Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


A new species of Eumops (Chiroptera: Molossidae) from southwestern Peru



The genus Eumops is the most diverse genera of molossid bats in the Neotropics. In Peru this genus is widely distributed and represented by nine species: E. auripendulus, E. delticus, E. hansae, E. maurus, E. nanus, E. patagonicus, E. perotis, E. trumbulli, and E. wilsoni. After several years of mammalian diversity surveys in the coastal desert and western slopes of southwestern Peru, a specimen of Eumops was collected whose unique set of traits allows us to assert that deserves to be described as a new species. Based on molecular and morphological evidence, the new species is related to medium-large sized species (i.e. E. glaucinus, E. auripendulus, and E. perotis). Cytochrome b genetic divergence between the new species and the other species of the genus was high (> 12%) and it is consistent with morphological divergence presented for this new species. This new species, endemic to Peru, increases the diversity of Eumops to 16 species.


Bonneted bat, coastal desert, endemism, Molossidae, phylogeny, Peru

Full Text:

PDF/A (1.33 MB)


Akaike, H. (1974) A new look at the statistical model identification, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 19 (6), 716–723.

Allen, G.M. (1932) A Pleistocene bat from Florida. Journal of Mammalogy, 13, 256–259.

Ammerman, L.K., Lee, D.N. & Tipps, T.M. (2012) First molecular phylogenetic insights into the evolution of tree-tailed bats in the subfamily Molossinae (Molossidae, Chiroptera). Journal of Mammalogy, 93, 12–28.

Arita, H.T. (1993) Rarity in Neotropical bats: correlations with phylogeny, diet, and body mass. Ecological Applications, 3, 506–517.

Baker, R.J., McDonough, M.M., Swier, V.J., Larsen, P.A., Carrera, J.P. & Ammerman, L.K. (2009) New species of bonneted bat, genus Eumops (Chiroptera: Molossidae) from the lowlands of western Ecuador and Peru. Acta Chiropterologica, 11, 1–13.

Bartlett, S.N., McDonough, M.M. & Ammerman, L.K. (2013) Molecular systematics of bonneted bats (Molossidae: Eumops) based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Journal of Mammalogy, 94, 867–880.

Bernardi, I.P., Miranda, J.M.D. & Passos, F.C. (2009) Status taxonomico e distribucional do complexo Eumops bonariensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae) no sul do Brasil. Zoologia, 26, 183–190.

Brown, M.T. & Wicker, L.R. (2000) Discriminant analysis. In: Tinsley, H.E.A. & Brown, S.D. (eds.), Handbook of applied multivariate statistics and mathematical modeling. Academic Press, San Diego, California, pp. 209–235.

Díaz, M.M. (2011) New records of bats from the northern region of the Peruvian Amazon. Zoological Research, 32, 168–178.

Dolan, P.G. & Honeycutt, R.L. (1978) Systematics and evolutionary implications of genic variation in the mastiff bat, Eumops (Chiroptera: Molossidae). Bat Research News, 19, 1–72.

Edgar, R.C. (2004) MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Research, 32, 1792–1797.

Eger, J.L. (1977) Systematics of the genus Eumops (Chiroptera: Molossidae). Life Sciences Contributions, Royal Ontario Museum, 110, 1–69.

Eger, J.L. (2008) Family Molossidae. In: Gardner, A.L. (Ed.), Mammals of South America Vol 1: Marsupials, Xenarthrans, Shrews and Bats, 2nd edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, pp. 399–440.

Eisenberg, J.F. & Redford, K.H. (1999) Mammals of the Neotropics, the central Neotropics, Vol. 3. Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 609 pp.

Freeman, P.W. (1981) A multivariate study of the family Molossidae (Mammalia, Chiroptera): morphology, ecology, evolution. Fieldiana: Zoology, 7, 1–173. [New Series]

Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, I. (1824) Mémoire sur une chauvesouris Américaine, formant une nouvelle espece dans le genre Nyctinome. Annales du Museum d'histoire naturelle, Paris, 1, 337–347. [1plate]

Giannini, N.P., Wible, J.R. & Simmons, N.B. (2006) On the cranial osteology of Chiroptera. I. Pteropus (Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 295, 1–134.[0001:OTCOOC]2.0.CO;2

Giannini, N.P. & Simmons, N.B. (2007) The Chiropteran Premaxilla: A Reanalysis of Morphological Variation and Its Phylogenetic Interpretation. American Museum Novitates, 3585, 1–44.[1:TCPARO]2.0.CO;2

Gregorin, R. (2009) Phylogeny of Eumops Miller, 1906 (Chiroptera: Molossidae) using morphological data. Acta Chiropterologica, 11, 247–258.

Goloboff, P., Farris, J. & Nixon, K. (2008) TNT, a free program for phylogenetic analysis. Cladistics, 24, 774–786.

Goodwin, G.G. (1940) Three new bats from Honduras and the first record of Enchisthenes harti (Thomas) for North America. American Museum Novitates, 1075, 1–3.

Gundlach, J. (1861) [Untitled.] Monatsberichte der Koniglichen Preussische Akademie des Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1861, 149–156.

Hammer, Ø. (2013) PAST: Paleontological statistics Version 3.0, Reference manual. 221 pp.

Hand, S.J. (1990) First Tertiary Molossid (Microchiroptera: Molossidae) from Australia: its Phylogenetic and Biogeographic Implications. Memoirs of The Queensland Museum, 28, 175–192.

Huelsenbeck, J.P. & Ronquist, F. (2001) MrBayes: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics, 17, 754–755.

INRENA. (1994) Mapa Ecológico del Perú: Guía Explicativa. Ministerio de Agricultura. Lima – Peru. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (2011) Guidelines for using the IUCN red list categories and criteria. Version 9.0. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland.

Jung, K., Molinari, J. & Kalko, E.K. (2014) Driving factors for the evolution of species-specific echolocation call design in New World free-tailed bats (Molossidae). PloS ONE, 9 (1), e85279.

Kimura, M. (1980) A simple method for estimating evolutionary rate of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 16, 111–120.

Kocher, T.D., Thomas, W.K., Meyer, A., Edwards, S.V.E., Pääbo, S., Villablanca, F.X. & Wilson, A.C. (1989) Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: amplification and sequencing with conserved primers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 86, 6196–6200.

Medina, C.E., Zamora, H.T., Zeballos, H., Pari, A., Pino, K. & Delgado, W. (2012) Primer registro de Eumops patagonicus y ampliación del rango de distribución geográfica de E. hansae, en el sur de Perú. Mastozoología Neotropical, 19, 345–351.

Miller, G.S.Jr. (1900) A new free-tailed bat from Central America. Annals Magazine of Natural History, 6, 471–72. [series 7]

Miller, G.S.Jr. (1906) Twelve new genera of bats. Proceedings of Biological Society of Washington, 19, 83–87.

Miller, M.A., Pfeiffer, W. & Schwartz, T. (2010) Creating the CIPRES Science Gateway for inference of large phylogenetic trees. Proceedings of the Gateway Computing Environments Workshop (GCE), New Orleans, LA, 8 pp.

Nylander, J.A.A. (2004) MrModeltest v2. Program distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.

Pacheco, V., Cadenillas, R., Salas, E., Tello, C. & Zeballos, H. (2009) Diversidad y Endemismo de los Mamíferos del Perú. Revista Peruana de Biología, 16, 5–32.

Pallas, P.S. (1766) Miscellanea Zoologica, quibus novae imprimis atque obscurae animalium species describuntur, et observationibus iconibusque illustrantur. Petrum van Cleef : The Hague, xii, 224 pp. [14 plates]

Peters, W. (1874) Ü-ber eine neue Art von Flederthieren, Promops bonariensis und über Lophuromys, eine Nagergattung von Westafrika. Monatsberichte der Königlich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1875, 232–234.

Pumo, D.E., Finamore, P.S., Franek, W.R., Phillips, C.J., Tarzami, S. & Balzarano, D. (1998) Complete Mitochondrial Genome of a Neotropical Fruit Bat, Artibeus jamaicensis, and a New Hypothesis of the Relationships of Bats to Other Eutherian Mammals. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 47, 709–717.

Redondo, R.A.F., Brina, L.P.S., Silva, R.F., Ditchfield, A.D. & Santos, F.R. (2008) Molecular systematics of the genus Artibeus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 49, 44–58.

Sambrook, J., Russell, D.W. & Sambrook, J. (2001) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, third edition. CSHL press, New York, USA, 2100 pp.

Sanborn, C.C. (1932) The bats of the genus Eumops. Journal of Mammalogy, 13, 347–357.

Schinz, H.R. (1821) Das Thierreich eingetheilt nach dem Bau der Thiere als Grundlage ihrer Naturgeschichte und der vergleichenden Anatomie von dem Herrn Ritter von Cuvier. Vol. 1. Erster band. Säugethiere und Vógel. Stuttgart und Tübingen: J. G. Cotta’schen Buchhandlung, xxxviii+894 pp.

Shaw, G. (1800) General zoology or systematic natural history. Vol. 1. London: G. Kearsley, xv+552 pp. [121 plates]

Siles, L., Daniel, M., Brooks, D.M., Aranibar, H., Tarifa, T., Vargas, R.J., Rojas, J.M. & Baker, R.J. (2013) A new species of Micronycteris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from Bolivia. Journal of Mammalogy, 94, 881–896.

Stamatakis, A. (2006) RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum-likelihood based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed model. Bioinformatics, 22, 2688–2690.

Tamura, K., Peterson, D., Peterson, N., Stecher, G., Nei, M. & Kumar, S. (2011) MEGA5: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28, 2731–2739.

Thomas, O. (1901a) A new free-tailed bat from the lower Amazons. Annals Magazine of Natural History, 7, 190–191. [series 7]

Thomas, O. (1901b) On a collection of mammals from the Kanuku Mountains, British Guiana. Annals Magazine of Natural History, 8, 139–154. [series 7]

Thomas, O. (1914) New Callicebus and Eumops from S. America. Annals Magazine of Natural History, 13, 480–481. [series 8]

Thomas, O. (1923) Two new mammals from Marajó Island. Annals Magazine of Natural History, 12, 341–342. [series 9]

Thomas, O. (1924) New South American small mammals. Annals Magazine of Natural History, 13, 234–237. [series 9]

Wagner, J.A. (1843) Diagnosen neuer Arten brasilischer Handflügler. Archiv fur Naturgeschichte, 9, 365–368.

Zeballos, H., Pacheco, V. & Baraybar, E. (2001) Diversidad y conservación de los mamíferos de Arequipa, Perú. Revista Peruana de Biología, 8, 94–104.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa