Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3841.3.4

A revision of the Rutilus complex from Mediterranean Europe with description of a new genus, Sarmarutilus, and a new species, Rutilus stoumboudae (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)

PIER GIORGIO BIANCO, VALERIO KETMAIER

Abstract


By combining morphology, ecology, biology, and biogeography with the available molecular (sequence variation of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b gene; cyt-b) and karyology data, the taxonomy of several species of the Rutilus complex inhabiting southern Europe is revised. Rutilus stoumboudae, new species, is described from Lake Volvi, Greece. It differs from Rutilus rutilus in possessing more total GR and less branched rays in both dorsal and anal fins and in its placement in the cyt-b based phylogeny of the genus. The resurrected genus Leucos Heckel, 1843 (type species Leucos aula, Bonaparte, 1841), which according to molecular data diverged from Rutilus more than 5 million years ago, during the Messinian salinity crisis, includes five species of small size, without spinous tubercles on scales and head in reproductive males, pharyngeal teeth formula 5-5, and all show a preference for still waters. Leucos aula is the Italian species endemic in the Padany-Venetian district: L. basak is widespread in Croatia, Albania, Montenegro and former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM); L. albus, recently described from Lake Skadar, Montenegro, is also found in rivers Moraca and Zeta (Montenegro). L. albus differs from L. basak, its closest relative, in having more scales on the LL and less anal-fin rays; L. panosi is endemic to the western-Greece district, and L. ylikiensis is endemic to lakes Yliki and Paralimni in eastern Greece (introduced in Lake Volvi). Among the nominal species examined, Rutilus karamani, R. ohridanus, R. prespensis and R. prespensis vukovici are all junior synonyms of Leucos basak. Rutilus vegariticus is definitively regarded as junior synonym for R. rutilus. Sarmarutilus n.gen. is a monotypic genus, with Sarmarutilus rubilio as the type species. According to phylogenetic data, Sarmarutilus rubilio is basal to a cluster of species that includes Leucos basak, L. albus, L. aula, L. panosi and L. ylikiensis. Sarmarutilus possibly evolved in pre-Messinian time, in the Lago Mare, entered the Mediterranean area during the Messinian Lago Mare phase of the Mediterranean Sea and survived only in the Tuscany- Latium district. This genus differs from Leucos in having large pearl organs on the central part of head and body scales in mature males and for the habitat preference, being a riverine-adapted species. It differs from Rutilus in pharyngeal teeth formula (5-5 in Sarmarutilus and 6-5 in Rutilus), size (small in Sarmarutilus and large in Rutilus) and for the preferential habitat (riverine vs. still water). Finally, lectotypes for Leucos basak, Leucos aula, and Sarmarutilus rubilio are designated.


Keywords


Freshwater fish, Mediterranean Europe, Cyprinidae, genera Rutilus, Leucos, Sarmarutilus new genus, new species

Full Text:

PDF/A (2.49 MB)

References


Albrecht, C. & Wilke, T. (2008) Ancient Lake Ohrid: biodiversity and evolution. Hydrobiologia, 615, 103–140.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-008-9558-y

Banarescu, P. (1964) Fauna Republicii populare Romine. Pisces, Osteichthyies. Vol. 13. Bucuresti, 959 pp.

Berg, L. (1949) Freshwater fish of the USSR and adjacent countries. Israel Program for Scientific Translation (1964). Vol. 2. Jerusalem, 496 pp.

Bianco, P.G. (1990) Potential role of the palaeohistory of the Mediterranean and Parathetys basin on the early dispersal of Europe-Mediterranean freshwater fishes. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 1, 167–184.

Bianco, P.G. (1998) Diversity of Barbinae fishes in southern Europe with description of a new genus and a new species. Italian Journal of Zoology, 65 (Supplement), 125–136.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/11250009809386804

Bianco, P.G. (2014a) Lectotype designation for Squalius squalus (Bonaparte, 1837) (Pisces:Cyprinidae). Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 163, 91–93.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1635/053.163.0103

Bianco, P.G. (2014b) An update of the status of the native and exotic freshwater fish of Italy. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 30, 62–77.

Bianco, P.G., Aprea, G., Balletto, E., Capriglione, T., Fulgione, M. & Odierna, G. (2004) The karyology of the cyprinid genera Scardinius and Rutilus in southern Europe. Ichthyological Research, 51, 274–278.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10228-004-0221-y

Bianco, P.G., Caputo, V., Ferrito, V., Lorenzoni, M., Nonnis Marzano, F., Stefani, F., Sabatini, A. & Tancioni, L. (2013) Pesci d’acqua dolce. In: Rondinini, C., Battistoni, A., Peronace, V. & Teofili, C. (Compilers.), Lista Rossa IUCN dei Vertebrati Italiani. Comitato Italiano IUCN e Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare, Roma, pp. 54.

Bianco, P.G. & Ketmaier, V. (2001) Anthropogenic changes in the freshwater fish fauna of Italy, with reference to the central region and Barbus graellsii, a newly established alien species of Iberian origin. Journal of Fish Biology, 59, 190–208.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2001.tb01386.x

Bianco, P.G. & Kottelat, M. (2005) Scardinius knezevici, a new species of rudd from Lake Skadar, Montenegro (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 16, 231–238.

Bianco, P.G. & Santoro, E. (2004) Biologia della rovella, del cavedano e del barbo nei bacini del Parco Nazionale del Cilento e Vallo di Diano (Cyprinidae). Biologia Ambientale, 18, 85–91.

Bianco, P.G. & Santoro, E. (2011) I pesci e i decapodi d’acqua dolce della Riserva Naturale Monterano: alterazioni prodotte, status degli autoctoni e indicazioni gestionali. In: Bianco, P.G. & de Filippo, G. (Eds.), Pesci parchi vol 3. Contributo alla conoscenza della fauna ittica d’acqua dolce in aree protette d’Italia. Researches on Wildlife Conservation. Publisher: Lulu.com USA IGF Publ., ISBN: 978-1-4709-2573-4, pp. 1–24.

Bianco, P.G. & Taraborelli, T. (1985) Contributo alla conoscenza del genere Rutilus R. in Italia e nei balcani occidentali (Pisces, Cyprinidae). Bollettino del Museo Regionale di Scienze naturali di Torino, 3, 131–172.

Bogutskaya, N.G. & Iliadou, K. (2006) Rutilus panosi, a new roach from western Greece (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Zoosystematica Rossica, 14, 293–298.

Böhlke, E.B. (1984) Catalogue of type specimen in the ichthyological collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Academy of Natural Sciences, Special Publication, 14, 1–246.

Durand, J.D., Guinand, B. & Bouvet, V. (1999) Local and global multivariate analysis of geographical mitochondrial DNA variation in Leuciscus cephalus L. 1758 (Pisces: Cyprinidae) in the Balkan Peninsula. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 67, 19–42.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.1999.tb01927.x

Economidis, P.S. (1991) Check list of freshwater fish of Greece. Recent status of threats and protection. Hellenic Society for the Protection of Nature, Athens, 48 pp.

Economidis, P.S. (1995) Endangered freshwater fishes of Greece. Biological conservation, 72, 201–211.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(94)00083-3

Economidis, P.S. & Banarescu, P. (1991) The distribution and origins of freshwater fish in the Balkan peninsula, especially in Greece. Internationale Revue gesamten Hydrobiologie, 76, 257–283.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iroh.19910760209

Economidis, P.S. & Sinis, A.I. (1982) Les poissons du système des lacs Koronia et Volvi (Macédonie, Grèce). Biologia Gallo-Hellenica, 9, 291–317.

Heckel, J.J. (1943) Ichthyologie. In: Russenger, J. (Ed.), Reisen in Europa, Asien und Afrika mit besonder Rücksicht auf die naturwissenschaftlichen Verhältnisse der betreffenden Länder, unternommen in den Jharen 1835 bis 1841. Erster band. Reise in Griechenland, Unteregypten im nördlichen Syrien und südöstlinchen Klein Asien. Zweiter Theil. Stuttgart (Schweizerbart), pp. 991–1099.

Howes, G.J. (1981) Anatomy and phylogeny of the Chinese major carp Ctenopharyngodon Steind. 1866 and Hypophthalmyichtys Blk. 1860. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Zool.), 41, 1–52.

ICZN (1999) International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. International Code of zoological nomenclature. 4th Edition. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London, 306 pp.

IUCN (2012) IUCN Red List categories and criteria: version 3.1 IUCN, Species Survival Commission. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, 32 pp.

IUCN (2013) IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. Available from: www.iucnredlist.org (accessed 20 May 2014)

Ivanović, B.M. (1973) Ichthyofauna of Skadar Lake. Montenegro, Titograd, 146 pp.

Jordan, D.S. & Gilbert, C.H. (1883) Synopsis of fishes of North America. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 16, 1–1018.

Karaman, S.L. (1924) Pisces macedoniae. Hrvatska Stamparija, Split, 90 pp.

Ketmaier, V., Bianco, P.G., Krivokapic, M., Cobolli, M. & De Matthaeis, E. (2004) Molecular phylogeny of two lineages of Leuciscinae cyprinids (Telestes and Scardinius) from the peri-Mediterranean area based on cytochrome b data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32, 1061–1071.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2004.04.008

Ketmaier, V., Bianco, P.G. & Durand, J.D. (2008) Molecular systematics, phylogeny and biogeography of roaches (Rutilus, Teleostei, Cyprinidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 49, 362–367.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2008.07.012

Kottelat, M. (1997) European freshwater fish. Biologia, 52 (Supplement), 1–271.

Kottelat, M. & Freyhof, J. (2007) Handbook of European Freshwater Fishes. Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland and Frehyof, Berlin, Germany, 646 pp.

Leonardos, D., Kagalou, I.I., Tsoumani, M. & Economidis, P.S. (2008) Fish fauna in a protected Greek lake: biodiversity, introduced fish species over a 80-year period and their impacts on the ecosystem. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 17, 165–173.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0633.2007.00268.x

Larmuseau, M.H.D., Frehyof, J., Volkaert, F.A.M. & Houdt, J.K.J. van (2009) Matrilinear phylogeography and demographical patterns of Rutilus rutilus: implications for taxonomy and conservation. Journal of Fish Biology, 75, 332–353.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2009.02322.x

Lasca, N.P., Radulovic,V., Ristic, R.J. & Cherkauer, D.S. (1981) Geology, hydrology, climate and bathymetry of Lake Skadar. In: Karaman, G.S. (Ed.), The biota and Limnology of Lake Skadar. Smithsonian Institution D.C. USA, printed in Yugoslavia, Titograd, pp. 17–38.

Mačrovcić, M., Brigić, A., Buj, I., Ćaleta, M., Mustafić, P. & Zanella, D. (2006) Red book of freshwater fishes of Croatia. Ministry of Culture, State Institute for Nature Protection, Zagreb, 253 pp.

Marić, D. (1988) The species revision of genus Rutilus Raf. from western part of Balkan peninsula. Prirode Prirodnjackog Museja Titograd, 21, 55–79.

Marić, D. (2010) Rutilus albus sp. n. (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Lake Skadar. Periodicum Biologorum, 112, 153–158.

Milošević, D., Winkler, K.A., Marić, D. & Weiss, S. (2011) Genotypic and phenotypic evaluation of Rutilus spp. from Skadar, Ohrid and Prespa Lakes supports revision of endemic as well as taxonomic status of several taxa. Journal of Fish Biology, 79, 1094–1100.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2011.03090.x

Puzzi, C.M., Trasforini, S., Bardazzi, M.A., Polisciano, N., Montonati, S. & Maggio, A. (2007) Carta Provinciale Delle Vocazioni Ittiche della Provincia Di Milano. Servizio Gestione Attività Venatoria e Piscatoria, Milano, 447 pp.

Soric, V.M. (1983) Rutilus rubilio (Cyprinidae, Pisces) U Ohrid-Drim-Skadar sistemu. Acta Biologica Jugoslavica, Biosistematika, 9, 61–70.

Tigano, C. & Ferrito, V. (1986) Sulla presenza di Rutilus rubilio (Bp. 1837) in Sicilia (Pisces,Cyprinidae). Animalia, 13, 109–124.

Tsigenopoulos, C.S. & Berrebi, P. (2000) Molecular phylogeny of north Mediterranean freshwater barbs (Genus Barbus: Cyprinidae) inferred from cytochrome b sequences: biogeographic and systematic implications. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 14, 165–179.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/mpev.1999.0702

Vladikov, V.D. & Petit, G. (1930) Sur quelques poisons d’eau douce d’Albanie. Bulletin de la Societé Zoologique de France, 55, 383–409.

Volta, P. & Jepsen, N. (2008) The recent invasion of Rutilus rutilus (L.), (Pisces: Cyprinidae) in a large South-Alpine lake: Lago Maggiore. Journal of Limnology, 67, 163–170.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/jlimnol.2008.163


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa