Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3944.1.1

Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) species complex (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)—a closer look

JENNIFER J. BEARD, RONALD OCHOA, W. EVAN BRASWELL, GARY R. BAUCHAN

Abstract


Brevipalpus phoenicis sensu stricto (Geijskes) is redescribed and the species diagnosis established. Two former synonyms of B. phoenicis sensu lato, B. yothersi Baker and B. papayensis Baker, are resurrected and redescribed and their species diagnoses established. Brevipalpus hondurani Evans is also redescribed and diagnosed. Four new species, previously misidentified as B. phoenicis sensu lato or B. obovatus Donnadieu, are described—B. azores sp. nov., B. feresi sp. nov., B. ferraguti sp. nov., and B. tucuman sp. nov. Four new junior synonyms of B. yothersi are listed—Brevipalpus amicus Chaudhri and B. recula Chaudhri (new synonymies), and B. mcbridei Baker and B. deleoni Pritchard and Baker (misidentifications). A key is provided to separate these species. New morphological characters significant for species separation are presented and discussed.

 


Keywords


Brevipalpus species groups, Citrus, citrus leprosis virus, differential interference contrast, flat mites, low temperature scanning electron microscopy, phase contrast, systematics

Full Text:

PDF/A (166.62 MB)

References


Alberti, G. & Kitajima, E.W. (2014) Anatomy and fine structure of Brevipalpus mites (Tenuipalpidae) – economically important plant-virus vectors - Part 1: An update on the biology and economic importance of Brevipalpus mites. In: Alberti, G. & Kitajima, E.W. (Eds): Anatomy and Fine Structure of Brevipalpus Mites (Tenuipalpidae) Economically Important Plant-Virus Vectors. Zoologica, 160, pp 1–10.

Alberti, G., Tassi, A.D. & Kitajima, E.W. (2014) Anatomy and fine structure of Brevipalpus mites (Tenuipalpidae) – economically important plant-virus vectors – Part 6: Female reproductive system. In: Alberti, G. & Kitajima, E.W. (Eds): Anatomy and Fine Structure of Brevipalpus Mites (Tenuipalpidae) Economically Important Plant-Virus Vectors. Zoologica, 160, pp. 145–172.

Attiah, H.H. (1956) The genus Brevipalpus in Egypt. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique d’Egypte, 40, 433–448.

Baker, E.W. (1949) The genus Brevipalpus (Acarina: Pseudoleptidae). The American Midland Naturalist, 42 (2), 350–402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2422013

Banks, N. (1904) Four new species of injurious mites. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 12, 53–56.

Banks, N. (1912) New American mites. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 14, 96–102.

Bastianel, M., Novelli, V.M., Kitajima, E.W., Kubo, K.S., Bassanezi, R.B., Machado, M.A. & Freitas-Astua, J. (2010) Citrus leprosis centennial of an unusual mite-virus pathosystem. Plant Disease, 94 (3), 284–292.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-94-3-0284

Beard, J.J., Seeman, O.D. & Bauchan, G.R. (2014a) Tenuipalpidae (Acari:Trombidiformes) from Casuarinaceae (Fagales). Zootaxa, 3778 (1), 1–157.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3778.1.1

Beard, J.J., Ochoa, R., Bauchan, G.R. & Braswell, W.E. (2014b) Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) species complex - resurrection of E.W. Baker's species (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). XIV International Congress of Acarology, Published Abstract, 60 pp.

Beard, J.J., Ochoa, R., Bauchan, G.R., Trice, M., Redford, A., Walters, T. & Mitter, C. (2013) Flat mites of the world. Available from: http://idtools.org/id/mites/flatmites/ (Accessed on Feb 2015)

Berry, J.A. & Fan, Q.-H. (2012) Biological notes and risk status of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in New Zealand. Systematic and Applied Acarology, 17 (2), 224–230.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11158/saa.17.2.9

Blanchard, E.E. (1940) Três ácaros dañinos para los cultivos Argentinos. Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia de la Plata, 24, 11–18.

Bolton, S.J., Klompen, H., Bauchan, G.R. & Ochoa, R. (2014) A new genus and species of Nematalycidae (Acari: Endeostigmata). Journal of Natural History, 48, 1359–1373.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2013.859318

Canestrini, G. & Fanzago, F. (1876) Nuovi acari Italiani. Atti Academia Cientifico Veneto, Trentino, Istriana, Pádua, Italy, 5, 130–142.

Chaudhri, W.M. (1972) The genus Brevipalpus in Pakistan. I. Descriptions of six new species and redescription of one species with new records. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 4 (1), 53–88.

Chaudhri, W.M., Akbar, S. & Rasool, A. (1974) Taxonomic Studies of the Mites Belonging to the Families Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae, Tuckerellidae, Caligonellidae, Stigmaeidae and Phytoseiidae. University of Agriculture, Lyallpur, Pakistan, Project Number A17-ENT-26, 250 pp.

Childers, C.C. & Derrick, K.S. (2003) Brevipalpus mites as vectors of unassigned rhabdoviruses in various crops. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 30 (1/3), 1–3.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:APPA.0000006542.96404.63

Childers, C.C., Rodrigues, J.C.V. & Welbourn, W.C. (2003) Host plants of Brevipalpus californicus, B. obovatus and B. phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) and their potential involvement in the spread of one or more viruses. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 30 (1/3), 29–105.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:APPA.0000006544.10072.01

Childers, C.C. & Rodrigues, J.C.V. (2011) An overview of Brevipalpus mites (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) and the plant viruses they transmit. Zoosymposia, 6, 180–192.

De Leon, D. (1961) New false spider mites with notes on some previously described species (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). The Florida Entomologist, 44 (4), 167–178.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3492052

De Leon, D. (1967) Some Mites of the Caribbean Area. Allen Press, Incorporated, Lawrence, Kansas, 46 pp.

Donnadieu, A.L. (1875) Recherches pour servir a l'histoire des Tétranyques. Thèses, Faculté des Sciences de Lyon, Francia, 131 pp.

Dosse, G. (1957a) Die ersten Funde von Brevipalpus inornatus Banks (Acari: Phytoptipalpidae) in europaischen Gewachshausern. Pflanzenschutz Berichte, 28 (1/2), 13–17.

Dosse, G. (1957b) Vergleichende Untersuchungen an Brevipalpus phoenicis Geijskes und B. inornatus Banks (Acar., Phytoptipalpidae). Pflanzenschutz Berichte, 19 (1/9), 36–44.

Düzgüneş, V. (1965) Türkiye’de bitkilere zarar veren Tenuipalpidae Sayed familyasi türleri üzerinde incelemeler. Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Yilliği, 15 (3), 120–148.

Dowling, A.P.G., Bauchan, G.R., Ochoa, R. & Beard, J.J. (2010) Scanning electron microscopy vouchers and genomic data from an individual specimen: maximizing the utility of delicate and rare specimens. Acarologia, 50 (4), 479–485.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/acarologia/20101983

Evans, G., Cromroy, H.L. & Ochoa, R. (1993) The Tenuipalpidae of Honduras (Tenuipalpidae: Acari). Florida Entomologist, 76 (1), 126–155.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3496021

Geijskes, D.C. (1939) Beitäge zur kenntnis der europäischen spinnmilben (Acari, Tetranychidae), mit bensonderer berücktigung der Niederländischen arten. Mededeelingen van de Landbouwboogeschool, Wageningen, 42, 1–68.

Gerson, U. (2008) The Tenuipalpidae: an under-explored family of plant-feeding mites. Systematic and Applied Acarology, 13, 83–101.

González, R.H. (1975) Revision of the Brevipalpus phoenicis “complex” with descriptions of new species from Chile and Thailand (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Acarologia, 17 (1), 81–91.

Grayum, M.H., Hammel, B.E. & Jimenez-Madrigal, Q. (2012) Validation of a scientific name for the Tahitian lime. Phytoneuron, 101, 1–5.

Groot, T.V.M. & Breeuwer, J.A.J. (2006) Cardinium symbionts induce haploid thelytoky in most clones of three closely related Brevipalpus species. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 39, 257–271.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-006-9019-0

Jeppson, L.R., Keifer, H.H. & Baker, E.W. (1975) Mites Injurious to Economic Plants. University of California, Press, Berkeley, 614 pp.

Kitajima, E.W., Kondo, H., MacKenzie, A., Rezende, J.A.M., Gioria, R., Gibbs, A. & Tamada, T. (2001) Comparative Cytopathology and Immunocytochemistry of Japanese, Australian and Brazilian Isolates of Orchid fleck virus. Journal of General Plant Plathology, 67, 231–237.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/PL00013018

Kitajima, E.W., Chagas, C.M. & Rodrigues, J.C. (2003) Brevipalpus-transmitted plant virus and virus-like diseases: cytopathology and some recent cases. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 30 (1/3), 135–160.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:APPA.0000006546.55305.e3

Kitajima, E.W., Rodrigues, J.C.V. & Freitas-Astua, J. (2010) An annotated list of ornamentals naturally found infected by Breviaplpus mite-transmitted viruses. Scientia Agrícola (Piracicaba, Brazil), 67 (3), 1–25.

Kitajima, E.W., Chagas, C.M., Harakava, R., Calegario, R.F., Freitas-Astua, J., Rodrigues, J.C.V. & Childers, C.C. (2011a) Citrus leprosis in Florida, USA, appears to have been caused by the nuclear type of citrus leprosis vírus (CiLV-N). Vírus Reviews and Research, Soc. Brasileira de Virologia, 1–5.

Kitajima, E.W., Tassi, A.D., Novelli, V.M., Cáceres, S., Aguirre, A., Costa, N. & Moraes de, G.J. (2011b) Asymmetry in the number of solenidia on tarsi II of Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) populations from Argentina. Zoosymposia, 6, 39–44.

Kitajima, E.W. & Alberti, G. (2014) Anatomy and fine structure of Brevipalpus Mites (Tenuipalpidae) – economically important plant-virus vectors. - Part 7: Ultrastructural detection of cytoplasmic and nuclear types of Brevipalpus- transmitted viruses. Pp. 173–192. In: G. Alberti & E.W. Kitajima (Eds): Anatomy and Fine Structure of Brevipalpus Mites (Tenuipalpidae) - Economically Important Plant-Virus Vectors. Zoologica, 160, 1–192.

Knorr, L.C. (1968) Studies on the etiology of leprosis in citrus. In: Proceedings of the 4th Conference of the International Organisation of Citrus Virologists. J.F.L. Childs (Ed.), University of Florida Press, Gainesville, pp. 332–341.

Knorr, L.C., Denmark, H.A. & Burnett, H.C. (1968) Occurrence of Brevipalpus mites, leprosis, and false leprosis on citrus in Florida. The Florida Entomologist, 51 (1), 11–17.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3493667

Lindquist, E.E. (1985) External Anatomy. In: Helle, W. & Sabelis, M. (Eds.), Spider Mites, Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol. 1A. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, pp. 3–29.

Maeda, T., Kondo, H., Mitsuhata, K. & Tamada, T. (1998) Evidence that orchid fleck virus is efficiently transmitted in a persistent manner by the mite Brevipalpus californicus. Published Abstract. 7th International Congress of Plant Pathology, Volume 3, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Manson, D.C.M. (1963) Mites of the families Tetranychidae and Tenuipalpidae associated with citrus in Southeast Asia. Acarologia, 5 (3), 351–364.

McGregor, E.A. (1949) Nearctic mites of the family Pseudoleptidae. Memoir of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, 3 (2), 1–45.

Mesa, N.C. (2005) Ácaros Tenuipalpidae (Acari: Prostigmata) no Brasil, novos relatos para América do Sul e o Caribe e variabilidade morfológica e morfométrica de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes). Dissertation, Universidade de São Paulo, Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz,” Brazil, 400 pp.

Mesa, N.C., Ochoa, R., Welbourn, W.C., Evans, G.A. & Moraes de, G.J. (2009) A catalogue of Tenuipalpidae Berlese (Acari: Prostigmata) of the world, with a key to genera. Zootaxa, 2098, 1–185.

Mineiro, J.L. de C., Sato, M.E., Ochoa, R., Novelli, V., Nunes, M.A. & Ferreira, P.R. (2014) Brevipalpus phoenicis (group species B) on Citrus spp. and Coffea arabica, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. XIV International Congress of Acarology, Japan, pp. 1–34 (Published abstract) - 108.

Navia, N., Mendonça, R.S., Ferragut, F., Miranda, L.C., Trincado, R.C., Michaux, J. & Navajas, M. (2013) Cryptic diversity in Brevipalpus mites (Tenuipalpidae). Zoologica Scripta, 42 (2), 406–426.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zsc.12013

Ochoa, R. (1985) Reconocimento preliminary de los ácaros fitoparásitos de género Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) en Costa Rica. Ingeniero Agronomo Thesis, Facultad De Agronomica, Universidad de Costa Rica, 124 pp.

Ochoa, R. & Salas, L. (1989) The genus Brevipalpus in Costa Rica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). International Journal of Acarology, 15 (1), 21–30.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01647958908683819

Ochoa, R., Aguilar, H. & Vargas, C. (1994) Phytophagous mites of Central Amercia: An illustrated guide. CATIE, Serie Tecnica, Manual Tecnico No. 6, English edition, 234 pp.

Oomen, P.A. (1982) Studies on population dynamics of the scarlet mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis, a pest of tea in Indonesia. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool, Wageningen, Netherlands 82-1, 88 pp.

Oudemans, A.C. (1938) Nieuwe vondsten op het gebied der systematiek en der nomenklatur der Acari II. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, Amsterdam, 81, 70–80.

Prieto-Trueba, D. (1984) Morphological changes in the orthogenesis of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae) – the pest of citrus trees in Cuba. Vestnik Leningradskogo Universiteta, Seriâ 3, Biologiâ, 1984, 107–112. [in Russian]

Pritchard, A.E. & Baker, E.W. (1952) The false spider mites of California (Acarina: Phytoptipalpidae). University of California Publications in Entomology, 9 (1), 1–94.

Pritchard, A.E. & Baker, E.W. (1958) The false spider mites (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). University of California Publications in Entomology, 14 (3), 175–274.

Rodrigues, J.C., Gall-Meagher, M., Ochoa, R., Childers, C.C. & Adams, B.J. (2004) Mitochondrial DNA and RAPD polymorphisms in the haploid mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Experimental & Applied of Acarology, 34, 275–290.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:APPA.0000049221.06269.29

Rodrigues, J.C.V., Antony, L.M.K., Salaroli, R.B. & Kitajima, E.W. (2008) Brevipalpus-associated viruses in the central Amazon Basin. Tropical Plant Pathology, 33, 12–19.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1982-56762008000100003

Rodrigues, J.C.V. & Childers, C.C. (2013) Brevipalpus mites (Acari: Tenuipalpidae): vectors of invasive, non-systemic cytoplasmic and nuclear viruses in plants. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 59 (1–2), 165–175.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-012-9632-z

Roy, A., Stone, A., Otero-Colina, G., Wei, G., Choudhary, N., Achor, D., Shao, J., Levy, L., Nakhla, M.K., Hollingsworth, C.R., Hartung, J.S., Schneider, W.L. & Brlansky, R.H. (2013) Genome assembly of Citrus Leprosis Virus nuclear type reveals a close association with Orchid Fleck Virus. Genome Announcements, 1 (4), 519–13.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00519-13

Roy, A., León, M.G., Stone, A.L., Schneider, W.L., Hartung, J.S. & Brlansky, R.H. (2014) First report of Citrus leprosies virus nuclear type in sweet orange in Colombia. Plant Disease, 98 (8), 1–1162.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-02-14-0117-PDN

Roy, A., Hartung, J.S., Schneider, W.L., Shao, J., León, M.G., Melzer, M.J., Beard, J.J., Otero-Colina, G., Bauchan, G.R., Ochoa, R. & Brlansky, R.H. (2015) Role bending: complex relationships between viruses, hosts and vectors related to citrus leprosies, an emerging disease. Phytopathology (in press).

Solit, K.D. (1993) History of the United States Botanic Garden 1816-1991. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 112 pp.

Welbourn, W.C., Ochoa, R., Kane, E.C. & Erbe, E.F. (2003) Morphological observations on Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) including comparisons with B. californicus and B. obovatus. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 30 (1/3), 107–133.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:APPA.0000006545.40017.a0


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa