Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4020.1.3

Two new species of erect Bryozoa (Gymnolaemata: Cheilostomata) and the application of non-destructive imaging methods for quantitative taxonomy

KEI MATSUYAMA, JÜRGEN TITSCHACK, Daniel BAUM, ANDRÉ FREIWALD

Abstract


Two new species of cheilostome Bryozoa are described from continental-slope habitats off Mauritania, including canyon and cold-water coral (mound) habitats. Internal structures of both species were visualised and quantified using microcomputed tomographic (micro-CT) methods. Cellaria bafouri n. sp. is characterised by the arrangement of zooids in alternating longitudinal rows, a smooth cryptocyst, and the presence of an ooecial plate with denticles. Smittina imragueni n. sp. exhibits many similarities with Smittina cervicornis (Pallas, 1766), but differs especially in the shape and orientation of the suboral avicularium. Observations on Smittina imragueni and material labelled as Smittina cervicornis suggest that the latter represents a species group, members of which have not yet been discriminated, possibly because of high intracolony variation and marked astogenetic changes in surface morphology. Both new species are known only from the habitats where they were collected, probably reflecting the paucity of bryozoan sampling from this geographic area and depth range. Both species are able to tolerate low oxygen concentration, which is assumed to be compensated by the high nutrient supply off Mauritania. The application of micro-CT for the semiautomatic quantification of zooidal skeletal characters was successfully tested. We were able to automatically distinguish individual zooidal cavities and acquire corresponding morphological datasets. Comparing the obtained results with conventional SEM measurements allowed ascertaining the reliability of this new method. The employment of micro-CT allows the observation and quantification of previously unseen characters that can be used in describing and differentiating species that were previously indistinguishable. Furthermore, this method might help elucidate processes of colony growth and the function of individual zooids during this process.

 


Keywords


Bryozoa, Mauritania, Northeast Atlantic, continental margin, micro-CT, Cellaria, Smittina

Full Text:

PDF/A (11.11 MB)

References


Aristegui, J. & Cruz, T. (1986) Consideraciones biogeográficas sobre el orden Cheilostomata (Ectoprocta) en Canarias. Vieraea, 16, 161–171.

Berning, B. (2013) New and little-known Cheilostomata (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata) from the NE Atlantic. European Journal of Taxonomy, 44, 1–25.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2013.44

Busk, G. (1852) An account of the Polyzoa and sertularian zoophytes collected in the voyage of the Rattlesnake on the coasts of Australia and Louisiade Archipelago. In: MacGillivray, J. (Ed), Narrative of the voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake commanded by the late Captain Owen Stanley, during the years 1846–1850. T&W Boone, London, pp. 343–402.

Busk, G. (1884) Report on the Polyzoa collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873–1876. Part 1. The Cheilostomata. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of the H.M.S. “Challenger”, Zoology, 10, 1–216.

Buttler, C.J., Rahman, I.A. & Slater, B. (2012) Three-dimensional computer reconstruction of a Lower Palaeozoic trepostome bryozoan. In: Palaeontological Association Newsletter, Abstracts Annual Meeting, 2012, pp. 62.

Canu, F. & Bassler, R.S. (1925) Les Bryozoaires du Maroc et de Mauritanie. Mémoires de la Société des Sciences Naturelles du Maroc, 10, 1–79.

Canu, F. & Bassler, R.S. (1928) Les Bryozoaires du Maroc et de Mauritanie, 2me mémoire. Mémoires de la Société des Sciences Naturelles du Maroc, 18, 1–85.

Colman, J.G., Gordon, D.M., Lane, A.P., Forde, M.J. & Fitzpatrick, J.J. (2005) Carbonate mounds off Mauritania, Northwest Africa: status of deep-water corals and implications for management of fishing and oil exploration activities. In: Freiwald, A. & Roberts, J.M. (Eds.), Cold-Water Corals and Ecosystems. Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 417–441.

Cook, P.L. (1968) Bryozoa (Polyzoa) from the coasts of tropical West Africa. Atlantide Report, 10, 115–262.

Cook, P.L. (1985) Bryozoa from Ghana — a preliminary survey. Annales Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Sciences zoologiques, Tervuren, 238, 1–315.

Dewel, R.A., Winston, J.E. & McKinney, F.K. (2002) Deconstructing bryozoans: origin and consequences of a unique body plan. In: Wyse Jackson, P.N., Buttler, C.J. & Spencer Jones, M.E. (Eds., Bryozoan Studies 2001. A.A. Balkema Publishers, Lisse, pp. 93–99.

Ellis, J. & Solander, D.C. (1786) The Natural History of Many Curious and Uncommon Zoophytes, collected from various parts of the globe. White & Elmsly, London, 206 pp.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.64985

Faulwetter, S., Vasileiadou, A., Kouratoras, M., Dailianis, T. & Arvanitidis, C. (2013) Micro-computed tomography: Introducing new dimensions to taxonomy. ZooKeys, 263, 1–45.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.263.4261

Fleming, J. (1828) A History of British Animals, exhibiting their descriptive characters and systematic arrangement of the genera and species of quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, fishes, Mollusca, and Radiata of the United Kingdom. Bell & Bradfute, Edinburg, 565 pp.

Gabric, A.J., Garcia, L., Van Camp, L., Nykjaer, L., Eifler, W. & Schrimpf, W. (1993) Offshore export of shelf production in the Cape Blanc (Mauritania) giant filament as derived from coastal zone color scanner imagery. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 98, 4697–4712.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/92JC01714

Gautier, Y.V. (1962) Recherches écologiques sur les Bryozoaires Chilostomes en Mediterranée occidentale. Recueil des travaux de la Station marine d'Endoume, 38, 1–434.

Godfray, H.C.J. (2007) Linnaeus in the information age. Nature, 446, 259–260.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/446259a

Hagen, E. (2001) Northwest African upwelling scenario. Oceanologica Acta, 24, 113–128.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0399-1784(00)01110-5

Hammer, Ø., Harper, D.A.T. & Ryan, P.D. (2001) PAST: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica, 4, 1–9.

Harmelin, J.-G. (1969) Bryozoaires récoltés au cours de la campagne du Jean Charcot en Méditerranée Orientale (août–septembre 1967). Dragages. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 41, 295–311.

Harmelin, J.-G., Boury-Esnault, N. & Vacelet, J. (1994) A bryozoan-sponge symbiosis: the association between Smittina cervicornis and Halisarca cf. dujardini in the Mediterranean. In: Hayward, P.J., Ryland, J.S.& Taylor, P.D. (Eds.), Biology and Palaeobiology of Bryozoans. Olsen & Olsen, Fredensborg, pp. 69–74.

Harmelin, J.-G. & Hondt, J.-L. d’ (1992a) Bryozoaires des parages de Gibraltar (campagne océanographique BALGIM, 1984) 1 — Chéilostomes. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Série 4, 14A, 23–67.

Harmelin, J.-G. & Hondt, J.-L. d’ (1992b) Bryozoaires des parages de Gibraltar (campagne océanographique BALGIM, 1984) 2 — Cténostomes et cyclostomes. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Série 4, 14A, 605–621.

Hassall, A.H. (1840) Catalogue of Irish Zoophytes. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 1, 6, 166–175.

Hayward, P.J. (1978) Bryozoa from the west European continental slope. Journal of Zoology, 184, 207–224.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1978.tb03276.x

Hayward, P.J. & McKinney, F.K. (2002) Northern Adriatic Bryozoa from the vicinity of Rovinj, Croatia. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 270, 1–139.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1206/0003-0090(2002)270%3C0001:NABFTV%3E2.0.CO;2

Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (1978) Bryozoa from the Bay of Biscay and Western Approaches. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 58, 143–159.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315400024462

Hondt, J.-L. d’ (1973) Bryozoaires de la campagne de la 'Thalassa' (3–12 août 1967). Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 3, 365–386.

Hondt, J.-L. d’ (1974) Bryozoaires récoltés par la 'Thalassa' dans le Golfe de Gascogne (Campagnes de 1968 à 1972). Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 15, 27–50.

Hondt, J.-L. d’ (1978) Les bryozoaires du Maroc et de Mauritanie (Troisième Mémoire, pour faire suite aux publications de F. Canu et R.S. Bassler). Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 19, 447–458.

Hondt, J.-L. d’ (1985) Contribution à la systématique des Bryozoaires Eurystomes. Apports récents et nouvelles propositions. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie & Biologie animale, 7, 1–12.

Imperato, F. (1599) Dell’ Historia Naturale. Constantino Vitale, Porta Reale, Naples, 791 pp.

Johnston, G. (1847) A History of British Zoophytes. Van Voorst, London, 499 pp.

Jullien, J. & Calvet, L. (1903) Bryozoaires provenant des campagnes de l'Hirondelle (1886–1888). Resultats des Campagnes Scientifiques accomplies sur son yacht par Albert Ier, Prince Souverain de Monaco, 23, 1–188.

Klicpera, A., Taylor, P.D. & Westphal, H. (2013) Bryoliths constructed by bryozoans in symbiotic interaction with hermit crabs in a tropical heterozoan carbonate system, Banc d’Arguin, Mauritania. Marine Biodiversity, 43, 429–444.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12526-013-0173-4

Koromyslova, A.V. & Pakhnevich, A.V. (2014) X-ray micro-CT of the fossil ascophoran bryozoans Beisselinopsis quincunx from the museum collections. In: Bruker-micro-CT (Ed.), Micro-CT User Meeting 2014. Ostend, pp. 233–238.

Koromyslova, A.V., Pakhnevich, A.V. & Baraboshkin, E.J. (2014) Micro-CT investigation of problematic spherical colonies from the Maastrichtian of Western Kazakhstan. In: Cretaceous System of Russia and the Near Abroad: Problems of stratigraphy and paleogeography. Vladivostok, pp. 161–163.

Krastel, S., Hanebuth, T.J.J., Antobreh, A.A., Henrich, R., Holz, C., Kölling, M., Schulz, H.D., Wien, K. & Wynn, R.B. (2004) Cap Timiris Canyon: A newly discovered channel system offshore of Mauritania. EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 85, 417–423.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004EO420001

Kuklinski, P. & Taylor, P.D. (2008) Arctic species of the cheilostome bryozoan Microporella, with a redescription of the type species. Journal of Natural History, 42, 1893–1906.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222930802126904

Le Danois, E. (1948) Les Profondeurs de la Mer. Payot, Paris, 303 pp.

Levin, L.A. (2003) Oxygen minimum zone benthos: Adaptation and community response to hypoxia. Oceanography and Marine Biology, 41, 1–45.

Levinsen, G.M.R. (1909) Morphological and Systematic Studies on the Cheilostomatous Bryozoa. Nationale Forfatterers Forlag, Copenhagen, 431 pp.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.5690

Linnaeus, C. (1758) Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Vol. Editio Decima. Laurentius Salvius, Stockholm, 824 pp.

López-Fé, C.M. (2006) Some bathyal cheilostome Bryozoa (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) from the Canary Islands (Spain, Eastern Atlantic), with descriptions of three new species, a new genus, and a new family. Journal of Natural History, 40, 1801–1812.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222930601043763

López de la Cuadra, C. & García-Gómez, J.C. (1996) The species of Cellaria (Bryozoa, Cheilostomatida) with large avicularia from West Africa. Journal of Natural History, 30, 153–161.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222939600770101

Marañón, E. & Holligan, P.M. (1999) Photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton from 50°N to 50°S in the Atlantic Ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 176, 191–203.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps176191

Norman, A.M. (1903) Notes on the natural history of East Finmark, Polyzoa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 7, 81–128.

Pallas, P.S. (1766) Elenchus Zoophytorum sistens generum adumbrationes generaliores et speciarum cognitarum succintas descriptiones cum selectis auctorus synonymis. Petrum van Cleef, The Hague, 451 pp.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.6595

Peck, L.S. & Barnes, D.K.A. (2004) Metabolic flexibility: the key to long-term evolutionary success in Bryozoa? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 271, 18–21.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2003.0053

Rhoads, D.C. & Morse, J.W. (1971) Evolutionary and ecologic significance of oxygen-deficient marine basins. Lethaia, 4, 413–428.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1502-3931.1971.tb01864.x

Rogers, A.D. (1999) The biology of Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus 1758) and other deep-water reef-forming corals and impacts from human activities. International Review of Hydrobiology, 84, 315–406.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iroh.199900032

Rosso, A. (2003) Bryozoan diversity in the Mediterranean Sea. Biogeographia, 24, 227–250.

Rosso, A., Vertino, A., Di Geronimo, I., Sanfilippo, R., Sciuto, F., Di Geronimo, R., Violanti, D., Corselli, C., Taviani, M., Mastrototaro, F. & Tursi, A. (2010) Hard- and soft-bottom thanatofacies from the Santa Maria di Leuca deep-water coral province, Mediterranean. Deep-Sea Research II, 57, 360–379.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2009.08.024

Rowe, T. & Frank, L.R. (2011) The disappearing third dimension. Science, 331, 712–714.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1202828

Ryland, J.S. (1963) Systematic and biological studies on the Polyzoa (Bryzoa) from western Norway. Sarsia, 14, 1–59.

Ryland, J.S. (1967) Respiration in Polyzoa (Ectoprocta). Nature, 216, 1040–1041.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/2161040b0

Schmidt, R. (2012) High resolution non-destructive imaging techniques for internal fine structure of bryozoan skeletons — Non destructive imaging of bryozoans. In: Ernst, A., Schäfer, P. & Scholz, J. (Eds.), Bryozoan Studies 2010, Lecture Notes in Earth System Sciences. Springer, pp. 321–326.

Stalling, D., Westerhoff, M. & Hege, H.-C. (2005) Amira: a highly interactive system for visual data analysis. In: Hansen, C.D. & Johnson, C.R. (Eds.), Visualization Handbook. Butterworth-Heinemann, Burlington, pp. 749–767.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-012387582-2/50040-x

Taylor, P.D. (2000) Origin of the modern bryozoan fauna. In: Culver, S.J. & Rawson, P.F. (Eds.), Biotic Response to Global Change. The last 145 million years. Natural History Museum/Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 195–209.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511535505.015

Taylor, P.D., Howard, L. & Gundrum, B. (2008) Microcomputed tomography X-ray microscopy of cyclostome bryozoan skeletons. Abstracts of the VIII Larwood Meeting 2008, University of Vienna. [unkown pagination]

Viskova, L.A. & Pakhnevich, A.V. (2010) A new boring bryozoan from the Middle Jurassic of the Moscow region and its micro-CT research. Paleontological Journal, 44, 157–167.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0031030110020073

Voigt, E. (1968) Zwei homeomorphe Arten der Bryozoengattung Columnotheca Marsson. Lethaia, 1, 382–401.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1502-3931.1968.tb01628.x

Voigt, E. & Williams, A. (1973) Revision des Genus Inversaria v. Hagenow 1851 (Bryozoa Cheilostomata) und seine Beziehungen zu Solenychocella n.g. Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen, II Mathematisch-physikalische Klasse, 8, 141–178.

Westphal, H., Beuck, L., Braun, D., Freiwald, A., Hanebuth, T., Hetzinger, S., Klicpera, A., Kudrass, H., Lantzsch, H., Lundälv, T., Vicens, G.M., Preto, N., Von Reumont, J., Schilling, S., Taviani, M. & Wienberg, C. (2012) Phaeton — Paleoceanographic and paleo-climatic record on the Mauritanian Shelf. Cruise No. MSM16/3. In: Maria S. Merian-Berichte. Leitstelle Deutsche Forschungsschiffe Institut für Meereskunde der Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, pp. 1–53.

Westphal, H., Freiwald, A., Hanebuth, T., Eisele, M., Gürs, K., Heindel, K., Michel, J. & Von Reumont, J. (2007) Report and preliminary results of Poseidon cruise 346 — MACUMA: integrating carbonates, siliciclastics and deep-water reefs for understanding a complex environment, Las Palmas (Spain)–Las Palmas (Spain), 28.12.2006–15.1.2007. In: Reports of the Department of Geosciences. MARUM, Bremen University, Bremen, pp. 1–48.

Wien, K., Kölling, M. & Schulz, H.D. (2007) Age models for the Cape Blanc Debris Flow and the Mauritania Slide Complex in the Atlantic Ocean off NW Africa. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26, 2558–2573.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2007.06.018

Wiesemann, G. (1960) Polyester-Steinkerne der Gattung Beisselina Canu 1913 (Bryoz. foss.). Mitteilungen aus dem Geologischen Staatsinstitut in Hamburg, 29, 101–103.

Wyse Jackson, P.N. & McKinney, F.K. (2013) A micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy investigation of the structure of Polyfenestella Bancroft, 1986 (Bryozoa: Fenestrata), from the Mississippian of Scotland: Revealing the nature of its heteromorphs. Irish Journal of Earth Sciences, 31, 19–24.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3318/IJES.2013.31.3

Zabala, M. & Maluquer, P. (1988) Illustrated keys for the classification of Mediterranean Bryozoa. Treballs del Museu de Zoologia, 4, 1–294.

Zabala, M., Maluquer, P. & Harmelin, J.-G. (1993) Epibiotic bryozoans on deep-water scleractinian corals from the Catalonia slope (western Mediterranean, Spain, France). Scientia Marina, 57, 65–78.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa