Two new species of shovel-jaw carp Onychostoma (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from southern Vietnam



Two new species of large shovel-jaw carps in the genus Onychostoma are described from the upper Krong No and middle Dong Nai drainages of the Langbiang Plateau in southern Vietnam. These new species are known from streams in montane mixed pine and evergreen forests between 140 and 1112 m. Their populations are isolated in the headwaters of the upper Sre Pok River of the Mekong basin and in the middle of the Dong Nai basin. Both species are differentiated from their congeners by a combination of the following characters: transverse mouth opening width greater than head width, 14−17 predorsal scales, caudal-peduncle length 3.9−4.2 times in SL, no barbels in adults and juveniles, a strong serrated last simple ray of the dorsal fin, and small eye diameter (20.3−21.5% HL). Onychostoma krongnoensis sp. nov. is differentiated from Onychostoma dongnaiensis sp. nov. by body depth (4.0 vs. 3.2 times in SL), predorsal scale number (14−17 vs. 14−15), dorsal-fin length (4.5 vs. 4.2 times in SL), caudal-peduncle length (3.9 vs. 4.2 times in SL), colour in life (dark vs. bright), and by mitochondrial DNA (0.2% sequence divergence). Molecular evidence indicates that both species are members of Onychostoma and are distinct from all congeners sampled (uncorrected sequence divergences at the 16S rRNA gene of >2.0% for all Onychostoma for which homologous 16S rRNA sequences are available).


Langbiang Plateau, Onychostoma krongnoensis sp. nov., Onychostoma dongnaiensis sp. nov., southeast Asia, Vietnam, Pisces

Full Text:

PDF/A (5.79 MB)


Allen, D.J., Smith, K.G. & Darwall, W.R.T. (2012) The Status and Distribution of Freshwater Biodiversity in Indo−Burma. IUCN, Cambridge & Gland, x + 158 pp. + 4 pp. [UK & Switzerland]

Bănărescu, P. (1971a) A review of the species of the subgenus Onychostoma s. str. with description of a new species (Pisces, Cyprinidae). Revue Romanian Biology-Zoology, 16, 241−248.

Chen, Y.Y. (1989) Anatomy and phylogeny of the cyprinid fish genus Onychostoma Günther, 1896. Bulletin of the British Museum Natural History, Zoology, 55, 109–121.

Chevey, P. & Lemasson, J. (1937) Contribution a l’étude de Poissons de eaux douces Tonkinoises. Hanoi Imprimerie D’extrême-Orient, Hanoi, 171 pp.

Chuang, L.C, Lin, Y.S. & Liang, S.H. (2006) Ecomorphological comparison and habitat preference of 2 cyprinid fishes, Varicorhinus barbatulus and Candidia barbatus, in Hapen Creek of northern Taiwan. Zoological Studies 45, 114−123.

Hoshiyar, S., Joshi S.C., Bisht, I. & Agarwal, S.K. (2013) The adaptive modifications of snout epidermis of a hill-stream fish Schizothorax richardsonii of Kumaun Himalaya: A SEM Investigation. Research Journal of Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Sciences, 1, 1−4.

Jang-Liaw, N.H. & Chen, I.S. (2013) Onychostoma minnanensis, a new cyprinid species (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Fujian, southern mainland China, with comments on the mitogenetic differentiation among related species. Ichthyological Research, 60, 62–74.

Kano, Y., Adnan, M.S.B., Grudpan, C., Grudpan, J., Magtoon, W., Musikasinthorn, P., Natori, Y., Ottomanski, S., Praxaysonbath, B., Phongsa, K., Rangsiruji, A., Shibukawa, K., Shimatani, Y., So, N., Suvarnaraksha, A., Thach, P., Thanh, P.N., Tran, D.D., Utsugi, K. & Yamashita, T. (2013) An online database on freshwater fish diversity and distribution in Mainland Southeast Asia. Ichthyological Research, 60, 293−295. Available from: (accessed 26 March 2014)

Kottelat, M. (1998) Fishes of the Nam Theun and Xe Bangfai basins, Laos, with diagnoses of twenty-two new species (Teleostei: Cyprinidae, Balitoridae, Cobitidae, Coiidae and Odontobutidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 9, 1–128.

Kottelat, M. (2001a) Fishes of Laos. WHT, Colombo, 198 pp.

Kottelat, M. (2001b) Freshwater Fishes of northern Vietnam: a preliminary check-list of the fishes known or expected to occur in northern Vietnam with comments on systematics and nomen-clature. World Bank, Washington, 123 pp.

Kottelat, M. (2007) Preliminary Report Virachey National Park RAP 2007 Cambodia. 1-15 October 2007 Rapid Assessment Program. Conservation International-Cambodia, 28 pp.

Kottelat, M. (2009) Fishes of the upper Nam Ou drainage in Laos. Community Fisheries: supporting food and aquatic biodiversity (ComFish) Project, WWF Laos, Vientiane, 25 pp.

Kottelat, M. (2011) Fishes of the Xe Kong drainage in Laos,especially from the Xe Kaman. Co-Management of freshwater biodiversity in the Sekong Basin, WF Laos, Vientiane, 26 pp.

Kottelat, M. & Freyhof, J. (2007) Handbook of European Freshwater Fishes. Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin, 637 pp.

Li, J.B., Wang, X.Z., Kong, X.H., He, S.P. & Mayden, R.L. (2008) Variation patterns of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene with secondary structure constraints and their application to phylogeny of cyprinine fishes (Teleostei: Cypriniformes). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 47, 472–487.

Lothongkham, A. & Musikasinthorn, P (2005) First record of the cyprinid fish, Onychostoma gerlachi (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), from the Nan river basin of the Chao Phraya river system in northern Thailand. The Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society, 53, 237−243.

Mai, D.Y. (1978) Identification of Freshwater Fishes of northern Vietnam. Nha Xuat Ban Khoa Hoc va Ky Thuat, Ha Noi, 339 pp. [in Vietnamese].

Mai, D.Y., Nguyen, V.T., Nguyen, V.T., Le, H.Y. & Hua, B.L. (1992) Identification of Freshwater Fishes of southern Vietnam. Nha Xuat Ban Khoa Hoc va Ky Thuat, Ha Noi, 351 pp. [in Vietnamese]

Nguyen, V.H. & Ngo, S.V. (2001) Freshwater Fishes of Vietnam. Vol. 1. Family Cyprinidae. Agriculture Publish House, Hanoi, 622 pp. [in Vietnamese]

Nichols, J.T. & Pope, C.H. (1927) Article II.- The fishes of Hainan. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, 54, 321−398.

Peters, W.C.H. (1880) Über eine Sammlung von Fischen, welche Hr. Dr.Gerlach in Hongkong gesandt hat. Monatsber K Akad Wiss Bedin, 1880, 1029–1037.

Poncin, P., Nzau Matondo, B., Termol, C., Kestemont, P. & Philippart, J.C. (2011) Relationships between circulating androgens, aggressive behaviour and breeding tubercles in males of the common bream Abramis brama L. in an aquarium environment. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 37, 533–542.

Shan, X., Lin, R., Yuem, P. & Chu, X. (2000) Onychostoma. In: Yue, P (Ed.), Fauna Sinica, Osteichthyes. Cypriniformes III. Science Press, Beijing, pp. 126–147.

Stolbunov, I.A., Hai Than, N.T. & Pavlov, D.S. (2011) Morphological and behavioral variation of Rasbora paviei (Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes) from lotic and limnic habitats (Central Vietnam). Journal of Ichthyology, 51, 352–357.

Taki, Y. (1975) Cyprinid fishes of the genera Onychostoma and Scaphiodonichthys from upper Laos, with remarks on the dispersal of the genera and their allies. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology, 22 (3), 143−150.

Wang, X.Z., Gan, X.N., Li, J.B., Mayden, R. & He, S.P. (2012) Cyprinid phylogeny based on Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of partitioned data: implications for Cyprinidae systematics. Science China Life Science, 55 (9), 761–773.

Wiley, M.L. & Collette, B.B. (1970) Breeding tubercles and contact organa in fishes: their occurrence structure, and significance. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 143, 143−216.

Witkowski, A. & Rogowska, M.W. (1991) Breeding tubercles in some European cyprinid fishes (Osteichthyes, Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae). Zoologische Abhandlungen, 9, 129–155.

Xin, Q., Zhang, E. & Cao, W.X. (2009) Onychostoma virgulatum, a new species of cyprinid fish from southern Anhui Province, South China. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 20, 255–266.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa