Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


Two new species of Eleutherodactylus (subgenus Syrrhophus) from western Mexico



We describe two new species of Eleutherodactylus, subgenus Syrrhophus, from two separate mountain ranges in western Mexico. Eleutherodactylus grunwaldi sp. nov. inhabits the Sierra de Manantlán in Colima and Jalisco from 1300 to 2200 m, whereas E. wixarika sp. nov. is known from a single locality in the Sierra Huichola of northern Jalisco at 2400 m, but is probably more widespread. Eleutherodactylus grunwaldi is readily distinguishable from most members of mainland Syrrhophus by a combination of its large size, broad, truncate digital pads more than three times the narrowest part of the digit, and a black and green marbled color pattern. This species is saxicolous, inhabiting limestone outcrops, and has been found in caves during the dry season. Eleutherodactylus wixarika is a moderate sized species, most similar to E. teretistes, E. pallidus and E. modestus. It is distinguished from all other members of the subgenus by the combination a tuberculate, reddish dorsum, lack of compact lumbar glands, and expanded digital pads less than twice the width of the narrowest part of the digit. This species inhabits areas with secondary vegetation in pine forest. Males of both species call at night during the rainy season. The advertisement call of both species consists of a short, narrow band, pure-tone note organized into a discrete train at a rate of about six times per minute. Spectral and temporal acoustic properties differ between species. The subgenus Syrrhophus of the genus Eleutherodactylus is one of the most poorly studied groups of frogs in Mexico but probably one of the most diverse.


Amphibia, Anura, Eleutherodactylidae, taxonomy, Terrarana, Tomodactylus, Jalisco, Colima, Sierra Manantlán, Sierra Huichol

Full Text:

PDF/A (8.17 MB)


Ahumada-Carrillo, I.T., River-Perez, N., Reyes-Velasco, J., Grünwald, C.I. & Jones, J.M. (2014) Notable Records of Amphibians and Reptiles from Colima, Nayarit, Jalisco, and Zacatecas, México. Herpetological Review, 45, 287–291.

Arenas-Monroy, J.C., Carbajal-Márquez, R.A., García-Balderas, C.M., Grunwald, C.I. & Jones, J.M. (2012) ELEUTHERODACTYLUS VERRUCIPES (Bigear Chirping Frog). Geographic Distribution. Herpetological Review, 43, 439.

Audacity Team (2014) Audacity®. Version 2.0.3. Audio editor and recorder. Available from: (accessed 24 September 2014)

Boni, A., Garibay, C. & McCall, M.K. (2014) Sustainable mining, indigenous rights and conservation: conflict and discourse in Wirikuta/Catorce, San Luis Potosi, Mexico. GeoJournal, 1–22.

Ceballos, G. & Garcia, A. (1995) Conserving neotropical biodiversity: the role of dry forests in western Mexico. Conservation Biology, 9, 1349–1353.

Ceballos, G., Rodríguez, P. & Medellín, R.A. (1998) Assessing conservation priorities in megadiverse Mexico: mammalian diversity, endemicity, and endangerment. Ecological Applications, 8, 8–17.[0008:ACPIMM]2.0.CO;2

Cocroft, R.B. & Ryan, M.J. (1995) Patterns of advertisement call evolution in toads and chorus frogs. Animal Behaviour, 49, 283–303.

Cope, E.D. (1878) A New Genus of Cystignathidae from Texas. American Naturalist, 12, 252–253.

Cox, C.L., Streicher, J.W., Sheehy III, C.M., Campbell, J.A. & Chippindale, P.T. (2012) Patterns of genetic differentiation among populations of Smilisca fodiens. Herpetologica, 68, 226-–235.

Dixon, J.R. (1957) Geographic Variation and Distribution of the Genus Tomodactylus in Mexico. Texas Journal of Science, 9, 379–409.

Dixon, J.R. & Webb, R.G. (1966) A new Syrrhophus from Mexico (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae). Contributions in Science, Los Angeles County Museum, 102, 1–5.

Duellman, W.E. (1958) A review of the frogs of the genus Syrrhophus in western Mexico. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, 594, 1–24.

Farr, W., Lavin Murcio, P.A. & Lazcano, D. (2007) New distributional records for amphibians and reptiles from the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. Herpetological Review, 38, 226–233.

Farr, W.L., Lazcano, D. & Lavín-Murcio, P.A. (2013) New Distributional Records for Amphibians and Reptiles from the State of Tamaulipas, México III. Herpetological Review, 44, 631-–645.

Fouquette, M. (1960) Call structure in frogs of the family Leptodactylidae. Texas Journal of Science, 12, 201–215.

Frost, D.R., Grant, T., Faivovich, J., Bain, R.H., Haas, A., Haddad, C.F., De Sá, R.O., Channing, A., Wilkinson, M., Donnellan, S.C., Raxworthy, C.J., Campbell, J.A., Blotto, B.L., Moler, P., Drewes, R.C., Nussbaum, R.A., Lynch, J.D., Green, D.M. & Wheeler, W.C. (2006) The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 297, 1–291.[0001:TATOL]2.0.CO;2

Gerhardt, H.C. & Huber, F. (2002) Acoustic communication in insects and anurans: common problems and diverse solutions. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 531 pp.

González-Elizondo, M., González-Elizondo, M., González, L.R., Enríquez, I.L., Rentería, F.R. & Flores, J.T. (2012) Ecosystems and diversity of the Sierra Madre Occidental. USDA Forest Service Proceedings, RMRS-P-67, 204–211.

Han, N.C., Muniandy, S.V. & Dayou, J. (2011) Acoustic classification of Australian anurans based on hybrid spectral-entropy approach. Applied Acoustics, 72, 639-–645.

Hedges, S.B. (1989) Evolution and biogeography of West Indian frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus: slow-evolving loci and the major groups. Biogeography of the West Indies: past, present, and future, 305–370.

Hedges, S.B., Duellman, W.E. & Heinicke, M.P. (2008) New World direct-developing frogs (Anura: Terrarana): Molecular phylogeny, classification, biogeography, and conservation. Zootaxa, 1737, 1–182.

Heinicke, M.P., Duellman, W.E. & Hedges, S.B. (2007) Major Caribbean and Central American frog faunas originated by ancient oceanic dispersal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 10092–10097.

Joglar, R.L. (1989) Phylogenetic relationships of the West Indian frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus: a morphological analysis. In: Wood, C.A. (Ed.), Biogeography of the West Indies: past, present, and future. Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville, Florida, pp. 371–408.

Lemos Espinal, J.A. & Smith, H.M. (2007a) Anfibios y reptiles del estado de Chihuahua, México. UNAM, Mexico, 613 pp.

Lemos Espinal, J.A. & Smith, H.M. (2007b) Anfibios y reptiles del estado de Coahuila, México. UNAM, Mexico, 550 pp.

Lemos-Espinal, J.A. & Dixon, J.R. (2013) Amphibians and Reptiles of San Luis Potosí. Eagle Mountain Publishing, Eagle Mountain, Utah, 300 pp.

Liffman, P.M. (2011) Huichol Territory and the Mexican Nation: Indigenous Ritual, Land Conflict, and Sovereignty Claims. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, 296 pp.

Lynch, J.D. (1970) A taxonomic revision of the leptodactylid frog genus Syrrhophus Cope. University of Kansas Publications Museum of Natural History, 20, 1–48.

Lynch, J.D. (1971) Evolutionary Relationships, Osteology, and Zoogeography of Leptodactyloid Frogs. Miscellaneous Publications of the University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, 53, 1–246.

Lynch, J.D. & Duellman, W.E. (1997) Frogs of the Genus Eleutherodactylus in Western Ecuador. The University of Kansas Natural History Museum Special Publications, 23, 1–252.

Myers, G.S. (1962) The American Leptodactylid Frog Genera Eleutherodactylus, Hylodes (= Elosia), and Caudiverbera (= Calyptocephalus). Copeia, 195–202.

Penna, M. & Solís, R. (1996) Influence of burrow acoustics on sound reception by frogs Eupsophus (Leptodactylidae). Animal Behaviour, 51, 255–263.

Peterson, A. & Navarro, A. (2000) Western Mexico: a significant center of avian endemism and challenge for conservation action. Cotinga, 14, 42–46.

Ponce-Campos, P., Huerta-Ortega, S.M., Heinze-Yothers, A. & Smith, H.M. (2003) Range extensions and variational notes on some amphibians and reptiles of Jalisco and Michoacan, Mexico. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society, 39, 1–7.

Reyes-Velasco, J., Grünwald, C.I., Jones, J.M. & Weatherman, G.N. (2010) Rediscovery of the rare Autlán long-tailed rattlesnake, Crotalus lannomi. Herpetological Review, 41, 19–25.

Savage, J.M. (2002) The amphibians and reptiles of Costa Rica: a herpetofauna between two continents, between two seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 934 pp.

Schlaepfer, M.A. & Figeroa-Sandí, R. (1998) Female reciprocal calling in a Costa Rican leaf-litter frog, Eleutherodactylus podiciferus. Copeia, 1076-–1080.

Smith, H.M. & Taylor, E.H. (1948) An Annotated Checklist and Key to the Amphibia of Mexico. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 194, 1–118.

Stewart, M.M. & Rand, A.S. (1991) Vocalizations and the defense of retreat sites by male and female frogs, Eleutherodactylus coqui. Copeia, 1013–1024.

Sueur, J., Aubin, T. & Simonis, C. (2008) Equipment review: seewave, a free modular tool for sound analysis and synthesis. Bioacoustics, 18, 213–226.

Sueur, J., Farina, A., Gasc, A., Pieretti, N. & Pavoine, S. (2014) Acoustic Indices for Biodiversity Assessment and Landscape Investigation. Acta Acustica united with Acustica, 100, 772–781.

Team, R.C. (2012) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Available: (accessed 22 September 2014)

Tetreault, D.V. & López, C.F.L. (2011) Jalisco: pueblos indígenas y regiones de alto valor biológico. Espiral, 18, 165–199.

Webb, R.G. (1962) A new species of the frog (genus Tomodactylus) from western Mexico. University of Kansas Publications of the Museum of Natural History, 15, 175–181.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa