Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3866.4.8

Stalk-eyed wasps—review of a largely unnoticed group of morphologically bizarre chalcidoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae: Axima

DIANA CAROLINA ARIAS-PENNA, THOMAS PAPE, LARS KROGMANN

Abstract


Axima Walker is a small genus of Eurytomidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) exclusive to the Western Hemisphere. Some species are distinctive in having stalked eyes and Axima sidi, sp. n. is described as the third stalk-eyed species based on a single female from Colombia. A key to facilitate species identification of stalk-eyed Axima is included. The only species of Axima for which host biology is known is a primary parasitoid of dwarf carpenter bees of the genus Ceratina Latreille (Apidae: Xylocopinae). A hypothesis about the possible function of stalked eyes in Axima as devices to assist the escape of adult wasps from hosts enclosed in the soft pith of plant stems is proposed.


Keywords


Colombia, new species, functional morphology, Chalcidoidea

Full Text:

PDF/A (3.22 MB)

References


Alahmed, A.M. (1999) Parasitoids that attack housefly (Diptera: Muscidae) puparia at dairy farms in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. Alexandria Journal of Agricultural Research, 44 (3), 291–296.

Arias-Penna, D.C. (2007) New geographical records of the genus Urosigalphus Ashmead, 1889 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Helconinae) for Colombia. Boletín del Museo de Entomología de la Universidad del Valle, 8 (1), 1–9.

Ashmead, W.H. (1904) Classification of the chalcid flies of the superfamily Chalcidoidea, with descriptions of new species in the Carnegie Museum, collected in South America by Herbert H. Smith. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum, 1 (4), 225–551.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.10341

Beaver, R.A. (1986) Some Diptera and their parasitoids bred from dead snails in Zambia. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine, 122 (1468–1471), 195–199.

Bouček, Z. & Narendran, T.C. (1981) Indian chalcid wasps (Hymenoptera) of the genus Dirhinus parasitic on synanthropic and other Diptera. Systematic Entomology, 6 (3), 229–251.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3113.1981.tb00438.x

Burks, B.D. (1966) The immature stages of Axima zabriskiei Howard (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae). Entomological News, 77 (7), 199–202.

Burks, B.D. (1971) A synopsis of the genera of the family Eurytomidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 97 (1), 1–89.

Burks, B.D. (1979) Torymidae (Agaonidae) and all other families of Chalcidoidea (excluding Encyrtidae). In: Krombein, K.V., Hurd, P.D. Jr., Smith, D.R. & Burks, B.D. (Eds.) Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Smithsonian Institute press, Washington D.C., pp. 1–846.

De Santis, L. (1979) Catálogo de los Hymenopteros calcidoideos de América al sur de los Estados Unidos. Buenos Aires, Publicación Especial Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas Provincia de Buenos Aires, 304 pp.

DiGiulio, J.A. (1997) Chapter 13. Eurytomidae. In: Gibson, G.A.P., Huber, J.T. & Woolley, J.B. (Eds.), Annotated keys to the genera of Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario, pp. 477–495.

Gates, M.W., Metz, M.A & Schauff, M.E. (2006) The circumscription of the generic concept of Aximopsis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eurytomidae) with the description of seven new species. Zootaxa, 1273, 9–54.

Gibson, G.A.P. (2003) Phylogenetics and classification of Cleonyminae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae). Memoirs on Entomology, International, 16, 1–336.

Grimaldi, D. & Fenster, G. (1989) Evolution of extreme sexual dimorphisms: structural and behavioral convergence among broad-headed male Drosophilidae (Diptera). American Museum Novitates, 2939, 1–25.

Hymenoptera Anatomy Consortium (2014) The Hymenoptera Glossary. Available from: http://glossary.hymao.org. (accessed 17 Mar 2014)

Howard, L.O. (1890) A North American Axima and its habits. Insect Life, 2, 366.

Kislow, C.J. (1976) The comparative biology of two species of small carpenter bee, Ceratina strenua F. Smith and C. calcarata Robertson (Hymenoptera: Xylocopinae). PhD Thesis University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, 442 pp.

Krogmann, L. & Burks, R.A. (2009) Doddifoenus wallacei, a new giant parasitoid wasp of the subfamily Leptofoeninae (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae), with a description of its mesosomal skeletal anatomy and a molecular characterization. Zootaxa, 2194, 21–36.

Krombein, K.V. (1960) Biological notes on some Hymenoptera that nest in sumach pith. Entomological News, 71, 29–36.

Lotfalizadeh, H., Delvare, G. & Rasplus, J.Y. (2007) Phylogenetic analysis of Eurytominae (Chalcidoidea: Eurytomidae) based on morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 151 (3), 441–510.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2007.00308.x

Noyes, J.S. (2014) Universal Chalcidoidea Database. World Wide Web electronic publication. Available from: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/chalcidoids (accessed 22 May 2014).

Peck, O. (1963) A catalog of Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 95, Supplement S30, 5–1092.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4039/entm9530fv

Quicke, D.L.J. (1997) Parasitic wasps. Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 470 pp.

Rau, P. (1928) The nesting habits of the little carpenter-bee, Ceratina calcarata. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 21 (3), 380–397.

Stage, G.I. & Snelling, R.R. (1986) The subfamilies of Eurytomidae and systematics of the subfamily Heimbrinae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Contributions in Science, 375, 1–17.

Subba Rao, B.R. (1978) New genera and species of Eurytomidae (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae). Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, 87B (12), 293–319.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03179018

Vickruck, J.L., Huber, J.T. & Richards, M.H. (2010) Natural enemies of the bee genus Ceratina (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada. Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 141, 11–26.

Walker, F. (1862) Notes on Chalcidites, and characters of undescribed species. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, 11 (4), 345–397.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1862.tb01285.x

Yoshimoto, C.M. & Gibson, G.A.P. (1979) A new genus of Eurytomidae (Chalcidoidea: Erytomidae, Aximinae) from Brazil. The Canadian Entomologist, 111 (4), 421–424.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4039/Ent111421-4

Zimmer, C. (2008) The evolution of extraordinary eyes: the cases of flatfishes and stalk-eyed flies.Evolution: Education and Outreach, 1, 487–492.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12052-008-0089-9


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa