Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


A new species of Eostyloceros (Cervidae, Artiodactyla) from the Late Miocene of the Linxia Basin in Gansu, China



A new species, Eostyloceros hezhengensis sp. nov., is established based on a skull with its cranial appendages collected from the Late Miocene Liushu Formation of the Linxia Basin in Gansu Province, northwestern China. It is a large-sized muntjak with a distinct longitudinal ridge along the lateral margin of the frontal bone that joins the antler pedicle. The pedicle is short, cylindrical, robust, and extends posteriorly from the rear of the orbit. The anterior and posterior branches arise from the burr and diverge at an angle of 30°. The posterior branch is relatively long, and its tip is strongly curved posteriorly. The anterior branch is straight and situated anteromedially from the posterior branch. The posterior branch is lateromedially compressed, and the anterior branch has a circular cross section. The morphological observation together with a cladistic and a principal component analysis indicate that E. hezhengensis is more basal than any known species of the genus Eostyloceros in having shorter pedicles, a lower position of the fork above the burr, more slender anterior branches, and a small angle between the anterior and posterior branches. Its age is the middle Late Miocene, corresponding to the late Bahean.


deer, northwestern China, Neogene, biostratigraphy, Liushu Formation

Full Text:

PDF/A (3.84 MB)


Abbazzi, L. & Croitor, R. (2003) Eostyloceros cf. pidoplitschkoi Korotkevitsch 1964 (Cervidae, Muntiacinae): new element in the Neogene mammal assemblage of lower Valdarno (Tuscany, Central Italy). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 109, 575–580.

Abdrakhmanova, L.T. (1974) Fossil ruminants from Lake Karabastuz. Materialy po Istoriy Fauny i Flory Kazakhstana, 6, 83–92.

Abdrakhmanova, L.T., Bajshashov, B.U. & Kostenko, N.N. (1989) New data on the paleontology of Dzhungarian Aktau (East Kazakhstan). Vestnik Akademii Nauk Kazakhskoi SSR, 3, 76–78.

Azanza, B. & Montoya, P. (1995) A new deer from the lower Turolian of Spain. Journal of Paleontology, 69, 1163–1175.

Azanza, B., Menendez, E. & Alcala, L. (1989) The Middle-Upper Turolian and Ruscinian Cervidae in Spain. Bolletino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana, 28, 171–182.

Bohlin, B (1937) Eine tertiäre säugetier-fauna aus Tsaidam. Palaeontologia Sinica, Series C, 14 (1), 3–111.

Colbert, E.H. (1936) Tertiary deer discovered by the American Museum Asiatic Expeditions. American Museum Novitates, 854, 1–21.

Deng, T., Qiu, Z.X., Wang, B.Y., Wang, X.M. & Hou, S.K. (2013) Late Cenozoic biostratigraphy of the Linxia Basin, northwestern China. In: Wang, X.M., Flynn, L.J. & Fortelius, M. (Eds.), Fossil Mammals of Asia: Neogene Biostratigraphy and Chronology. Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 243–273.

Dong, W. (2004) The dental morphological characters and evolution of Cervidae. Acta Anthropologica Sinica, 23 (Supplement), 286–295.

Dong, W. (2007) New material of Muntiacinae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from the Late Miocene of the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Comptes Rendus Palevol, 6, 335–343.

Dong, W. (2008) A review on morphology and evolution of antlers. In: Dong, W. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Chinese Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. China Ocean Press, Beijing, pp. 127–144.

Dong, W., Ji, X.P., Jablonski, N.G., Su, D.F. & Li, W.Q. (2014) New materials of the Late Miocene Muntiacus from Zhaotong hominoid site in southern China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 52, 316–327.

Dong, W., Liu, J.H. & Pan, Y.R. (2003) A new Euprox from the Late Miocene of Yuanmou, Yunnan Province, China, with interpretation of its paleoenvironment. Chinese Science Bulletin, 48, 485–491.

Dong, W., Pan, Y.R. & Liu, J.H. (2004) The earliest Muntiacus (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from the Late Miocene of Yuanmou, southwestern China. Comptes Rendus Palevol, 3, 379–386.

Geraads, D. (2003) Ruminants, other than Giraffidae, from the Middle Miocene hominoid locality of Çandir (Turkey). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 240, 181–199.

Goloboff, P.A., Farris, J.S. & Nixon, K.C. (2003) T.N.T.: Tree analysis using new technology. Program and documentation, available from the authors. Available from: (accessed 4 November 2014)

Korotkevich, E.L. (1964) A new species of fossil Muntiacus from the Pliocene deposits of the south of the USSR. Dopovidi Akademii Nauk URSR, 6, 807–810.

Korotkevitsch, E.L. (1970) Late Neogene Deer from the North Black Sea Area. Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 175 pp.

Lartet, E. (1837) Note sur les ossements fossils des terrains tertiaires de Simorre, de Sansan, etc., dans le département du Gers, et sur la decouverte recente d’une mâchoire de singe fossile. Compte-rendu Hebdomadaires des Seances de l’Académie des Sciences, Paris, 4, 85–93.

Lin, Y.P., Pan, Y.R. & Lu, Q.W. (1978) The Early Pleistocene mammalian fauna from Yuanmou, Yunnan. In: Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (Ed.), Proceedings of Paleoanthropology. Science Press, Beijing, pp. 101–125.

Qiu, Z.X. & Xie, J.Y. (1998) Notes on Parelasmotherium and Hipparion fossils from Wangji, Dongxiang, Gansu. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 36, 13–23.

Qiu, Z.X., Xie, J.Y. & Yan, D.F. (1987) A new chilothere skull from Hezheng, Gansu, China, with special reference to the Chinese “Diceratherium”. Scientia Sinica, (5), 545–552.

Qiu, Z.X., Xie, J.Y. & Yan, D.F. (1988) Discovery of the skull of Dinocrocuta gigantea. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 26, 128–138.

Qiu, Z.X., Xie, J.Y. & Yan, D.F. (1990) Discovery of some Early Miocene mammalian fossils from Dongxiang, Gansu. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 28, 9–24.

Qiu, Z.X., Xie, J.Y. & Yan, D.F. (1991) Discovery of Late Miocene Agriotherium from Jiegou, Gansu, and its taxonomic implications. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 29, 286–295.

Qiu, Z.X., Qiu, Z.D., Deng, T., Li, C.K., Zhang, Z.-Q., Wang, B.Y. & Wang X.M. (2013) Neogene land mammal stages/ages of China: toward the goal to establish an Asian land mammal stage/age scheme. In: Wang, X.M., Flynn, L.J. & Fortelius, M. (Eds.), Fossil Mammals of Asia: Neogene Biostratigraphy and Chronology. Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 29–90.

Rafinesque, C.S. (1815) Analyse de la Nature ou tableau de l'univers et des corps organisés. L’imprimerie de Jean Barravecchia, Palerme, 223 pp.

Schaub, S. (1928) Die Antilopen des toskanischen Oberpliocäns. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 21, 260–266.

Sisson, S. & Grossman, J.D. (1953) The Anatomy of the Domestic Animals. W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 972 pp.

Spassov, N. (2005) Brief review of the Pliocene ungulate fauna of Bulgaria. Quaternaire, Hors-série 2, pp. 201–212.

Stehlin, H.G. (1928) Bemerkungen über die Hirsche von Steinheim am Aalbuch. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 21, 245–256.

Teilhard de Chardin, P. & Trassaert, M. (1937) The Pliocene Camelidae, Giraffidae, and Cervidae of South Eastern Shansi. Palaeontologia Sinica, New Series C, 1, 1–56.

Thomas, J.M. (1951) Eostyloceros pierensis nov. sp., nouveau cervuline du Pontien europeen. Comptes Rendus Sommaires des Seances de la Societe Geologique de France, 6, 255–257.

Vislobokova, I.A. (1983) The fossil deer of Mongolia. Transaction of the Joint Soviet-Mongolian Paleontological Expedition, 23, 1–78.

Vislobokova, I.A. (1985) Concerning a new Eostyloceros from the Pliocene of Olkhon Island (Lake Baykal). Paleontolological Journal, 4, 123–125.

Vislobokova, I.A. (1990) Fossil deer of Eurasia. Transactions of the Paleontological Institute, 240, 1–206.

Wang, B.Y. & Wu, W.Y. (1979) Artiodactyla. In: Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (Ed.), Vertebrate Fossils of China. Science Press, Beijing, pp. 501–620.

Wang, S.Q. & Deng, T. (2010) Recovering the missing data of defective fossil specimens using linear regression method. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 48, 161–181.

Wang, X.M., Qiu, Z.D., Li, Q., Wang, B.Y., Qiu, Z.X., Downs, W.R., Xie, G.P., Deng, T., Takeuchi, G., Tseng, Z.J., Chang, M.M., Liu, J., Wang, Y., Biasatti, D., Sun, Z.C., Fang, X.M. & Meng, Q.Q. (2007) Vertebrate paleontology, biostratigraphy, geochronology, and paleoenvironment of Qaidam Basin in northern Tibetan Plateau. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 254, 363–385.

Wang, X.M., Xie, G.P., Li, Q., Qiu, Z.D., Tseng Z.J., Takeuchi, G.T., Wang, B.Y., Fortelius, M., Rosenström-Fortelius, A., Wahlquist, H., Downs, W.R., Zhang, C.F. & Wang, Y. (2011) Early explorations of Qaidam Basin (Tibetan Plateau) by Birger Bohlin: reconciling classic vertebrate fossil localities with modern biostratigraphy. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 49, 285–310.

Zdansky, O. (1927) Weitere Bemerkungen über fossile Cerviden aus China. Palaeontologia Sinica, Series C, 5 (1), 1–20.

Zdansky, O. (1925) Fossile Hirsche Chinas. Palaeontologia Sinica, Series C, 2 (3), 1–90.

Zhang, Y.X. & Xue, X.X. (1995) Taphonomy of Longjiagou Hipparionine Fauna (Turolian, Miocene), Wudu County, Gansu Province, China. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, 96 pp.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa