Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


Dentex carpenteri, a new species of deepwater seabream from Western Australia (Pisces: Sparidae)



A new species of sparid fish, Dentex carpenteri, is described from nine type specimens collected off Ningaloo Reef near Exmouth, Western Australia. Four valid species of Dentex are currently known in the western Pacific, Dentex abei and D. hypselosomus in the Northern Hemisphere, and D. fourmanoiri and D. spariformis in the Southern Hemisphere. These four species comprise the “Dentex hypselosomus complex”. Dentex carpenteri n. sp. is most similar to D. spariformis in overall body form, but differs from D. spariformis in having the posterior margin of the upper jaw not reaching or reaching slightly beyond a vertical at the anterior margin of eye; often with the greater part from the snout to the second infraorbital yellowish; deeper suborbital (9.7–10.9% SL); and a considerably deeper body (vs. posterior margin of upper jaw reaching clearly beyond anterior margin of eye; slight yellow region on snout; suborbital depth shallow (7.6–9.6% SL); and a less deep body in D. spariformis). The mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rRNA, 545 bp) of the above five species were analyzed using the Atlantic congener, Dentex macrophthalmus as an out-group, the results clearly indicating that D. carpenteri n. sp. is a valid and distinct species. A key to the “Dentex hypselosomus complex” is provided. The distributional information available for the five species from the western Pacific, including western Australia and the nearby eastern Indian Ocean, are discussed, with the species considered to be allopatric.



taxonomy, Sparidae, Dentex carpenteri, New species, Western Australia, southeastern Indian Ocean

Full Text:

PDF/A (2.62 MB)


Akazaki, M. (1962) Studies on the spariform fishes: anatomy, phylogeny, ecology and taxonomy. Misaki Marine Biological Institute Kyoto University, Special Report, 1 (1), 1‒368.

Akazaki, M. & Séret, B. (1999) Dentex fourmanoiri, a new species of sea bream (Sparidae: Denticinae) from off New Caledonia. In: Séret, B. & Sire, J.-Y., (Eds.), Proceeding of the 5th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference. Noumea, pp. 177−183.

Allen, G.R. (1997) Marine fishes of tropical Australia and south-east Asia. Western Australian Museum, Perth, 292 pp.

Allen, G.R. & Swainston, R. (1988) The marine fishes of north-western Australia. A field guide for anglers and divers. Western Australian Museum, Perth, 201 pp.

Amir, S.A., Siddiqui, P.J.A. & Masroor, R. (2014) A new sparid fish of genus Sparidentex (Perciformes: Sparidae) from coastal waters of Pakistan (North Western Indian Ocean). Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 46 (2), 471−477.

Bleeker, P. (1854) Species piscium Bataviensium novae vel minus cognitae. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift Nederlandsch Indië, 6, 191−202.

Burhanuddin, A.I. & Iwatsuki, Y. (2003) Trichiurus nickolensis, a new hairtail from Australia belonging to the Trichiurus russelli complex (Perciformes: Trichiuridae). Ichthyological Research, 50 (3), 270−275.

Burhanuddin, A.I., Iwatsuki, Y., Yoshino, T. & Kimura, S. (2002) Small and valid species of Trichiurus brevis Wang and You, 1992 and T. russelli Dutt and Thankam, 1966, defined as the "T. russelli complex" (Perciformes: Trichiuridae). Ichthyological Research, 49 (3), 211−223.

Carpenter, K.E. (2001) Family Sparidae. In: Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, V.H. (Eds.), Species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the western central Pacific. Vol. 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae), FAO, Rome, pp. 2990−3003.

Carpenter, K.E. & Johnson, G.D. (2002) A phylogeny of sparoid fishes (Perciformes, Percoidei) based on morphology. Ichthyological Research, 49, 114−127.

Chakrabarty, P. (2010) Genetypes: a concept to help integrate molecular phylogenetics and taxonomy. Zootaxa, 2632, 67–68.

Chakraborty, A., Burhanuddin, A.I. & Iwatsuki, Y. (2005) A new species of Trichiurus australis (Perciformes: Trichiuridae) from Australia. Ichthyological Research, 52 (2), 165–170.

Chiba, S.N., Iwatsuki, Y., Yoshino, T. & Hanzawa, N. (2009) Comprehensive phylogeny of the family Sparidae (Perciformes: Teleostei) inferred from mitochondrial gene analyses. Genes and Genetic Systems, 84 (2), 153−170.

Day, J.J. (2002) Phylogenetic relationships of the Sparidae (Teleostei: Percoidei) and implications for convergent trophic evolution. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society of London, 76 (2), 269–301.

Eschmeyer, W.N. (Dd) (2014) Catalog of fishes: genera, species, references. Electronic version. Available from: (accessed 27 August 2014)

Hanel, R. & Tsigenopoulos, C.S. (2011) Phylogeny, evolution and taxonomy of sparids with some notes on their ecology and biology, In: Parvlidis, M.A. & Mylonas, C.C. (Ed.), Sparidae. Biology and aquaculture of Gilthead Sea Bream and other species. Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, pp. 51−74.

Harrison, I.J., Chakrabarty, P., Freyhof, J. & Craig, J.F. (2011) Correct nomenclature and recommendations for preserving and cataloguing voucher material and genetic sequences. Journal of Fish Biology, 78, 1283–1290.

Hutchins, J.B. (2001) Checklist of the fishes of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum, 63 (Supplement), 9−50.

Iwatsuki, Y. (2013) Review of the Acanthopagrus latus complex (Perciformes: Sparidae) with descriptions of three new species from the Indo-West Pacific. Journal of Fish Biology, 83, 64–95.

Iwatsuki, Y., Akazaki, M. & Taniguchi, N. (2007) Review of the genus Dentex (Perciformes: Sparidae) in the western Pacific with the description of a new species, Dentex abei, defined as the D. hypselosomus complex and a redescription of Evynnis tumifrons. Bulletin of Natural Science, Series A (Supplment), 29−49.

Iwatsuki, Y. & Carpenter, K. (2006) Acanthopagrus taiwanensis, a new sparid fish (Perciformes), with comparisons to Acanthopagrus berda (Forsskål, 1775) and other nominal species of Acanthopagrus. Zootaxa, 1202, 1–19.

Iwatsuki, Y. & Carpenter, K.E. (2009) Acanthopagrus randalli (Perciformes: Sparidae), a new black seabream from the Persian Gulf. Zootaxa, 2267, 43−54.

Iwatsuki, Y. & Heemstra, P. C. (2010) A Taxonomic Review of the Western Indian Ocean Sparid Fish Species of the Genus Acanthopagrus Peters 1855 (Perciformes: Sparidae), with description of a new species from Oman. Copeia, 2010 (1), 123–136.

Iwatsuki, Y. & Heemstra, P. C. (2011a) Polysteganus mascarenensis, a new sparid fish species from Mascarene Islands, Indian Ocean Polysteganus mascarenensis, a new sparid fish species from Mascarene Islands, Indian Ocean. Zootaxa, 3018, 13–20.

Iwatsuki, Y. & Heemstra, P. C. (2011b) A review of the Acanthopagrus bifasciatus species complex (Pisces: Sparidae) from the Indian Ocean, with redescriptions of A. bifasciatus (Forsskal 1775) and A. catenula (Lacepede 1801). Zootaxa, 3025, 38–50.

Iwatsuki, Y., Kume, M. & Yoshino, T. (2010) A new species, Acanthopagrus pacificus from the western Pacific (Pisces, Sparidae). Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Series A, 36 (4), 115–130.

Iwatsuki, Y. & Maclaine, J. (2013) Validity of Crenidens macracanthus Günther 1874 (Pisces: Sparidae) from Chennai (Madras), India, with taxonomic statuses of the congeners. Ichthyological Research, 60, 241–248.

Kimura, M. (1980) A simple methods of estimating evolutionary rate of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. Journal Molecular Evolution, 16, 111–120.

Larkin, M.A., Blackshields, G., Brown, N.P., Chenna, R., McGettigan, P.A., McWilliam, H., Valentin, F., Wallace, I.M., Wilm, A., Lopez, R., Thompson, J.D., Gibson, T.J. & Higgins, D.G. (2007) Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0. Bioinformatics, 23, 2947–2948.

Miya, M. & Nishida, M. (1996) Molecular phylogenetic perspective on the evolution of the deep-sea fish genus Cyclothone (Stomiiformes: Gonostomatidae). Ichthyological Research, 43, 375–398.

Mohsin, A.K.M. & Ambak, M.A. (1996) Marine fishes and fisheries of Malaysia and neighbouring countries. Universiti Pertanian Malaysia Press, Serdang, iv–xxxvi + 744 pp.

Nakamura, I. & Parin, N.V. (1993) FAO species catalogue, vol 15. Snake mackerels and cutlassfishes of the world (Families Gempylidae and Trichiuridae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the snake mackerels, snoeks, escolars, gemfishes, sackfishes, domine, oilfish, cutlassfishes, scabbardfishes, hairtails, and frostfishes known to date. FAO, Rome 15, vii + 136 pp.

Nelson, J.S. (2006) Fishes of the World. 4th Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, N.J, xix + 601 pp.

Ogilby, J.D. (1910) On some new fishes from the Queensland coast. Endeavour Series, I. New Fishes of Queensland, 23, 85−139.

Ogilby, J.D. (1916) Edible fishes of Queensland. Parts IV through IX. Memoirs of Queensland Museum, 5, 127−177, pls. 14−23.

Orrell, T.M. & Carpenter, K.E. (2004) A phylogeny of the fish family Sparidae (porgies) inferred from mitochondrial sequence data.Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32 (2), 425–434.

Sabaj, P.M.H. (2013) Standard symbolic codes for institutional resource collections in herpetology and ichthyology: an Online Reference. Version 4.0 (28 June 2013). American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Washington, DC. Electronically accessible. Available from: (accessed 28 April 2015)

Saitou, N. & Nei, M. (1987) The neighbour-joining method: a new method for reconstructing evolutionary trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 4, 406–425.

Sambrook, J. & Russell, D.W. (2001) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. 3rd Edition. In: Sambrook, J. & Russell, D.W. (Eds.), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York, pp. 1−15, 65.

Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, A., Filipski, A. & Kumar, S. (2013) MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30, 2725–2729.

Tanaka, F. & Iwatsuki, Y. (2013) Rhabdosargus niger (Perciformes: Sparidae), a new sparid species from Indonesia, with taxonomic status of the nominal species synonymized under Rhabdosargus sarba. Ichthyological Research, 60, 1–13.

Taniguchi, N., Fujita, M. & Akazaki, M. (1986) Genetic divergence and systematics in sparid fish from Japan. In: Uyeno, T., Arai, R., Taniguchi, T. & Matsuura, K. (Eds.), Indo-Pacific Fish Biology: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Indo-Pacific Fishes. Ichthyological Society of Japan, Tokyo, pp. 849−858.

Temminck, C.J. & Schlegel, H. (1843) Pisces. Parts 5−6. In: de Siebold, P.F. (Ed.), P.F. de Siebold's Fauna Japonica. Müller, Amsterdam, pp. 73−112, pls. 37−59.

Ward, R.D., Zemlak, T.S., Innes, B.H., Last, P.R. & Herbert, P.D. (2005) DNA Barcoding of Australia’s fish species. Philladelphia, Transaction of Royal Society B, 360, 1847–1857.

Whitley, G.P. (1937) Further ichthyological miscellanea. Memoirs of Queensland Museum, 11 (2), 113−148, pls. 11−13.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa