Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3872.2.5

The first Pan-Podocnemididae turtle egg from the Presidente Prudente Formation (Late Cretaceous, Bauru Group), Brazil

JÚLIO C. DE A. MARSOLA, GERALD GRELLET-TINNER, FELIPE C. MONTEFELTRO, MAX C. LANGER

Abstract


Pan-Podocnemididae turtles are ubiquitous in Late Cretaceous rocks of the Bauru Group in southeastern Brazil. This group of side-necked turtles is particularly abundant in a turtle-bearing site of the Presidente Prudente Formation known as Tartaruguito. Here, we describe the first turtle egg (LPRP-USP 0052) from the Tartaruguito site. LPRP-USP 0052 is nearly complete but misses a pole and measures 5,1 and 2,9-2,2 centimeters due to its flattened minor axis. The egg morphology and microstructure were analyzed by observations performed with CT, Optic Microscopy, Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Wave Dispersion Energy analyses. The eggshell ranges from 145 to160 micrometers thick. Considering the matching morphology of the new specimen and its provenance from the stratigraphic horizon that yielded only the podocnemidids Bauruemys and Roxochelys, it is most likely that LPRP-USP 0052 was produced by a podocnemidid turtle.

 


Keywords


Turtle fossil eggs, Bauruemys, Roxochelys, Presidente Prudente Formation, Bauru Group

Full Text:

PDF/A (3.15 MB)

References


Azevedo, S.A., Gallo, V. & Ferigolo, J. (2000) A possible chelonian egg from the Brazilian Late Cretaceous. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 72, 187–193.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0001-37652000000200007

Batsch, A.J.G.C. (1788) Versuch einer Anleitung, zur KenntniB und Geschichte der Thiere und Mineralien. Akademische Buchhandlung, Jena, 528 pp.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.79854

Bertini, R.J. Santucci, RM., Toledo, CEV. & Menegazzo, M.C. (2006) Taphonomy and depositional history of an Upper Cretaceous turtle-bearing outcrop from the Adamantina Formatina, Southwestern São Paulo State. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 9, 181–186.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4072/rbp.2006.2.01

Board, R.G. (1981) The microstructure of avian eggshells, adaptive significance and practical implications in aviculture. Wildfowl, 32, 132–136.

Board, R.G., Perrott, H.R., Love, G. & Seymour, R.S. (1982) A novel pore system in the eggshells of the Mallee fowl, Leipoa ocellata. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 220, 131–134.

Board, R.G. & Sparks, N.H.C. (1991) Shell structure and formation in avian eggs, In: Deeming, D.C. & Ferguson, M.W.J. (Eds.), Egg incubation: its effects on embryonic development in birds and reptiles. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 53–70.

Booth, D.T. & Thompson, M.B. (1991) A comparison of reptilian eggs with those of megapode birds, In: Deeming, D.C. & Ferguson, M.W.J. (Eds.), Egg incubation: its effects on embryonic development in birds and reptiles. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 325–344.

Bray, E.S. & Hirsch, K.F. (1998) Eggshells from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. Modern Geology, 23, 219–240.

Broin, F. de (1988) Les tortues et le Gondwana. Examen des rapports entre le fractionnement du Gondwana et la dispersion gographique des tortues pleurodires partir du Crtac. Studia Palaeocheloniologica, 2, 103–142.

Campos, D.A., Oliveira, G.R., Figueiredo, R.G., Riff, D., Azevedo, S.A., Carvalho, L.B. & Kellner, A.W.A. (2011) On a new peirosaurid crocodyliform from the Upper Cretaceous, Bauru Group, southeastern Brazil. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 83, 317–327.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0001-37652011000100020

Candeiro, C.R.A., Martinelli, A.G., Avilla, L.S. & Rich, T.H. (2006) Tetrapods from the Upper Cretaceous (Turonian-Maastrichtian) Bauru Group of Brazil: a reappraisal. Cretaceous Research, 27, 923–946.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2006.05.002

Cope, E.D. (1865) Third contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1865, 185–198.

de la Fuente, M.S., Sterli, J. & Maniel, I. (2014) South Gondwana pleurodiran turtles, In: de la Fuente, M.S., Sterli, J., Maniel, I. (Eds.), Origin, evolution and biogeographic history of South American turtles. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, pp. 53–94.

Dias-Brito, D., Musacchio, E.A., Castro, J.C., Maranhão, M.S.A., Suárez, J.M. & Rodrigues, R. (2001) Grupo Bauru: uma unidade continental do Cretáceo do Brasil –concepções baseadas em dados micropaleontológicos, isotópicos e estratigráficos. Revue Paléobiologique, 20, 245–304.

Fernandes, L.A. (2004) Mapa litoestratigráfico da parte oriental da Bacia Bauru (PR, SP, MG), escala 1:1.000.000. Boletim Paranaense de Geociências, 55, 53–66.

Fernandes, L.A. & Coimbra, A.M. (1996) A Bacia Bauru (Cretáceo Superior, Brasil). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 68, 105–195.

Foote, R.W. (1978) Nesting of Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines: Pelomedusidae) in the Colombian Amazon. Herpetologica, 34, 333–339.

França, M.A.G. & Langer, M.C. (2006) Phylogenetics relationships of the Bauru Group turtles (Late Cretaceous of the South-central Brazil). Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 9, 1–9.

Gaffney, E.S., Meylan, P.A., Wood, R.C., Simons, E. & Campos, D.A. (2011) Evolution of the side-necked turtles: the family Podocnemididae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 350, 1–237.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1206/350.1

Gobbo-Rodrigues, S.R., Coimbra, J.C., Petri, S. & Bertini, R.J. (2003) Kwango Series (Congo), Bauru Group (Brasil) and Neuquén Basin (Argentina) ages, based on ostracodes and vertebrates. In: do Carmo, D. (Ed.), XVIII Congresso Brasileiro de Paleontologia. Sociedade Brasileira de Paleontologia, Brasília, pp. 152–153.

Grellet-Tinner, G., Chiappe, L.M., Norell, M.A. & Bottjer, D. (2006) Dinosaur eggs and nesting behaviors: A paleobiological investigation. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 232, 294–321.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2005.10.029

Grellet-Tinner, G., Sim, C.M., Kim, D.H., Trimby, P., Higa, A., An, S.L., Oh, H.S., Kim, T. & Kardjilov, N. (2011) Description of the first lithostrotian titanosaur embryo in ovo with Neutron characterization and implications for lithostrotian Aptian migration and dispersion. Gondwana Research, 20, 621–629.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gr.2011.02.007

Hirsch, K.F. (1983) Contemporary and fossil chelonian eggshells. Copeia, 1983, 382–397.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1444381

Hirsch, K.F. (1996) Parataxonomic classification of fossil chelonian and gecko eggs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 16, 752–762.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02724634.1996.10011363

Jackson, F., Jin, X., Varricchio, D.J., Azuma, Y. & Jiang, Y. (2008) The first in situ turtle clutch from the Cretaceous Tiantai Basin, Zhejiang Province, China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28, 319–323.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1671/0272-4634(2008)28[319:tfistc]2.0.co;2

Joyce, W.G., Parham, J.F. & Gauthier, J.A. (2004) Developing a protocol for the conversion of rank-based taxon namesto phylogenetically defined clade names, as exemplified by turtles. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 78 (5), 989–1013.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1666/0022-3360(2004)078<0989:dapftc>2.0.co;2

Ketcham, R.A. & Carlson, W.D. (2001) Acquisition, optimization and interpretation of X-ray computed tomographic imagery: applications to the geosciences. Computers & Geosciences, 27, 381–400.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0098-3004(00)00116-3

Knell, M.J., Jackson, F., Titus, A.L. & Albright III, L.B. (2011) A gravid fossil turtle from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Kaiparowits Formation, southern Utah. Historical Biology, 23, 57–62.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08912963.2010.499167

Kohring, R. (1999) Structure, biostratinomy and systematic and phylogenetic relevance of egg shells of vertebrate amniotes. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 210, 1–307, A1–A6.

Marsola, J.C.A., Grellet-Tinner, G., Montefeltro, F.C., Sayão, J.M., Hsiou, A.S. & Langer, M.C. (2014) The first fossil avian egg from Brazil. Alcheringa, 38. [published online]
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03115518.2014.926449

Oliveira, G.R. & Romano, P.S.R. (2007) Histórico dos achados de tartarugas fósseis do Brasil. Arquivos do Museu Nacional, 65, 113–133.

Packard, G.C. & Packard, M.J. (1988) The physiological ecology of reptilian eggs and embryos. In: Gans, C. & Huey, R.B. (Eds), Biology of the Reptilia: Ecology (B) - Defense and life history. Vol. 16. Branta Books, New York, pp. 387–438.

Quinn, B. (1994) Laboratory preparation. Fossilized eggshell preparation. In: Leiggi, P. & May, P. (Eds.), Vertebrate paleontological techniques. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 146–154.

Romano, P.S.R., Oliveira, G.R., Azevedo, S.A., Kellner, A.W.A. & Campos, D.A. (2013) New Information about Pelomedusoides (Testudines: Pleurodira) from the Cretaceous of Brazil. In: Brinkman, D.B., Holroyd, P.A., Gardner, J. D. (Eds.), Morphology and Evolution of Turtles - Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology Book Series. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 261–275.

Santucci, R.M. & Bertini, R.J. (2001) Distribuição paleogeográfica e biocronológica dos titanossauros (Saurischia, Sauropoda) do Grupo Bauru, Cretáceo Superior do sudeste brasileiro. Revista Brasileira de Geociências, 31, 307–314.

Schleich, H.H. & Kästle, W. (1988) Reptile egg-shells SEM atlas. Gustav-Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, 128 pp.

Schleich, H.H., Kästle, M. & Groessens-van Dyck, M. (1988) Paläogene Eischalenreste von Hainin (Belgien). Palaontologie Zeitschrift, 62,133–146.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf02989839

Soares, P.C., Landim, P.M. B., Fulfaro, V.J. & Sobreiro Neto, A.F. (1980) Ensaio de caracterização do Cretáceo no Estado de São Paulo: Grupo Bauru. Revista Brasileira de Geociências, 10, 177–185.

Suárez, J.M. (1969) Um quelônio da Formação Bauru. Anais do XXIII Congresso Brasileiro de Geologia. 167–176.

Suárez, J.M. (2002) Sítio Fossilífero de Pirapozinho, SP. Extraordinário depósito de quelônios do Cretáceo. In: Schobbenhaus, C.C., Queiroz, E.T., Winge, M., Berbert-Born, M.L.C. (Eds), Sítios Geológicos e Paleontológicos do Brasil, Comissão Brasileira de Sítios Geológicos e Paleobiológicos (SIGEP). DNPM/CPRM, Brasília, 49–54.

Wang, Q., Wang, X., Zhao, Z., Zhang, J. & Jiang, S. (2013) New turtle egg fossil from the Upper Cretaceous of the Laiyang Baisn, Shandong Province, China. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 85 (1), 103–111.

Williams, E.E. (1956) Podocnemis bassleri, a new species of Pelomedusid turtle from the Late Tertiary of Peru. American Museum Novitates, 1782, 1–10.

Winkler, J.D. (2006) Testing phylogenetic implications of eggshell characters in side-necked turtles (Testudines: Pleurodira). Zoology, 109, 127–136.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.zool.2005.12.003

Winkler, J.D. & Sánchez-Villagra, M.R. (2006) A nesting site and egg morphology of a Miocene turtle from Urumaco, Venezuela: Evidence of marine adaptations in Pelomedusoides. Palaeontology, 49, 641–646.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4983.2006.00557.x

Young, J.D. (1950) The structure and physical properties of the testudinian eggshell. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 120, 455–469.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1950.tb00656.x

Zaher, H., Pol, D., Carvalho, A.B., Riccomini, C., Campos, D.A. & Nava, W.R. (2006) Redescription of the cranial morphology of Mariliasuchus amarali, and its phylogenetic affinities (Crocodyliformes, Notosuchia). American Museum Novitates, 3512, 1–40.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1206/0003-0082(2006)3512[1:ROTCMO]2.0.CO;2


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa