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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4036.1.1

Freyinae, a major new subfamily of Neotropical jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae)

G. B. EDWARDS

Abstract


Freyinae, new subfamily, is described for a group of genera of Neotropical jumping spiders that can be distinguished from other non-ant mimic salticoid Neotropical salticids by having the following three morphological features: a slightly more elongate carapace, a distinctive prolateral tibial macrosetae arrangement (medially placed subdistal and subproximal macrosetae, with a subdorsal medial macroseta in some males), and an unusual dorsoventrally thick tegulum basal division (although one or two of these features are sometimes lost). It includes 20 genera previously considered valid, of which 19 are retained: Akela Peckham & Peckham, 1896, Aphirape C.L. Koch, 1850, Asaracus C.L. Koch, 1846, Capidava Simon, 1902, Chira Peckham & Peckham, 1896, Edilemma Ruiz & Brescovit, 2006, Eustiromastix Simon, 1902, Freya C.L. Koch, 1850, Frigga C.L. Koch, 1850, Kalcerrytus Galiano, 2000, Nycerella Galiano, 1982, Onofre Ruiz & Brescovit, 2007, Pachomius Peckham & Peckham, 1896, Phiale C.L. Koch, 1846, Rishaschia Makhan, 2006, Sumampattus Galiano, 1983, Trydarssus Galiano, 1995, Tullgrenella Mello‑Leitão, 1941, and Wedoquella Galiano, 1984. Romitia Caporiacco, 1947 (and its synonym Uspachus Galiano, 1995) is synonymized with Pachomius, new synonymy. New genera described in the subfamily are: Drizztius, Leptofreya, Megafreya, Philira, Tarkas, Triggella, and Xanthofreya. The following nomenclatorial changes are made: New synonyms: Freya demarcata Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 = Freya (sub Cyrene) albosignata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901); Freya (sub Cyrene) grisea (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Freya (sub Cyrene) infuscata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901); Freya (sub Cyrene) emarginata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) and Nycerella (sub Heraclea) sanguinea paradoxa (Peckham & Peckham, 1896) = Nycerella (sub Heraclea) sanguinea (Peckham & Peckham, 1896); Pachomius (sub Phiale) maculosus (Chickering, 1946) = Phiale (sub Cyrene) bilobata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901); Phiale (sub Cyrene) mediocava (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Freya (sub Cyrene) maculatipes (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901); Phiale (sub Cyrene) simplicicava (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Freya (sub Cyrene) bifurcata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901). New combinations: Capidava rufithorax Simon, 1902 = Drizztius rufithorax; Freya frontalis Banks, 1929 = Eustiromastix frontalis; Chira (sub Attus) spinipes (Taczanowski, 1872) = Eustiromastix spinipes; Freya (sub Euophrys) ambigua (C.L. Koch, 1846) = Leptofreya ambigua; Freya (sub Cyrene) bifurcata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Leptofreya bifurcata; Freya (sub Cyrene) laticava (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Leptofreya laticava; Freya (sub Cyrene) longispina (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Leptofreya longispina; Phiale (sub Cyrene) bilobata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Pachomius bilo-batus; Phiale (sub Cyrene) hieroglyphica (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Pachomius hieroglyphicus; Phiale (sub Cyrene) niveoguttata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Pachomius niveoguttatus; Romitia (sub Euophrys) albipalpis (Taczanowski, 1878) = Pachomius albipalpis; Romitia (sub Euophrys) andina (Taczanowski, 1878) = Pachomius andinus; Romitia (sub Uspachus) bahiensis (Galiano, 1995) = Pachomius bahiensis; Romitia (sub Uspachus) columbiana (Galiano, 1995) = Pachomius columbianus; Romitia (sub Uspachus) juquiaensis (Galiano, 1995) = Pachomius juquiaensis; Romitia (sub Phiale) ministerialis (C.L. Koch, 1846) = Pachomius ministerialis; Romitia (sub Uspachus) misionensis (Galiano, 1995) = Pachomius misionensis; Romitia nigra Caporiacco, 1947 = Pachomius nigrus; Romitia (sub Uspachus) patellaris (Galiano, 1995) = Pachomius patellaris; Chira (sub Diagondas) micans (Simon, 1902) = Philira micans; Chira superba Caporiacco, 1947 = Philira superba; Freya (sub Cyrene) maculatipes (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Tarkas maculatipes; Freya (sub Cyrene) bifida (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Triggella bifida; Freya infuscata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Triggella infuscata; Freya (sub Cyrene) minuta (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Triggella minuta; Freya (sub Cyrene) albosignata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Xanthofreya albosignata; Freya arraijanica Chickering, 1946 = Xanthofreya arraijanica; Phiale (sub Cyrene) bicuspidata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Xantho-freya bicuspidata; Freya chionopogon Simon, 1902 = Xanthofreya chionopogon; Freya (sub Heraclea) rustica (Peckham & Peckham, 1896) = Xanthofreya rustica. Combinations restored: Phiale (sub Pachomius) flavescens (Peckham & Peckham, 1896) = Pachomius flavescens; Phiale (sub Pachomius) similis (Peckham & Peckham, 1896) = Pachomius similis. Invalid name: Freya dyali Roewer 1951 is an invalid replacement name for Euophrys trifasciata “Dyal 1935”, which was a redescription of Euophrys trifasciata C.L. Koch, 1846, not a homonym. New species: Drizztius geminensis. First female descriptions and transfers of mismatched females: First descriptions for Asaracus megacephalus C.L. Koch, 1846, Capidava biuncata Simon, 1902, and Phiale formosa (Banks, 1909); the true female of Eustiromastix spinipes is described, and its mismatched female is identified as the female of Eustiromastix falcatus Galiano, 1981; the mismatched female of Freya (sub Cyrene) prominens (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) is identified as the female of Xanthofreya rustica; the misidentified female of X. rustica is identified as the female of Leptofreya bifurcata. Lectotypes: designated for Cyrene bifida F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901 and Cyrene formosa Banks, 1909. New synapomorphy: a constricted proximal end of the cymbium of the male palp is an apparent new synapomorphy for Salticoida.

 


Keywords


Araneae. spiders, new terminology, USA

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ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand
A founding journal of Biotaxa