Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3905.3.2

Contributions to the herpetofauna of the Albertine Rift: Two new species of chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae) from an isolated montane forest, south eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

COLIN R. TILBURY, KRYSTAL A. TOLLEY

Abstract


Two new species of chameleons from the genera Rhampholeon and Kinyongia are described from an isolated montane forest remnant situated toward the southern end of the Albertine Rift bordering Lake Tanganyika. The closest known localities of species from these genera are 200km and 400km to the north respectively, separated by large intervening tracts of lowland savannah and Brachystegia (Miombo) woodland - habitats not normally inhabited by species of these genera. Rhampholeon hattinghi sp. nov. and Kinyongia mulyai sp. nov. bear superficial resemblances to previously described species (Rh. boulengeri Steindachner and K. adolfifriderici  (Sternfeld)). Rhampholeon hattinghi sp. nov. has a relatively smooth supra-orbital ridge, deep axillary but absent inguinal mite pockets, prominent white spots on the base of the tail and a uniquely derived hemipenal morphology with billowing parasulcal evaginations. Like K. adolfifriderici, Kinyongia mulyai sp. nov. is devoid of a rostral appendage but differs in having a longer and narrower head, a higher upper labial scale count and by the absence of a dorsal crest in the male. To place these new chameleons within the context of their respective genera, Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses were carried out utilising two mitochondrial (ND2 and 16S) and one nuclear marker (RAG1).  Both chameleons were found to have morphological features that distinguish them from other congeners. Based on phylogenetic analysis they are clearly separate evolutionary lineages and are described as new species.

 


Keywords


Albertine Rift, Democratic Republic of Congo, Katanga, Afromontane, Biodiversity, Chamaeleonidae, East Africa, new species, reptiles, Rhampholeon, Kinyongia

Full Text:

PDF/A (12.21 MB)

References


Branch, W.R. & Tolley, K.A. (2010) A new species of chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae: Nadzikambia) from Mount Mabu, central Mozambique. African Journal of Herpetology, 59, 157–172.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21564574.2010.516275

Branch, W.R., Bayliss, J. & Tolley, K.A. (2014) Pygmy chameleons of the Rhampholeon platyceps complex (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae): Description of four new species from isolated ‘sky islands’ of northern Mozambique. Zootaxa, 3814 (1), 1–36.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3814.1.1

De Witte, G.F. (1965) Les caméléons de l'Afrique Centrale (République democratique du Congo, République du Rwanda et Royaume du Burundi). Annales de Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale, Sciences Zoologiques. Serie In 8°, No 142, 1–215 pp. + pls. I–XII.

Fisseha, M., Mariaux, J. & Menegon, M. (2013) The "Rhampholeon uluguruensis complex" (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae) and the taxonomic status of the pygmy chameleons in Tanzania. Zootaxa, 3746 (3), 439–453.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3746.3.3

Greenbaum, E., Stanley, E.L., Kusamba, C. Moninga, W.M., Goldberg, S.R. & Bursey, C.R. (2012a) A new species of Cordylus (Squamata : Cordylidae) from the Marungu Plateau of South-eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. African Journal of Herpetology, 61 (1), 14–39.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21564574.2012.666505

Greenbaum E., Tolley, K.A., Joma, A. & Kusamba, C. (2012b) A new species of chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae : Kinyongia) from the northern Albertine Rift, Central Africa. Herpetologica, 68 (1), 60–75.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1655/herpetologica-d-11-00026.1

Huelsenbeck, J.P. & Ronquist, F. (2001) MrBayes : Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics, 17, 754–755.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/17.8.754

Laurent, R.F. (1952) Reptiles et batraciens nouveaux du massif du mont Kabobo et du plateau des Marungu. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines, 1952, 46, 18–23.

Macey, J.R., Larson, A., Ananjeva, N.B. & Papenfuss, T.J. (1997a) Evolutionary shifts in three major structural features of the mitochondrial genome among iguanian lizards. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 44, 660–674.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/pl00006190

Macey, J.R., Larson, A., Ananjeva, N.B., Fang Z.L. & Papenfuss, T.J. (1997b) Two novel gene orders and the role of light-strand replication in rearrangement of the vertebrate mitochondrial genome. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 14, 91–104.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025706

Mariaux, J. & Tilbury, C.R. (2006) The pygmy chameleons of the Eastern Arc Range (Tanzania): evolutionary relationships and the description of three new species of Rhampholeon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae). Herpetological Journal, 2006, 16, 315 –331.

Mariaux, J., Lutzmann, N. & Stipala, N. (2008) The two horned chameleons of East Africa. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 152, 367–391.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2007.00332.x

Matthee, C.A., Tilbury, C.R. & Townsend, T. (2004) A phylogenetic review of the African leaf chameleons: genus Rhampholeon (Chamaeleonidae): the role of vicariance and climate change in speciation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences, 271, 1967–1976.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2004.2806

Menegon, M., Tolley, K.A., Jones, T., Rovero, F., Marshall, A.R. & Tilbury, C.R. (2009) A new species of chameleon (Sauria, Chamaeleonidae: Kinyongia) from the Magombera forest and the Udzungwa Mountains National Park, Tanzania. African Journal of Herpetology, 58, 59–70.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21564574.2009.9650026

Nečas, P., Modry, D. & Slapeta, J.R. (2003) Chamaeleo (Trioceros) narraioca n. sp. (Reptilia: Chamaeleonidae), a new species from a relict montane forest of Mount Kulal, northern Kenya. Tropical Zoology, 16 (1), 1–12.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03946975.2003.10531180

Nečas, P., Modry, D. & Slapeta, J.R. (2005) Chamaeleo (Trioceros) ntunte n. sp. (Reptilia: Chamaeleonidae), a new chameleon species from Mt. Nyiro, northern Kenya. Herpetozoa, 18 (3/4), 125–132.

Nečas, P., Sindaco, R., Koreny, J., Malonza, P.K. & Modry, D. (2009) Kinyongia asheorum sp. n., a new montane chameleon from the Nyiro Range, northern Kenya (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). Zootaxa, 2028, 41–50.

Nečas, P. (2009) Ein neues Chamäleon der Gattung Kinyongia Tilbury Tolley & Branch 2006 aus den Poroto-Bergen, Süd-Tansania (Reptilia: Sauria: Chamaeleonidae). Sauria, 31 (2), 41–48.

Palumbi, S. (1996) Nucleic acids II. The polymerase chain reaction. In: Hillis, D.M., Moritz, C., Mable, B.K. (Eds.), Molecular Systematics. 2nd Edition. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, pp. 205–247.

Plumptre, A.J., Davenport, T.R.B., Behangana, M., Kahindo, R., Herremans, M., Kerbis Peterhans, J., Pilgrim, J.D., Wilson, M., Languy, M. & Moyer, D. (2007) The biodiversity of the Albertine Rift. Biological Conservation, 134, 178–194.

Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D., Matunguru, J., Kahindo, C., Kaleme, C., Marks, B. & Huhndorfe, M. (2008) Biodiversity surveys in the Misotshi-Kabogo and Marungu regions of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Albertine Rift Technical Reports 5, 1–80.

Posada, D. (2008) jModelTest: Phylogenetic Model Averaging. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 25, 1253–1256.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msn083

Prigogine, A. (1960) La faune Ornithologique du Massif du Mont Kabobo. Annales de Musee Royal Du Congo Belge, Tervuren, Serie 8 (85), 1–47.

Prigogine, A. (1972) Une nouvelle race de Apalis alticola de l’est de la Republique du Zaire. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines, 86, 173–78.

Rambaut, A. & Drummond, A.J. (2007) Tracer Vl.4.1. Available from: http://beast.bio.ed.ac.uk/Tracer (accessed 4 November 2014)

Ronquist, F. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. (2003) MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics, 19, 1572–1574.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btg180

Stamatakis, A. (2006) RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics, 22, 2688–2690.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btl446

Stamatakis, A., Hoover, P. & Rougemont, J. (2008) A Rapid Bootstrap Algorithm for the RAxML Web Servers. Systematic Biology, 57, 758–771.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10635150802429642

Steindachner, F. (1911) Bericht uber drei neue Arten aus der Familie der Chamaeleontidae, welche von dem Afrikareisenden Herrn R. Grauer in den Urwalden westlich vom Tanganikasee gesammelt wurden, und zwar. Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, 48, 177–179.

Swofford, D.L. (2002) PAUP* Phylogeny Analysis using Parsimony (*and other methods). Version 4.0b10. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.

Tamura, K., Peterson, D., Peterson, N., Stecher, G., Nei, M. & Kumar, S. (2011) MEGA5: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Using Maximum Likelihood, Evolutionary Distance, and Maximum Parsimony Methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28, 2731–2739.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msr121

Tilbury, C.R. & Tolley, K.A. (2009) A new species of dwarf chameleon (Sauria; Chamaeleonidae) from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa with notes on recent climatic shifts and their influence on speciation in the genus. Zootaxa, 2226, 43–57.

Tilbury, C.R. (1991) A new species of Chamaeleo Laurenti 1768 (Reptilia Chamaeleonidae) from a relict montane forest in northern Kenya. Tropical Zoology, 4 (2), 159–165.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03946975.1991.10539486

Tilbury, C.R. (1992) A new dwarf forest chameleon (Sauria: Rhampholeon Gunther 1874) from Malawi, central Africa. Tropical Zoology, 5 (1), 1–9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03946975.1992.10539176

Tilbury, C.R. (1998) Two new chameleons (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae) from isolated Afromontane forests in Sudan and Ethiopia. Bonner zoologische Beitrage, 47 (3–4), 293–299.

Tilbury, C.R. (2010) The Chameleons of Africa, an Atlas including the chameleons of Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Edition Chimaira, Germany, 831 pp.

Tolley, K.A., Tilbury, C.R., Measey, G.J., Menegon, M., Branch, W.R. & Matthee, C.A. (2011) Ancient forest fragmentation or recent radiation? Testing the refugial speciation model with East Africa’s most diverse clade of endemic chameleons, Kinyongia. Journal of Biogeography, 38, 1748–1760.

Tolley, K.A., Townsend, T.M. & Vences, M. (2013) Large-scale phylogeny of chameleons suggests African origins and Eocene diversification. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 280 (1759), 20130184


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa