to the families Chthoniidae and Neobisiidae (Arachnida, Chelonethida). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 123, 303–352.

Cole, D.C., Elgar, M.A. & Harvey, M.S. (1994) Association between Australian pseudoscorpions and ants. Psyche, 101, 221–227.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/1994/23982

Cooray, P.G. (1967) An introduction to the geology of Ceylon. National Museums of Ceylon, Colombo, 324 pp.

Dahanayake, K. (1982) Laterites of Sri Lanka – a reconnaissance study. Mineralium Deposita, 17, 245–256.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00206474

Del-Claro, K. & Tizo-Pedroso, E. (2009) Ecological and evolutionary pathways of social behavior in pseudoscorpions (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones). Acta Ethologica, 12, 13–22.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10211-009-0052-y

Dimitrov, D., Benjamin, S.P. & Hormiga, G. (2009) A revised phylogenetic analysis for the spider genus Clitaetra Simon, 1889 (Araneae, Araneodiea, Nephilidae) with the first description of the male of the Sri Lankan species Clitaetra thisbe Simon, 1903. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 159, 301–323.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3099/0027-4100-159.6.301

Domrös, M. (1998) Variabilities of the temporal and spatial organization of rainfall in Sri Lanka. In: Domrös, M. & Roth, H. (Eds.) Sri Lanka: past and present Arachaeology, geography, economics – selected papers on German research. Margraf Verlag, Weikersheim, pp. 82–102.

Ellingsen, E. (1901) Sur deux espèces de pseudoscorpions de l'Asie. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France, 26, 205–209.

Ellingsen, E. (1912) The pseudoscorpions of South Africa, based on the collections of the South African Museum, Cape Town. Annals of the South African Museum 10, 75–128.

Ellingsen, E. (1913) Note on some pseudoscorpions in the British Museum. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 8, 451–455.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222931308693337

Ellingsen, E. (1914) On the pseudoscorpions of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. Records of the Indian Museum, 10, 1–14.

Erdelen, W. (1989) Aspects of the biogeography of Sri Lanka. Forschungen auf Ceylon, 3, 73–100.

Francke, O.F. & Villegas-Guzman, G.A. (2006) Symbiotic relationships between pseudoscorpions (Arachnida) and packrats (Rodentia). Journal of Arachnology, 34, 289–298.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1636/04-36.1

Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N. & Gunatilleke, C.V.S. (1991) Threatened woody endemics of the wet lowlands of Sri Lanka and their conservation. Biological Conservation, 55, 17–36.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(91)90003-R

Gunawardene, N.R., Majer, J.D. & Edirisinghe, J.P. (2008) Diversity and richness of ant species in a lowland wet forest reserve in Sri Lanka. Asian Myrmecology, 2, 71–83.

Harms, D. & Harvey, M.S. (2013) Review of the cave-dwelling species of Pseudotyrannochthonius Beier (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones: Pseudotyrannochthoniidae) from mainland Australia, with description of two troglobitic species. Australian Journal of Entomology, 52, 129–143.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aen.12009

Harvey, M.S. (1985) The systematics of the family Sternophoridae (Pseudoscorpionida). Journal of Arachnology 13, 141–209.

Harvey, M.S. (1986) The Australian Geogarypidae, new status, with a review of the generic classification (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpionida). Australian Journal of Zoology, 34, 753–778.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/ZO9860753

Harvey, M.S. (1991) Catalogue of the Pseudoscorpionida. Manchester University Press, Manchester, pp. vi + 726.

Harvey, M.S. (1992) The phylogeny and classification of the Pseudoscorpionida (Chelicerata: Arachnida). Invertebrate Taxonomy, 6, 1373–1435.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/IT9921373

Harvey, M.S. (1993) The systematics of the Hyidae (Pseudoscorpionida: Neobisioidea). Invertebrate Taxonomy, 7, 1–32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/IT9930001

Harvey, M.S. (1996) Small arachnids and their value in Gondwanan biogeographic studies. In: Hopper, S.D., Chappill, J.A., Harvey, M.S. & George, A.S. (Eds.) Gondwanan heritage: past, present and future of the Western Australian biota. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, pp. 155–162.

Harvey, M.S. (2011) Pseudoscorpions of the World, version 2.0. Western Australian Museum, Perth. http://www.museum.wa.gov.au/arachnids/pseudoscorpions/ (Accessed 8 Jun. 2013)

Harvey, M.S., Ratnaweera, P.B., Udagama, P.V. & Wijesinghe M.R. (2012) A new species of the pseudoscorpion genus Megachernes (Pseudoscorpiones: Chernetidae) associated with a threatened Sri Lankan rainforest rodent, with a review of host associations of Megachernes. Journal of Natural History, 46, 2519–2535.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2012.707251

Harvey, M.S. & Volschenk, E.S. (2007) A review of some Australasian Chernetidae: Sundochernes, Troglochernes and a new genus (Pseudoscorpiones). Journal of Arachnology, 35, 238–277.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1636/SH06-41.1

Heurtault, J. (1971) Chambre génitale, armature génitale et caractères sexuels secondaires chez quelques espèces de Pseudoscorpions (Arachnida) du genre Withius. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, (2) 42, 1037–1053.

Heurtault, J. (1986) Les Pseudoscorpions de Madagascar: Réflexions sur la répartition géographique. In: Eberhard, W.G., Lubin, Y.D. & Robinson, B.C. (Eds), Proceedings of the ninth International Congress of Arachnology, Panama 1983. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., pp. 127–129.

Hoff, C.C. & Clawson, D.L. (1952) Pseudoscorpions from rodent nests. American Museum Novitates, 1585, 1–38.

Jansen, A. (1997) Terrestrial invertebrate community structure as an indicator of the success of a tropical rainforest restoration project. Restoration Ecology, 2, 115–124.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1526-100X.1997.09714.x

Jones, P.E. (1970) The occurrence of Chthonius ischnocheles (Hermann) (Chelonethi: Chthoniidae) in two types of hazel coppice leaf litter. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society, 1, 72–79.

Judson, M. (1997) Catalogue of the pseudoscorpion types (Arachnida: Chelonethi) in The Natural History Museum, London. Occasional Papers on Systematic Entomology, 11, 1–54.

Klausen, F.E. (2005) The male genitalia of the family Atemnidae (Pseudoscorpiones). Journal of Arachnology, 33, 641–662.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1636/H03-6.1

Krombein, K.V. (1981) The Smithsonian Insect Project in Sri Lanka, 1969–1975. Spolia Zeylanica, 35, 119–135.

Krombein, K.V., Norden, B.B., Rickson, M.M. & Rickson, F.R. (1999) Biodiversity of Domatia occupants (ants, wasps, bees, and others) of the Sri Lankan myrmecophyte Humboldtia laurifolia Vahl (Fabaceae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 603, 1–34.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.603

Kuntner, M. (2006) Phylogenetic systematics of the Gondwanan nephilid spiders lineage Clitaetrinae (Araneae, Nephilidae). Zoologica Scripta, 35, 19–62.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-6409.2006.00220.x

Mahnert, V. (1982) Die Pseudoskorpione (Arachnida) Kenyas II. Feaellidae; Cheiridiidae. Revue suisse de Zoologie, 89, 115–134.

Mahnert, V. (1984) Beitrag zu einer besseren Kenntnis der Ideoroncidae (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones), mit Beschreibung von sechs neuen Arten. Revue suisse de Zoologie, 91, 651–686.

Marc, P., Canard, A. & Ysnel, F. (1999) Spiders (Araneae) useful for pest limitation and bioindication. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 74, 229–273.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(99)00038-9

Meher Homji, V.M. (1978) Environmental implications of the tertiary plant fossils of India. Indian Journal of Botany, 1, 19–27.

Miyashita, T., Shinkai, A. & Chida, T. (1998) The effects of forest fragmentation on web spider communities in urban areas. Biological Conservation, 86, 357–364.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(98)00025-1

Muchmore, W.B. (1971) Phoresy by North and Central American pseudoscorpions. Proceedings of the Rochester Academy of Science, 12, 77–97.

Murienne, J., Harvey, M.S. & Giribet, G. (2008) First molecular phylogeny of the major clades of Pseudoscorpiones (Arthropoda: Chelicerata). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 49, 170–184.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2008.06.002

Murthy, V.A. (1961) Two new species of pseudoscorpions from south India. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 13, 221–224.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222936108651100

Murthy, V.A. & Ananthakrishnan, T.N. (1977) Indian Chelonethi. Oriental Insects Monograph, 4, 1–210.

Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., da Fonseca, G.A.B. & Kent, J. (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403, 853–858.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35002501

Naggs, F., Raheem, D., Ranawana, K. & Mapatuna, Y. (2005) The Darwin initiative project on Sri Lankan land snails: patterns of diversity in Sri Lankan forests. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement 12, 23–29.

Ng, P.K.L. (1994) A note on the freshwater crabs of the genus Spiralothelphusa Bott, 1968 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Parathelphusidae), with description of a new species from Sri Lanka. Journal of South Asian Natural History, 1, 27–30.

Ng, P.K.L. (1995a) Ceylonthelphusa scansor, a new species of treeclimbing crab from Sinharaja Forest in Sri Lanka (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Parathelphusidae). Journal of South Asian Natural History, 1, 175–184.

Ng, P.K.L. (1995b) A revision of the Sri Lankan montane crabs of the genus Perbrinckia Bott, 1969 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Parathelphusidae). Journal of South Asian Natural History, 1, 129–174.

Ng, P.K.L. & Tay, W.M. (2001) The freshwater crabs of Sri Lanka (Decapoda: Brachyura: Parathelphusidae). Zeylanica, 6, 113–199.

Pethiyagoda, R. (2005) Exploring Sri Lanka’s biodiversity. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 12, 1–4.

Pethiyagoda, R. (2007) Pearls, spices and green gold: a history of biodiversity exploration in Sri Lanka. WHT Publications, Colombo, 241 pp.

Pethiyagoda, R. & Manamendra-Arachchi, K. (1998) Evaluating Sri Lanka’s amphibian diversity. Occasional Papers of the Wildlife Heritage Trust of Sri Lanka, 2, 1–12.

Pocock, R.I. (1900) The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Taylor and Francis, London, 152 pp.

Pocock, R.I. (1904) The fauna and geography of the Maldive and Laccadive Archipelagoes: being the account of the work carried on and of the collections made by an expedition during the years 1899 and 1900. In: Gardiner, J.S. (Eds.), Arachnida. Cambridge University, Cambridge. pp. 797–805.

Poinar, G.O. Jr, Ćurčić, B.P.M. & Cokendolpher, J.C. (1998) Arthropod phoresy involving pseudoscorpions in the past and present. Acta Arachnologica, 47, 79–96.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2476/asjaa.47.79

Puvaneswaran, K.M. & Smithson, P.A. (1993) An objective classification of homogeneous rainfall regimes in Sri Lanka. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 48, 133–145.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00864920

Ratnaweera, P.B., Wijesinghe, M.R. & Udagama-Randeniya, P.V. (2010) Parasitic associations of a threatened Sri Lankan rainforest rodent, Mus mayori pococki (Rodentia: Muridae). Journal of Threatened Taxa, 2, 901–907.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2194.901-7

Redikortzev, V. (1938) Les pseudoscorpions de l'Indochine française recueillis par M. C. Dawydoff. Bulletin du Museum national d'Histoire naturelle. Paris, 10, 69–116.

Santos, J.C., Tizo-Pedroso, E. & Fernandes, G.W. (2005) A case of phoresy of Semeiochernes armiger Balzan, 1892 (Pseudoscorpiones: Chernetidae) on the giant tropical fly Pantophthalmus tabaninus Thunberg, 1819 (Diptera: Pantophthalmidae) in an Amazonian rain forest, Pará. Lundiana, 6, 11–12.

Schawaller, W. (1981) Cheiridiidae in Dominikanischen Bernstein, mit Anmerkungen zur morphologischen Variabilität (Stuttgarter Bernsteinsammlung: Arachnida, Pseudoscorpionidea). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde (B), 75, 1–14.

Schrank, F.P. (1803) Fauna Boica. Durchgedachte, Geschichte der in Baiern einheimischen und Zahmen Theire. Vol. 3. Krüll, Landshut.

Shear, W.A. (1991) The early development of terrestrial ecosystems. Nature, 351, 283–289.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/351283a0

Shear, W.A., Schawaller, W. & Bonamo, P.M. (1989) Record of Palaeozoic pseudoscorpions. Nature, 341, 527–529.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/341527a0

Simon, E. (1878) Liste des espèces de la famille des Cheliferidae qui habitant l'Algérie et le Maroc. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 5 (8), 144–153.

Simon, E. (1879) Les Ordres des Chernetes, Scorpiones et Opiliones. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, In Les Arachnides de France, 7, 1–332.

Simon, E. (1901) On the Arachnida collected during the "Skeat Expedition" to the Malay Peninsula, 1899-1900. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 71, 45–84.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1901.tb08164.x

Sivaraman, S. (1980) Pseudoscorpions from South India: some new species of the family Atemnidae Chamberlin (Pseudoscorpionida: Monosphyronida). Oriental Insects, 14, 345–362.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00305316.1980.10434813

Somasekaram, T. (1988) National Atlas for Sri Lanka. Survey Department Colombo, pp. 1–141.

Thanee, N., Kupittayanant, S. & Pinmongkholgul, S. (2009) Prevalence of ectoparasites and blood parasites in small mammals at Sakaerat Environmental Research Station, Thailand. Thai Journal of Agricultural Science, 42, 149–158.

Thorell, T. (1883) Descrizione di alcuni Aracnidi inferiori dell'Arcipelago Malese. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, 18, 21–69.

Thorell, T. (1889) Aracnidi Artrogastri Birmani raccolti da L. Fea nel 1885-1887. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, 2, 521–729.

Tizo-Pedroso, E. & Del-Claro, K. (2005) Matriphagy in the neotropical pseudoscorpion Paratemnoides nidificator (Balzan 1888) (Atemnidae). Journal of Arachnology, 33, 873–877.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1636/S03-61.1

Tullgren, A. (1905) Einige Chelonethiden aus Java. Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen Museum in Hamburg, 22, 37–47.

Tullgren, A. (1907) Zur Kenntnis aussereuropäischer Chelonethiden des Naturhistorischen Museums in Hamburg. Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen Museum in Hamburg, 24, 21–75.

Tullgren, A. (1908) Eine neue Olpium-Art aus Java. Notes from the Leyden Museum, 29, 148–150.

Turienzo, P., Di Iorio, O. & Mahnert, V. (2010) Global checklist of pseudoscorpions (Arachnida) found in birds’ nests. Revue suisse de Zoologie, 117, 557–598.

Vachon, M. (1934) Sur le développement post-embryonnaire des pseudoscorpionides. Deuxiemes note. Les formes immatures de Chelifer cancroides L. (suite). Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 59, 405–416.

Vachon, M. (1970) Remarques sur Withius piger (Simon, 1878) nov. comb. (Pseudoscorpion Cheliferidae) et sur le genre Diplotemnus J.C. Chamberlin, 1933, à propos de Diplotemnus beieri nov. nom. (Pseudoscorpion Miratemnidae). Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris 42, 185–191.

Vitanage, P.W. (1970) A study of the geomorphology and morphotectonics of Ceylon. Proceedings of the Second Seminar on Geochemical Prospecting Methods and Techniques. UN Mineral Resources Development Series, 38, 391–405.

Wadia, D.N. (1945) The three superimposed peneplains of Ceylon: their physiography and geological structure. Records of the Department of Mineralogy (Ceylon), 1, 25–32.

Weygoldt, P. (1969) The biology of pseudoscorpions. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 1–145.

With, C.J. (1906) The Danish expedition to Siam 1899-1900. III. Chelonethi. An account of the Indian false-scorpions together with studies on the anatomy and classification of the order. Oversigt over det Konigelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger, 7, 1–214.

Witt, D.L. & Dill, L.M. (1996) Springtail postmolt vulnerability to pseudoscorpion predation: mechanisms and implications. Journal of lnsect Behavior, 9, 395–406.

Zeh, D.W. & Zeh, J.A. (1992) Failed predation or transportation? Causes and consequences of phoretic behavior in the pseudoscorpion Dinocheirus arizonensis (Pseudoscorpionida: Chernetidae). Journal of Insect Behaviour, 5, 37–49.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01049156


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa