Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


Revision of the bryozoan genus Gephyrotes Norman, 1903 (Cheilostomata, Cribrilinidae) with the description of two new taxa



The finding of a new species of Gephyrotes, G. moissettei n. sp., in Miocene deposits of southern Italy, prompted a revision of this distinctive cribrimorph taxon, leading to the redescription and first SEM documentation of the type material of nine species. Five of them are retained in Gephyrotes, namely the type species, G. nitidopunctatus, and G. fortunensis, G. spectabilis, G. quadriserialis, and G. convexus, to which G. moissettei n. sp. is added. The only Recent species is the genotype, while all the others are fossils from North America, Europe and northwest Africa. Two further species are transferred to the genus Tricephalopora, namely T. saillans and T. levigata, whereas Spiniflabellum n. gen., is established to accommodate a species from the Caribbean area, S. spinosum, previously assigned to Gephyrotes.



Bryozoa, Cenozoic, Recent, Gephyrotes, Tricephalopora, Spiniflabellum n. gen., Atlantic-Mediterranean area

Full Text:

PDF/A (28.06 MB)


Berning, B. (2006) The cheilostome bryozoan fauna from the Late Miocene of Niebla (Guadalquivir Basin, SW Spain): environmental and biogeographic implications. Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch-Paläontologischen Institut der Universität Hamburg, 90, 7–156.

Bishop, J.D.D. & Househam, B.C. (1987) Puellina (Bryozoa; Cheilostomatida; Cribrilinidae) from British and adjacent waters. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, 53, 1–63.

Canu, F. (1914) Les Bryozoaires fossiles des terrains du Sud-Ouest de la France. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, 14, 465-–474.

Canu, F. & Bassler, R.S. (1917) A synopsis of American Early Tertiary Cheilostome Bryozoa. United States National Museum Bulletin, 96, 1–87. [6 plates]

Canu, F. & Bassler, R.S. (1920) North American Early Tertiary Bryozoa. United States National Museum Bulletin, 106 (xx), 1–879. [162 plates]

Canu, F. & Bassler, R.S. (1926) Phylum Molluscoidea, Class Bryozoa [of Coon Creek]. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper, 137, 32–39.

Canu, F. & Bassler, R.S. (1928) Fossil and Recent Bryozoa of the Gulf of Mexico region. Proceedings of the Unites States National Museum, 72, 1–199.

Canu, F. & Bassler, R.S. (1929) Bryozoaires éocènes de la Belgique. Mémoires du Musée Royal d'Histoire naturelle de Belgique, 39, 1–69.

Cheetham, A.H. (1968) Morphology and systematics of the bryozoan genus Metrarabdotos. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 153, 1–121.

Di Martino, E. & Taylor, P.D. (2015) Miocene Bryozoa from East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Part II: ‘Ascophoran’ Cheilostomata. Scripta Geologica, 148, 1–142.

Di Martino, E., Taylor, P.D. & Johnson, K.G. (2015) Bryozoan diversity in the Miocene of the Kutai Basin, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Palaios, 30, 109–115.

Fisher, R. & Ward, K. (1984) Paleonvironmental reconstruction of the Vicksburg group (Oligocene), Warren County, Mississippi. The Department of Natural Resources Mississippi Geology, 4 (3), 1–16.

Gordon, D.P. & Braga, G. (1994) Bryozoa: living and fossil species of the catenicellid subfamilies Ditaxiporinae Stach and Vasignyellidae nov. In: Crosnier, A. (Ed.), Résultats des Campagnes MUSORSTOM. Vol. 12. Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 161, 55–85.

Gordon, D.P. & Voigt, E. (1996) The kenozooidal origin of the ascophorine hypostegal coelom and associated frontal shield. In: Gordon, D.P., Smith, A.M. & Grant-Mackie, J.A. (Eds.), Bryozoans in Space and Time. NIWA, Wellington, pp. 89–107.

Grasso, M., Pedley, M., Di Stefano, R. & Comarci, C. (1996) Upper Miocene reef in southern Calabria: new records from the Palmi and Vibo Valentia areas and their paleogeographic and neotectonic importance. Bollettino della Società Geologica Italiana, 115, 29–38.

Gray, J.E. (1848) List of the specimens of British animals in the collections of the British Museum. Part 1. Centrionae or radiated animals. Trustees of the British Museum, London, Polyzoa, pp. 91–151.

Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (1998) Cheilostomatous Bryozoa. Part 1. Aeteoidea –Cribrilinoidea. Synopses of the British Fauna, n. s., 10, 1–366.

Hincks, T. (1879) On the classification of the British Polyzoa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 5 (3), 153–164.

Jullien, J. (1886) Les Costulidées, nouvelle famille de Bryozoaires. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France, 11, 601–620.

Kluge, G.A. (1975) Bryozoa of the Northern Seas of the USSR. Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, 711 pp. [translated from Russian]

Lang, W.D. (1915) New uniserial Cretaceous cheilostome Polyzoa. Geological Magazine, Decade 6 (2), 496–504.

Lang, W.D. (1916) A revision of the 'Cribrimorph' Cretaceous Polyzoa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 8 (18), 81–112, 381–410.

Lang, W.D. (1917) The genotypes of certain polyzoan genera. Geological Magazine, 54, 169–174.

Lang, W.D. (1922) Catalogue of the Fossil Bryozoa (Polyzoa) in the Department of Geology, British Museum (Natural History). The Cretaceous Bryozoa (Polyzoa). Volume 4. The cribrimorphs. – Part II. British Museum (Natural History), London, 404 pp.

Levinsen, G.M.R. (1909) Morphological and Systematic studies on the Cheilostomatous Bryozoa. Nationale Forfatterers Forlag, Copenhagen, 431 pp.

MacGillivray, P.H. (1895) A monograph of the Tertiary Polyzoa of Victoria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Victoria, 4, 1–166.

Marsson, T. (1887) Die Bryozoen der weissen Schreibkreide der Insel Rügen. Paläontologische Abhandlungen, 4, 1–122.

Miller, J.M. (2008) Inferring the Late Eocene paleoenvironment from the population structure of Ocala Limestone echinoids. Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions, 58, 695-–698.

Moissette, P. (1988) Faunes de Bryozoaires du Messinien d'Algerie occidentale. Documents des Laboratoires de Géologie de la Faculté des Sciences de Lyon, 102, 1–289.

Noordgard, O. (1906) Die Bryozoën des westlichen Norwegens. Meeresfauna, 2, 76–107.

Norman, A. (1903) Notes on the natural history of East Finmark, Polyzoa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7 (12), 81–128.

Pickering, J. (2013) Discover Life: Point map of Gephyrotes nitidopunctata. Encyclopedia of Life. Available from: (accessed 15 June 2014)

Pouyet, S. (2000) Les Bryozoaires cheilostomes du Néogène bétique (SE Espagne). Revista Española de Paleontología, 15, 181–202.

Prenant, M. & Bobin, G. (1966) Bryozoaires, deuxième partie. Chilostomes Anasca. Fédération Française des Sociétés de Sciences Naturelles, Paris, 647 pp.

Reinhardt, J., Schindler, J.S. & Gibson, T.G. (1994) Geological map of the Americus 30' x 60' quadrangle, Georgia and Alabama. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. To accompany map I-–2174, pp. 1–8.

Reolid, M., García-García, F., Tomasovych, A. & Soria, J.M. (2012) Thick brachiopod shell concentrations from prodelta and siliciclastic ramp in a Tortonian Atlantic–Mediterranean strait (Miocene, Guadix Basin, southern Spain). Facies, 58, 549–571.

Rögl, F. (1998) Palaeogeographic considerations for Mediterranean and Paratethys seaways (Oligocene to Miocene). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 99 (A), 279–310.

Romano, C., Neri, C., Russo, A., Russo, F. & Stolarski, J. (2007) Le biofacies e la storia diagenetica delle biocostruzioni del Miocene superiore, affioranti lungo le coste tirreniche dell’Italia meridionale. Geologica Romana, 40, 77–96.

Rosso, A. (2005) Metrarabdotos (Bryozoa, Cheilostomatida) from Plio-Pleistocene of southern Italy, with description of new species. Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 44, 11-–24.

Ryland, J.S. (1963) Systematic and biologic studies on Polyzoa (Bryozoa) from Western Norway. Sarsia, 14, 1–59.

Schneider, B. & Schmittner, A. (2006) Simulating the impact of the Panamanian sea way closure on ocean circulation, marine productivity and nutrient cycling. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 246, 367–380.

Smitt, F.A. (1868) Kritisk förteckning öfver Skandinaviens Hafs-Bryozoer. IV. Öfversigt af Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 25, 3–230. [plates 24–28]

Smitt, F.A. (1873) Floridan Bryozoa collected by Count L.F. de Pourtales, Part 2. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar, 11 (4), 1–83. [plates 1–13]

Soule, D.F., Soule, J.D. & Chaney, H.W. (1995) Taxonomic Atlas of the benthic fauna of the Santa Maria Basin and western Santa Barbara Channel. The Bryozoa. Irene McCulloch Foundation Monograph Series, no. 2. Hancock Institute of Marine Studies, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, vi + 344 pp.

Taylor, P.D. & McKinney, F.K. (2006) Cretaceous Bryozoa from the Campanian and Maastrichtian of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, United States. Scripta Geologica, 132, 1–346.

Voigt, E. (1949) Cheilostome Bryozoen aus der Quadradtenkreide Nordwestdeutschlands. Mitteilungen aus dem Geologischen Staatsinstitut in Hamburg, 19, 1–49.

Wass, R.E. (1975) A revision of the genus Corbulipora MacGillivray. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 87, 167–174.

Waters, A.W. (1923) Mediterranean and other Cribrilinidae, together with their relationships to Cretaceous forms. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 9 (12), 545–573.

Waters, A.W. (1926) Ancestrulae and frontal of cheilostomatous Bryozoa, 4. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 9 (17), 425–439.

Zágoršek, K. (2010) Bryozoa from the Langhian (Miocene) of the Czech Republic. Part II: Systematic description of the Suborder Ascophora Levinsen, 1909 and paleoecological reconstruction of the studied paleoenvironment. Sborník Národního Musea v Praze – Praze – Řada B – Přírodní vědy, Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae Series B – Historia Naturalis, 66, 139–255.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa