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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.65.1.1

A catalog of the Nicrophorinae (Coleoptera: Silphidae) of the world

DEREK S. SIKES, RONALD B. MADGE, ALFRED F. NEWTON

Abstract


All available species-group names of the subfamily Nicrophorinae (Coleoptera: Silphidae) are cataloged herein. There are currently 68 valid species, three of which are fossils; and 168 invalid species-group names, 2 of which are nomina dubia and 17 of which are junior homonyms and thus objectively invalid; for a total of 236 available species-group names. The type specimens of 38 valid names and 63 invalid names were found and studied. The original descriptions of 65 valid species-group names and 130 invalid species-group names were found and studied. An annotated bibliography of 1151 references that cite nicrophorine names covering the years 1752 – early 2002 is presented. The following 18 nomenclatural acts are made: Lectotype designations (16): Type depositories precede species names. HNHM: Budapest: Nicrophorus antennatus (Reitter) / BMNH: London: Nicrophorus interruptus Stephens; Nicrophorus mexicanus Matthews; Nicrophorus montivagus Lewis; Nicrophorus tenuipes Lewis / MNHN: Paris: Nicrophorus didymus Brullé; Nicrophorus insularis Grouvelle; Nicrophorus interruptus var. algiricus Pasquet; Nicrophorus podagricus Portevin; Nicrophorus quadraticollis Portevin; Nicrophorus scrutator Blanchard / ZMAS: St. Petersburg: Nicrophorus mongolicus ShchegolevaBarovskaya; Nicrophorus przewalskii Semenov-Tian-Shanskij; Nicrophorus reichardti Kieseritzky / ZMHB: Berlin: Nicrophorus japonicus Harold / MCZC: Cambridge: Nicrophorus defodiens Mannerheim; New nomina protecta/oblita (2): Silpha (Nicrophorus) orientalis (Herbst,1784) NEW NOMEN OBLITUM (article 23.9.2 ICZN ed. 4); Nicrophorus americanus Olivier, 1790 NEW NOMEN PROTECTUM (see N. orientalis); The following 93 taxonomic changes are made: New status as valid species (2): Nicrophorus sepulchralis Heer NEW STATUS as valid species; Nicrophorus morio Gebler NEW STATUS as valid species; New combination (1): Silpha (Nicrophorus) orientalis Herbst NEW COMBINATION as Nicrophorus orientalis (Herbst); New species-group revised synonyms (12): These are junior synonyms or names of subspecific rank that are being moved to new senior synonyms (as absolute synonyms, i.e. rankless): N. tibetanus Hlisnikovsky REVISED SYNONYM of N. argutor Jakovlev; N. lateralis Portevin REVISED SYNONYM of N. defodiens Mannerheim; N. plagiatus Motschulsky REVISED SYNONYM of N. defodiens Mannerheim; N. humeralis Pic REVISED SYNONYM of N. insularis Grouvelle; N. gallicus Jacquelin du Val REVISED SYNONYM of N. interruptus Stephens; N. suturalis Motschulsky REVISED SYNONYM of N. interruptus Stephens; N. submaculatus Reitter REVISED SYNONYM of N. investigator Zetterstedt; N. funebris Jakovlev REVISED SYNONYM of N. morio Gebler; N. requiescator Gistel REVISED SYNONYM of N. tomentosus Weber; N. interruptiolus Strand REVISED SYNONYM of N. vestigator Herschel; N. interruptus Brullé REVISED SYNONYM of N. brullei Jakobson, (syn. of N. vestigator Herschel); P. weberi Bodemeyer REVISED SYNONYM of Ptomascopus plagiatus (Ménétriés); New species-group synonyms (25): These are species-group names of specific rank that have not been synonymized previously. N. pseudobrutor Reitter NEW SYNONYM of N. argutor Jakovlev; N. cadaverinus Gistel NEW SYNONYM of N. germanicus (L.); N. ornatus Hlisnikovsky NEW SYNONYM of N. germanicus (L.); N. proserpinae Gistel NEW SYNONYM of N. germanicus (L.); N. basalis Gistel NEW SYNONYM of N. interruptus Stephens; N. fossor Erichson NEW SYNONYM of N. interruptus Stephens; N. grahami Swan & Papp NEW SYNONYM of N.investigator Zetterstedt; N. maritimus Gistel NEW SYNONYM of N. investigator Zetterstedt; N. praedator (Reitter) NEW SYNONYM of N. investigator Zetterstedt; N. karafutonis Kôno NEW SYNONYM of N. maculifrons Kraatz; N. lunulatus Gistel NEW SYNONYM of N. marginatus Fabricius; N. lunatus Gistel NEW SYNONYM of N. marginatus Fabricius; N. mixtus Hlisnikovsky NEW SYNONYM of N. montivagus Lewis; N. rugulipennis Jakovlev NEW SYNONYM of N. morio Gebler; N. benguetensis Arnett NEW SYNONYM of N. nepalensis Hope; N. burmanicus Hlisnikovsky NEW SYNONYM of N. oberthuri Portevin; N. unifasciatus Hlisnikovsky NEW SYNONYM of N. oberthuri Portevin; N. pulsator Gistel NEW SYNONYM of N. sayi Laporte; N. temporalis Shchegoleva-Barovskaya NEW SYNONYM of N. semenowi (Reitter); N. fasciatus Hlisnikovsky NEW SYNONYM of N. tenuipes Lewis; N. marginatus Gistel NEW SYNONYM of N. tomentosus Weber; N. bifasciatus Hausmann NEW SYNONYM of N. vespillo (L.); N. hadenius Gistel NEW SYNONYM of N. vespillo (L.); N. oregonensis Swann & Papp NEW SYNONYM of N. vespilloides Herbst; N. olfactor Gistel NEW SYNONYM of N. vestigator Herschel; New status as absolute synonyms (53): These are species-group names of subspecific rank that we consider to be invalid synonyms without rank. N. centralis Portevin NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. antennatus (Reitter); N. rotundicollis Portevin NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. concolor Kraatz; N. armeniacus Portevin NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. germanicus (L.); N. bimaculatus Haworth NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. germanicus (L.); N. bipunctatus Kraatz NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. germanicus (L.); N. fascifer (Reitter) NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. germanicus (L.); N. speciosus (J.D. Schulze) NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. germanicus (L.); N. quadriguttata Angell NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. guttula Motschulsky; N. vandykei Angell NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. guttula Motschulsky; N. atricornis Meier NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. humator (Gleditsch); N. maculosus Meier NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. humator (Gleditsch); N. minnesotianus Hatch NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. hybridus Hatch & Angell; N. brunnipes Gradl NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. interruptus Stephens; N. centrimaculatus Reitter NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. interruptus Stephens; N. corsicus Laporte NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. interruptus Stephens; N. funereus Géné NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. interruptus Stephens; N. infuscaticornis Portevin, NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. interruptus Stephens; N. laportei Meier NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. interruptus Stephens; N. nigricans Pasquet NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. interruptus Stephens; N. pasqueti Pic NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. interruptus Stephens; N. trimaculatus Gradl NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. interruptus Stephens; N. trinotatus Reitter NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. interruptus Stephens; N. vodozi Meier NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. interruptus Stephens; N. algiricus Pasquet NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. interruptus Stephens; N. funerator Fauvel NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. investigator Zetterstedt; N. funeror (Reitter) NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. investigator Zetterstedt; N. insularis Lafer NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. investigator Zetterstedt; N. intermedius Reitter NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. investigator Zetterstedt; N. latifasciatus Lewis NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. investigator Zetterstedt; N. maritimus Mannerheim NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. investigator Zetterstedt; N. variolosus Portevin NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. investigator Zetterstedt; N. parvulus Hlisnikovsky NEW STATUS as absolute synonym of N. maculifrons Kraatz; N. nigrifrons Portevin NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. podagricus Portevin; N. immaculatus Portevin NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. quadripunctatus Kraatz; N. bohemicus Roubal NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. vespillo (L.); N. bolsmanni Westhoff NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. vespillo (L.); N. fauveli Fauconnet NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. vespillo (L.); N.minor Westhoff NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. vespillo (L.); N. varendorffi Westhoff NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. vespillo (L.); N. altumi Westhoff NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. vespilloides Herbst; N. aurora Motschulsky NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. vespilloides Herbst; N. subfasciatus Portevin NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. vespilloides Herbst; N. subinterruptus Pic NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. vespilloides Herbst; N. sylvivagus Reitter NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. vespilloides Herbst; N. brullei Jacobson NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. vestigator Herschel; N. bipunctatus Portevin NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. vestigator Herschel; N. carreti Pic NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. vestigator Herschel; N. degener Carret NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. vestigator Herschel; N. obscuripennis Portevin NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. vestigator Herschel; N. rautenbergi Reitter NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. vestigator Herschel; N. viturati Pic NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of N. vestigator Herschel; P. lewisi Portevin NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of P. morio Kraatz; P. villosus Portevin NEW STATUS as absolute syn. of P. morio Kraatz.

Keywords


Coleoptera, Silphidae, Nicrophorinae, Nicrophorus, Ptomascopus, Palaeosilpha, Eonecrophorus, burying beetle, taxonomy, bibilography, catalog, synonymy, nomenclature

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Belozerov, V.N. (1957) Some data on the biology and anatomy of the mite Poecilochirus necrophori Vitzt. (Parasitiformes, Parasitidae). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 12, 1802-1813. (biology, symbionts: mites, in Russian (English summary)) [!N]

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Beninger, C.W. (1993) Egg predation by Poecilochirus carabi (Mesostigmata: Parasitidae) and its effect on reproduction of Nicrophorus vespilloides (Coleoptera: Silphidae). Environmental Entomology, 22(4), 766-769. (biology, symbionts: mites) [More eggs failed to hatch in presence of mites.] [!S]

Beninger, C.W. (1994) Phenology, reproductive biology, and habitat associations of Nicrophorus Fab. (Coleoptera, Silphidae) of the Mer Bleue Bog area (Ottawa, Canada). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 169, 135-143. (biology, ecology in English (French summary)) [N. sayi- mature forests, N. orbicollis & N. tomentosus generalists, N. defodiens-forests & N. vespilloides- bogs.] [!S]

Beninger, C.W. & Peck, S.B. (1992) Temporal and spatial patterns of resource use among Nicrophorus carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) in a Sphagnum bog and adjacent forest near Ottawa, Canada. Canadian Entomologist, 124(1), 79-86. (biology, ecology)

Benken, T., Müller, J.K., & Peschke, K. (1998) Oligonucleotide DNA fingerprinting optimized to determine parentage in three beetle species. Electrophoresis, 19, 158-163. (biology, behavior) [First DNA fingerprinting to establish parentage of any beetle species.] [!S]

Benken, T., Müller, J.K., & Hoferer, S. (1996) Joint breeding and brood parasitism in the burying beetles Nicrophorus vespilloides (Coleoptera: Silphidae) in the field demonstrated by DNA fingerprinting. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft, 89, 237. (Abstract: biology, behavior)

Berdela, G., Lustigman, B., & Shubeck, P.P. (1994) A list of bacteria flora residing in the mid and hindgut regions of six species of carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae). Entomological News, 105, 47-58. (biology, symbionts: bacteria) [53+ ëspeciesí of bacteria, no pattern corresponding to beetle taxa.] [!S]

Berg, C. (1881) Entomologisches aus dem Indianergebiet der Pampa. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung, 62, 36-72. (checklist in German)

Berg, C. (1901) Sílfidos argentinos (Coleópteros). Comunicaciones del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, 1, 325-330. (in Spanish) [!N]

Bergsträsser, J.A.B. (1778) Nomenclatur und Beschreibung der Insecten in der Grafschaft Hanau-Münzenberg, wie auch der Wetterau und der angrenzenden Nachbarschaft dies- und jenseits des Mains. Hanau. 1: (4) + 88 pp., 14 pls. (catalog in German)

Bernet Kempers, K.J.W. (1923) Abbildungen von Flügelgeäder der Coleopteren. Entomologische Mitteilungen, 12, 71-115. (morphology: wing venation in German) [“Wing”-Hatch 1928] [!N]

Bertin, G., Aloia, A., & Papi, R. (2000) [“1998”] I Silphinae ed i Nicrophorinae (Coleoptera Silphidae) che vivono sul Pratomagno (Arezzo, Toscana): composizione faunistica e ripartizione spazio-temporale. Redia, 81, 125-134. (biology, ecology in Italian (English summary)) [!N]

Bertin, G. & Fallaci, M. (1994) Catalogo critico della collezione dei Silphidae del Museo Zoologico La Specola dell'Università degli studi di Firenze (Coleoptera). Bollettino della Società Entomologica Italiana, 125, 211-220. (checklist in Italian (English summary)) [Italian and foreign locality data.] [!S]

Bertin, G. & Lebboroni, M. (1996) [“1995”] Catalogo critico e distribuzione dei Silfidi italiani. I. Trentino Alto Adige, Veneto, Friuli Venezia Giulia (Coleoptera) Memorie della Società Entomologica Italiana, 74, 131-158. (checklist in Italian (English summary)) [Italian locality data for Nicrophorus.] [!S]

Bertin, G. & Lebboroni, M. (1999) Catalogo critico dei Silfidi e Agirtidi italiani. II. Val d'Aosta, Piemonte, Lombardia, Liguria, Emilia-Romagna. Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale in Milano, 140, 37-63. (checklist in Italian) [!N]

Bickhardt, H. (1909) Die Varietäten unserer schwarzen Totengräberarten. Entomologische Blätter, 5, 73-76. (description of variation in German) [listing of varietal names for N. germanicus and N. humator] [!S]

Bils, W. (1976) Das Abdomenende weiblicher, terrestrisch lebender Adephaga (Coleoptera) und seine Bedeutung für die Phylogenie. Zoomorphologie, 84, 113-193. (morphology: female abdominal musculature in German) [!N]

Bíly, S. (1990) Coléoptères. [adaptation française do Noëlle Akoa] Librairie Gründ, Paris. 224 pp. (larval descriptions, biology in French) [English version published same year by Treasure Press, London. ] [!S]

Biström, O. & Väisänen, R. (1988) Ancient-forest invertebrates of the Pyhän-Häkki national park in central Finland. Acta Zoologica Fennica, 185, 1-69. (biology, ecology) [!N]

Blackith, R.M., Blackith, R.E., & Speight, M.C.D. (1988) Studies on the Murrough, Co. Wicklow, Ireland: 3. Carrion beetles(Coleoptera). Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society, 11, 28-34. (in English) [N. humator primarily coastal; mention low Nicrophorus density.] [!S]

Blackman, S.W. (1997) Experimental evidence that the mite Poecilochirus davydovae (Mesostigmata: Parasitidae) eats the eggs of its beetle host. Journal of Zoology, 242(1), 63-67. (biology, symbionts: mites) [Contradicts results of Springett 1968.] [!S]

Blackman, S.W., & Evans, G.O. (1994) Observations on a mite (Poecilochirus davydovae) predatory on the eggs of burying beetles (Nicrophorus vespilloides) with a review of its taxonomic status. Journal of Zoology, 234(2), 217-227. (biology, symbionts: mites) [New sub-genus, Physoparasitus, for P. davydovae and P. subterraneus; the female of P. davydovae is redescribed.] [!S]

Blackwelder, R.E. (1944) Checklist of the Coleopterous insects of Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and South America. Part 1. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 185: i-xii +1-188. (catalog) [!N]

Blackwelder, R.E. (1973) Checklist of the Silphidae of Canada, United States, Mexico, Central America and the West Indies. North American Beetle Fauna Project, Family No. 17 (Red Version). Biological Research Institute of America, Inc., Latham, New York. 6 pp. (checklist, synonymy) [!N]

Blake, I.H. (1945) An ecological reconnoissance in the Medicine Bow Mountains. Ecological Monographs, 15(3), 207-242. (checklist) [!S]

Blanchard, É. (1842) Insectes. In:Insectes de l'Amérique Méridionale, recueillis par Alcide d'Orbigny. Vol. 6, part 2., P. Bertrand, Paris. pp. 73-88. (descriptions in French) [Original description of N. scrutator. According to an editorial note at the beginning of the volume Brullé was responsible for the early part of this work, i.e. text pages 1-56 [1836-1837] and plates 1-5 [1835-1836]; it was completed by Blanchard. ] [!N]

Bland, J.H.B. (1865) Descriptions of several new species of North American Coleoptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia, 4, 381-384. (descriptions) [Original description of N. hecate (=N. guttula).] [!M, S]

Blas, M. (1978) Contribución al conocimiento de los sílfidos (Col.) de la región catalana. Publicaciones del Departamento de Zoologia (Barcelona), 3, 49-64. (key, descriptions in Spanish) [!N, S]

Blatchley, W.S. (1910) An Illustrated Descriptive Catalog of the Coleoptera or Beetles (exclusive of the Rhynchophora) Known to Occur in Indiana. The Nature Publishing Co., Indianapolis 1386 pp. (key, descriptions, regional)

Bliss, R.Q. (1949) Studies on the Silphidae, I. Secondary sexual differences in the genus Nicrophorus (Coleoptera). Entomological News, 60, 197-204. (morphology: sexual dimorphism) [Documents that most of the secondary sexual characters are variable among species.] [!N, S]

Blouin-Demers, G. & Weatherhead, P.J. (2000) A novel association between and beetle and a snake: Parasitism of Elaphe obsoleta by Nicrophorus pustulatus. Ecoscience, 7(4), 395-397. (biology, ecology, behavior) [Possibly first scientific report of a vertebrate as a host for an insect parasitoid. Critical discovery regarding ecology of N. pustulatus. Should be replicated in other portions of this speciesí range. ] [!S]

Blum, P. (1979) Zur Phylogenie und ökologischen Bedeutung der Elytrenreduktion und Abdomenbeweglichkeit der Staphylinidae (Coleoptera): Vergleichend- und funktionsmorphologische Untersuchungen. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Anatomie, 102, 533-582. (morphology: wing folding, abdominal structure in German) [!N]

Blumenbach, J.F. (1803) Handbuch der Naturgeschichte. 7. Auflage. Mit. Kupf. Gotting.

Bocáková, M. (1995) Soil surface beetles (Coleoptera) in the proposed nature reserve of Hrubovodské sute near Olomouc. Casopis Slezského Muzea Opava, (A) 44, 13-30 . (biology, ecology in Czech (English summary)) [!N]

Bockeler, W. (1977) Further examinations of beetles as transit-hosts of Trichinella spiralis (Owen 1835). Zoologischer Anzeiger, 199, 42-76. (biology, parasites in German (English summary)) [!S]

Bodemeyer, E. v. (1915) Beiträge zur Feststellung von Verbreitungsdaten paläarktischer Coleopteren. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 1915(4), 437-453. (checklist in German)

Bodemeyer, E. v. (1916) Neuheiten der paläarktischen Coleopterenfauna. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 1916, 111-112. (descriptions in German) [Original description of P. weberi (=P. plagiatus).] [!M, S]

Boeckh, J. (1962) Elektrophysiologische Untersuchungen an einzelnen Geruchsrezeptoren auf den Antennen des Totengräbers (Necrophorus, Coleoptera). Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Physiologie, 46, 212-248. (morphology: antennal in German) [!N]

Böhm, H. (1995) Dynamic properties of orientation to turbulent air current by walking carrion beetles. Journal of Experimental Biology, 198(9), 1995-2005. (biology, behavior, physiology) [Rapid changes in wind direction do not immediately affect orientation behaviour.] [!S]

Böhm, H., Heinzel, H.-G., Scharstein, H., & Wendler, G. (1991) The course control-system of beetles walking in an air-current field. Journal of Comparative Physiology (A: Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology), 169 (A)(6), 671-683. (biology, physiology in English) [Technical analysis and comparison of Nicrophorus wind stimulus response to other studies.] [!N, S]

Böhm, H., Heinzel, H.-G. & Wendler, G. (1986) Vergleichende Analyse des Windorientierungssystems und des optomotorischen Systems beim Totengräber (Necrophorus humator F.). Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft, 79, 199-200. (biology, physiology in German) [!N]

Böhm, H. & Wendler, G. (1987) Der Einfluss von Aasduft auf die Windorientierung laufender Totengraber (Necrophorus humator F.) Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft, 80, 304-305. (biology, physiology in German)

Böhm, H. & Wendler, G. (1988) Die Windorientierung von Aaskafern. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie, 6(1-3), 91-94. (biology, behavior, physiology in German (English summary))

Bordas, L. (1900) Recherches sur les organes reproducteurs males des Coléoptères (anatomie comparée, histologie, matière fécondante). Annales des Sciences Naturelles (Zoologie Palaeontologie), 11, 283-448. (morphology: testes in French) [“testes” -Hatch 1928.] [!N]

Brackenbury, J.H. (1994) Wing folding and free-flight kinematics in Coleoptera (Insecta): a comparative study. Journal of Zoology (London), 232, 253-283. (morphology: wing folding) [Description of unique position of elytra during flight- possible synapomorphy of Nicrophorinae.] [!N, S]

Bracket (1866) Maine Farmer [not found]

Brahm, N.J. (1790) N. J. Brahm ... Insektenkalender für Sammler and Oekonomen. [N.J. Brahm ... Handbuch der ökonomischen Insektengeschichte in Form eines Kalenders bearbeitet] Thl.I & II, abth.1 [in 3 vol], Mainz, 1790-91. [in (3) v]; 8°.

Bredohl, R. (1984a) Zur Bioakustik mitteleuropäischen Totengräber (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Necrophorus). Entomologia Generalis, 10(1), 11-25. (morphology: stridulatory files in German (English summary)) [First deomstration of 3 types of calls in Nicrophorus; type I: N. vespilloides, type II: N. vespillo, N. interruptus, N. germanicus; type III: N. investigator, N. humator, N. vestigator; type IV: N. sepultor, N. nigricornis, N. antennatus. (types III & IV very similar).] [!N, S]

Bredohl, R. (1984b) Aufzuchtergebnisse bei einer Farb-Aberration des Totengräbers Necrophorus vespilloides Herbst 1784 (Coleoptera: Silphidae). Entomologische Zeitschrift, 94(4), 43-46. (biology, genetics in German)

Brimley, C.S. (1938) The insects of North Carolina, being a list of the insects of North Carolina and their close relatives. North Carolina Department of Agriculture, Division of Entomology, Raleigh, N. C. 560 pp. (checklist) [!N]

Britton, W.E. (1920) Check-list of the insects of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Hartford. 397 pp. (checklist) [!N]

Brown, J.M. & Wilson, D.S. (1992) Local specialization of phoretic mites on sympatric carrion beetle hosts. Ecology (Washington D.C.), 73(2), 463-478. (biology, symbionts: mites) [Evidence of reproductive isolation in Nearctic P. carabi.] [!S]

Brown, J.M. & Wilson, D.S. (1994) Poecilochirus carabi: Behavioral and life-history adaptations to different hosts and the consequences to geographical shifts in host communities. In: Houck, M. A. (ed.) Mites: ecological and evolutionary analyses of life history patterns. New York, Chapman & Hall. pp 1-22 (biology, symbionts: mites) [Evidence of reproductive isolation (cryptic species) & adaptations in Nearctic P. carabi.] [!S]

Bruch, C. (1915) Catálogo sistemático de los coleópteros de la República Argentina. Pars III. Revista del Museo de la Plata, 19, 303-339. (catalog, distribution in Spanish) [!N]

Brullé, A. (1832) Expédition scientifique de Morée. Section des sciences physiques, Vol. 3, Part 2, Insectes. F. G. Levrault, Paris. Pp. i-xxix, 64-395, 22 pls. (descriptions) [Original description of N. interruptus Brullé nec. Stephens (=N. vestigator).] [!N, S]

Brullé, A. (1836) Insectes. In: Insectes de l'Amérique Méridionale, recueillis par Alcide d'Orbigny, vol. 6, part 2, plates 2-5. P. Bertrand, Paris. pp. 1-16. (descriptions in French) [Original description of N. didymus. According to an editorial note at the beginning of the volume Brullé was responsible for the early part of this work, i.e. text pages 1-56 [1836-1837] and plates 1-5 [1835-1836]; it was completed by Blanchard. ] [!N]

Brundin, L. (1934) Die Coleopteren des Torneträskgebietes. Ein Beitrag zur Ökologie und Geschichte der Käferwelt in Schwedish-Lappland. Akademische Abhandlung welche zur Erlangung der philosophischen Doktor-würde mit genehmigung der philosophischen Fakultät zu Lund ... Carl Bloms Boktryckeri, Lund. 436 pp. (biology, ecology in German) [!N]

Burakowski, B., Mroczkowski, M. & Stefanska, J. (1978) Coleoptera, Tom 5: Histeroidea i Staphylinoidea prócz Staphylinidae. Katalog Fauny Polski, 29, 1-356. (catalog, distribution, synonymy in Polish) [!N]

Burgos Solorio, A. & Trejo-Loyo, A.G. (2001) Lista preliminar de los Coleópteros registrados para el estado de Morelos, México, In: Navarrete-Heredia, J.L, Fierros-López, H.E. & Burgos-Solorio, A. (eds.), Tópicos sobre Coleoptera de México. Universidad de Guadalajara & Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Guadalajara, Mexico. pp. 69-95. (checklist in Spanish) [!N]

Busnel, R.G. (1963) Acoustic Behaviour of Animals. Elsevier Publishing Corp. Amsterdam/ New York (biology, behavior, physiology) [Mentions stridulation in Nicrophorus]

Calwer, C.O. (1858) Käferbuch. Allgemeine und specielle Naturgeschichte der Käfer Europa's, nebst der Unweitung sie zu sammeln und aufzubewahren. Krais & Hoffman Verlag, Stuttgart. xxvii + 788 pp., 49 pls. (checklist, brief descriptions in German) [!N]

Campbell, J.M. (1991) Family Silphidae: carrion beetles. In: Bousquet, Y. (ed.). Checklist of beetles of Canada and Alaska. Publication 1861/E, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa. pp. 84-86. (catalog, distribution) [!N, S]

Cantonnet, F. & Lecordier, C. (1947) Note biologique sur les nécrophores en forêt d'Andaine (Orne). Entomologiste, 3, 134-136. (biology, ecology in French) [!N]

Carlton, C.E., & Rothwein, F. (1998) The endangered American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus Olivier, at the edge of its range in Arkansas (Coleoptera: Silphidae). Coleopterists Bulletin, 52(2), 179-185. (biology, conservation) [New ABB pop at minimum viable population density .] [!S]

Carnier, T. (1994) Zwei Winternachweise des Schwarzen Totengrabers (Necrophorus humator) in Nordniedersachsen. Beitraege Zur Naturkunde Niedersachsens, 47(3), 124-125. (biology, ecology in German)

Carret, A. (1901) Contribution à la faune française. Necrophorus nigricornis Fald. dans nos Alpes [Col.]. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 1901, 327-331. (description of variation in French) [Original description of N. vestigator var. degener (=N. vestigator).] [!S]

Caveney, S. (1986) The phylogenetic significance of ommatidium structure in the compound eyes of polyphagan beetles. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 64, 1787-1819. (morphology: ommatidium) [!N]

Cederhielm, J. (1798) Faunae Ingricae prodromus exhibens methodicam descriptionem insectorum agri Petropolensis : praemissa mammalium, avium, amphibiorum et piscium enumeratione / auctore Iohanne Cederhielm. Lipsiae [Leipzig] : Impensis Iohann. Fried. Hartknoch, 1798. xvii, 348 pp. (catalog)

Chapman, R.F. & Sankey, J.H.P. (1955) The larger invertebrate fauna of three rabbit carcasses. Journal of Animal Ecology, 24, 395-402. (biology, ecology) [N. vespillo among the more prominent carrion insects; appearing by day 4.] [!S]

Chapman, T. (1831) Necrophorus germanicus. Magazine of Natural History, 4, 187-188. (biology)

Charpentier, T. de. (1825) Horae Entomologicae, adjectis tabulis novem colaratis. Gosohorsky, Wratislaviae. xvi + 255 + (5) pp., 9 pls. (descriptions) [Original description of N. sepultor.] [!M, S]

Chenu, J.C. & Desmarest, E. (1851) Encyclopedie d'histoire naturelle; ou, Traite complet de cette science d'apres les travaux des naturalistes les plus eminentsde tous les pays et de toutes les epoques: Buffon, Daubenton, Lacepede, G. Cuvier, F. Cuvier, Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Latreille, De Jussieu, Brongniart, etc. etc. Ouvrage resumant les observations des auteurs anciens et comprenant toutes les decouvertes modernes jusqu'a nos jours. Paris, Marescq [1850?-1861? v.1, 1860] 5-7 (in French)

Cho, F. (1936) A list of unrecorded carrion-beetles from Korea. Kontyû, 10, 155-158. (checklist in Japanese) [N. tenuipes as subsp. of N. humator.] [!S]

Cho, P.S. (1957) A systematic catalogue of Korean Coleoptera. Humanities and Sciences, Korea Univ., 2, 173-338. (catalog in Korean)

Cho, P.S. (1963) Insects of Querpart Island (Cheju-do). Humanities and Sciences, Korea Univ., 6, 159-242. (catalog in Korean)

Cho, Y.B., & Kwon, Y.J. (1999) New silphids (Coleoptera: Silphidae) from Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology, 29(3), 221-223. (distribution note) [First record of N. ussuriensis from Korea.] [!S]

Cho, Y.B. & Lee, C.E. (1986) Phylogenetic relationships among tribes of Silphidae 1 (Coleoptera). Nature and Life (Kyungpook Journal of Biological Sciences), 16, 19-25. (phylogenetics) [Pre-computer cladistic analysis of Silphidae tribal relationships based on 5 characters. Found paraphyletic Silphinae with (Agyrtini (Silphini (Necrodini + Necrophorini))).] [!S]

Cho, Y.B. & Lee, C.E. (1992) Taxonomic revision of the family Silphidae (Coleoptera) from Korea, Part II. Necrophorinae. Nature and Life (Kyungpook Journal of Biological Sciences), 22(2), 19-31. (revision: key, descriptions & catalog in English) [Indicates N. vespilloides records of pre 1945 might be misidentified N. dauricus. Subsequent misspellings: Nicrophorus: Nicrophors; P. plagiatus: P. maculatus; N. japonicus: N. japonocus; N. concolor: N. conclor; N. vespilloides: N. morturum.] [!S]

Cho, Y.B. & Lee, C.E. (1995) Carrion beetles in Korea (Coleoptera, Silphidae). Nature and Life (Kyungpook Journal of Biological Sciences), 25(1-2), 1-19. (revision: key, descriptions & catalog in English (Korean summary))

Cho, Y.B., Park, H.C. & Lee, C.E. (1987) Comparison of two species of Necrophorus from Korea with scanning electron microscope (Silphidae, Coleoptera). Nature and Life (Kyungpook Journal of Biological Sciences), 17(2), 55-58. (morphology: SEM, external adult) [Compared female N. “latifasciatus” with male N. “praedator” without noting the sexes and stated the species were diagnosably different. p. 57: “two species are easily separable by the distinct difference of the postocular shape.”] [!S]

Cho, Y.B., Park, H.C. & Lee, C.E. (1988) A cladistic analysis of genus Necrophorus (Coleoptera: Silphidae). Nature and Life (Kyungpook Journal of Biological Sciences), 18(1), 9-13. (phylogenetics) [One species near N. maculifrons listed as undescribed (?); cladogram poorly built- DSS found 43,021 trees of equal length or shorter.] [!S]

Christie, J.E. (1983) A new species of Alliphis (Mesostigmata: Eviphididae) from Britain. Acarologia (Paris), 24(3), 231-242. (biology, symbionts: mites in English (German summary))

Clark, C.U. (1895) On the food habits of certain dung and carrion beetles. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 3, 61. (biology, behavior) [Mentions Nicrophorus feeding on maggots.] [!N]

Clark, M.E. (1948) [“1947”] An annotated list of Coleoptera taken at or near Terrace, British Columbia. Part 1. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 44, 24-27. (checklist) [!N]

Colin, M. (1847) Sur les moeurs du Necrophorus cadaverinus. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 2(5), cx. (morphology, larval stages in French)

Collett, H.R.P. (1930) The burying of carrion by Coleoptera. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 66, 257-258. (biology, behavior) [!M, N]

Conley, M.R. (1982) Carrion Locating Efficiency in Burying Beetles, Nicrophorus carolinus (L.) (Silphidae). Southwestern Naturalist, 27(1), 11-15. (biology, ecology) [Studied: 1. time required to locate carrion, 2. amount of carrion located, 3. numbers of beetles locating carcasses.] [!S]

Contarini, N. (1843) Cataloghi degli uccelli e degli insetti delle provincie di Padova e Venezia compilati dal nobile signor conte Nicolò Contarini del fu Bertucci. Tip. Baseggio, Bassano (catalog)

Coope, G.R., & Angus, R.B. (1975) An ecological study of a temperate interlude in the middle of the last glaciation, based on fossil Coleoptera from Isleworth, Middlesex. Journal of Animal Ecology, 44(2), 365-391. (fossils) [N. vespillo is listed among over 200 species of beetle from an assemblage 43,000 years old.] [!S]

Cooreman, J. (1943) Note sur la faune des Hautes-Fagnes en Belgique. XI. Acariens Parasitiformes. Bulletin du Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique, 19, 63-91. (biology, symbionts: mites in French) [Found Neoseius adult mites free-living in peat and deutonymphs on 4 species of Nicrophorus.]

Cordes, R., Kaschuba, A. & Müller, J.K. (1988) Strategien tageszeitlicher Aktivitat von Necrophorus vespilloides (Sil., Col.) und Pterostichus oblongopunctatus (Car., Col.) im Vergleich Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft, 81, 339-340. (biology, behavior in German)

Corset, J. (1931) Les coaptations chez les insectes. Bulletin Biologique de France et de Belgique, Supplément, 13, 1-337. (morphology: elytral locking in French) [!N, S]

Cox, H.E. (1874) A handbook of the Coleoptera, or beetles, of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. 1. E. W. Janson, London. viii + 522 pp. (key, descriptions (brief)) [!N]

Coyle, D.R. & Larsen, K.J. (1998) Carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) of northeastern Iowa: A comparison of baits for sampling. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science, 105(4), 161-164. (biology, ecology) [Chicken was the most attractive of the baits tested.] [!N]

Creamer, K.D. (1992a) Natural history, husbandry & display of carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae). American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums, Regional Conference Proceedings, 1992, 288-293. (Conference report: biology, conservation)

Creamer, K.D. (1992b) Observation and culturing techniques of the burying beetle, Nicrophorus orbicollis. Y. E. S. Quarterly, 9(1), 5-8. (biology)

Creamer, K.D. (1993) Husbandry and display techniques of the American burying beetle Nicrophorus americanus (Coleoptera: Silphidae). American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums, Regional Conference Proceedings, 1993, 136-141. (Conference report: biology, conservation)

Creighton, J.C., Lomolino, M.V. & Schnell, G.D. (1993) Survey methods for the American burying beetle (Nicrophorus americanus) in Oklahoma and Arkansas. Oklahoma Biological Survey, Norman, OK. (unpublished report: biology, conservation)

Creighton, J.C., & Schnell, G.D. (1998) Short-term movement patterns of the endangered American burying beetle Nicrophorus americanus. Biological Conservation, 86(3), 281-287. (biology, conservation) [71% ofABB recaptures were in a different habitat from the first. ] [!S]

Creighton, J.C., Vaughn, C.C. & Chapman, B.R. (1993) Habitat preference of the endangered American Burying Beetle (Nicrophorus americanus) in Oklahoma. The Southwestern Naturalist, 38(3), 275-277. (biology, conservation) [More ABB were caught in oak-hickory forests than grasslands.] [!N, S]

Crotch, G.R. (1873) Check List of the Coleoptera of America, North of Mexico. Naturalists' Agency, Salem, Mass. 136 pp. (checklist) [!N]

Crowson, R.A. (1938) The metendosternite in Coleoptera: a comparative study. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 87, 397-415. (morphology: metendosternite) [!N, S]

Curtis, J. (1825) British entomology, being illustrations and descriptions of the genera of insects found in Great Britain and Ireland, ... Vol. 2, pls. 51-98. L. Reeve & Co., London (checklist) [!N]

Dapsio, A. (1995) Silphidae. In: S. Pileckis & V. Monsevicius (eds.). Lietuvos Fauna [Fauna of Lithuania]. Vol. 1. Mokslo ir Enciklopediju Leidykla, Vilnius. pp. 117-121 (checklist in Lithuanian) [!N]

Davis, C.A. (1904) Instructions for collecting and mounting insects; Also a checklist of the Coleoptera of the state of Rhode Island, U.S.A.. 3rd ed. Bulletin of the Roger Williams Park Museum, Providence Pilgrim Press, 1, 1-47. (checklist) [Comment that N. americanus was common (in 1890-1904) and N. marginatus was abundant (in 1890-1904).] [!S]

Davis, C.A. (1905) Additions to the check-list of Rhode Island Coleoptera. Apteryx, 1, 13-17. (checklist) [!S]

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Dejean, P.F.M.A. (1821) Catalogue de la Collection de Coléoptères de M. le Baron Dejean. Paris viii + 1- 136 + (2) pp. (catalog) [numerous ms names listed, all unavailable, nomen nuda: Stygius Dahl.[nomen nudum ex Dejean 1821]; Cadaverinus Dejean 1821.[nomen nudum]; Basalis Dejean 1821.[nomen nudum]; Interruptus Dejean 1821.[nomen nudum]; Sepultor Dejean 1821.[nomen nudum]; Investigator Il. [ex Dejean1821 nomen nudum]] [!S]

Dejean, P.F.M.A. (1833) Catalogue des Coléoptères de la collection de M. le Comte Dejean ... [2nd edition.] Méquignon-Marvis, Paris, pp. 1-176. (catalog in French) [numerous ms names listed, all unavailable nomina nuda of Nicrophorus: Speculifrons Fischer, Russ. mer. or.; Megacephalus Eschsch id; Stygius Dahl., Illyria; Lateralis Eschsch, California; Auripilosus Eschsch., id.; Lunatus Dej. Amer. bor.; Cadaverinus Dej. Gallia bor; Quadrimaculatus Dej. Amer. bor.; Sexpustulatus Dej. Amer. bor; Velutinus var. Marginatus Dejean cat, Amer. bor.; Nigricornis Dej., Dauria; Nigricornis var. Asiaticus, Faldermann, Persia occid.; Halseyi Petit, Amer. bor.] [!S]

Dejean, P.F.M.A. (1836) Catalogue des Coléoptères de la collection de M. le Comte Dejean, pair de France, lieutenant général, grand officier de la légion d'honneur, membre de plusieurs sociétés savantes nationales et étrangères. Troisième édition, revue, corrigée et augmentée. Méquignon-Marvis, Paris, pp. 1-384. (catalog in French) [numerous ms names listed, all unavailable, nomina nuda of Nicrophorus: N. Speculifrons Fischer [Rus. mer. or.]; N. megacephalus Eschscholtz - as sn. of N. speculifrons [Rus. mer. or.]; N. Stygius Dahl. [Illyria]; N. Lateralis Eschscholtz [California]; N. Auripilosus Eschscholtz [California]; N. Lunatus Dej. [Amer. bor.]; N. Curvipes Megerle - as syn. of N. vespillo [Austria]; N. Cadaverinus Dej. [Gallia bor.]; N. Investigator Mac Leay - as syn. of N. Cadaverinus Dej. [Anglia]; N. Basalis Dej. [Gallia]; N. Sepultor Dej. [P.]; N. Investigator Dej. Catal. - as syn. of N. sepultor Dej. [Austria]; N. Interruptus Dej. [Hispania]; N. Vestigator Illiger[P.]; N. sepultor Dej. catal. - as syn. of N. vestigator Ill. [P.]; N. Corsicus Dej. [Corsica]; N. Quadrimaculatus Dej. [Amer. bor.]; N. Sexpustulatus Dej. [Amer. bor.]; N. Velutinus var. Marginatus Dej. Catal. [Amer. bor.]; N. Nigricornis Dej. [Dauria]; N. Nigricornis var. Asiaticus Faldermann [Persia occid.]; N. Halseyi Petit [Amer. bor.]] [!S]

Delahon, P. (1913) Nachträge zum Schilskyschen Verzeichnis der Käfer Deutschlands von 1909 und einige sonstige Bemerkungen über deutsche Käfer. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 1913, 529-539. (checklist in German)

Delahon, P. (1925) Nachträge zu "Schilskys Systematischen Verzeichnis der Käfer Deutschlands" von 1909 mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Formen der Mark Brandenburg, sowie einige sonstige Bemerkungen über Käfer aus Deutschland. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 1925, 305-308. (comment in German)

Deloya, C. (1997) [“1996”] Los macro-coleopteros necrofilos de Tepoztlan, Morelos, Mexico (Scarabaeidae, Trogidae, Silphidae). Folia Entomologica Mexicana, 97, 39-54. (biology, ecology in Spanish) [N. olidus among the most abundant species.]

Denman, D.J. (1984) The feeding habits of two species of burying beetles: Necrophorus vespilloides Herbst and N. humator Goeze Entomologistís Record and Journal of Variation, 96(9-10), 201. (biology, behavior)

Dethier, V.G. (1947) The role of the antennae in the orientation of carrion beetles to odors. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 55, 285-293. (biology, behavior) [Controls-87.5% returned; lacking 1 antenna-59% returned; lacking both antennae- 0% returned; lacking clubs of both antennae- 27% returned.] [!M, N, S]

Deyrolle, H. & Fairmaire, L. (1878) Descriptions de Coléoptères recueillis par M. l'abbé David dans la Chine centrale. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 5(8), 87-140. (descriptions in French) [Original description of N. ocellatus (=N. nepalensis); P. davidis (=P. plagiatus).] [!S]

Dillon, E.S. & Dillon, L.S. (1961) A manual of common beetles of eastern North America. Row, Peterson and Co., Evanston, Illinois. viii + 884 pp. (key, descriptions) [!N]

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Dohrn, C.A. (1879) Exotisches. Entomologische Zeitung[Stettin], 60, 456-461. (comment in German)

Dollfus, R.P. (1961) Contribution to the regional parasitic fauna (Experimental Station of Parasitology of Richelieu). Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparée, 36, 169-451. (biology, symbionts: mites in French)

Downie, N.M. & Arnett, R.H., Jr. (1996) The Beetles of Northeastern North America. Volume 1: introduction; suborders Archostemata, Adephaga, and Polyphaga, thru superfamily Cantharoidea Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville pp. i-xiv, 1-880. (key, descriptions, regional) [!S]

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Dressel, J. & Müller, J.K. (1988) Ways of increasing fitness of small and contest-losing individuals in burying beetles (Silphidae, Coleoptera). Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft, 81, 342. (Abstract: biology, behavior) [Found duration of ontogenetic development is dependent on body size- smaller offspring develop faster than larger, [also found for N. nigrita, unpub data- D. Sikes]] [!S]

Duftschmid, C. (1825) Fauna Austriae, oder Beschreibung der österreichischen Insecten für angehende Freunde der Entomologie. DritterTheil. Linz. 289 pp. (descriptions in German) [Original description of N. curvipes (=N. vespillo).] [!M, S]

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DuPorte, E.M. (1960) Evolution of cranial structure in adult Coleoptera. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 38, 655-675.(morphology) [Species name not mentioned- good figures of Nicrophorus cranial structure.][!N, S]

Dury, C. (1902) A revised list of the Coleoptera observed near Cincinnati, Ohio, with notes on localities, bibliographical references, and description of new species. Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History, 20, 107-196. (checklist) [!N]

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Eggert, A.-K., & Müller, J.K. (1987) Mechanismus und Erfolg der Valerschaftssicherung bei Necrophorus vespilloides (Coleoptera,Silphidae). Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft, 80, 250-251. (Abstract: biology, behavior in German)

Eggert, A.-K., & Müller, J.K. (1988) Observations of pheromone-emitting males of Necrophorus vespilloides (Coleoptera, Silphidae): Ontogeny, inter- and intraindividual variation. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft, 81, 343. (Abstract: biology, behavior)

Eggert, A.-K. & Müller, J.K. (1989a) Mating success of pheromone-emitting Nicrophorus males: Do attracted females discriminate against resource owners? Behaviour, 110(1-4), 248-257. (biology, behavior in English (German summary))

Eggert, A.-K. & Müller, J.K. (1989b) Pheromone-mediated attraction in burying beetles. Ecological Entomology, 14(2), 235-237. (biology, behavior)

Eggert, A.-K. & Müller, J.K. (1989c) Uni- und biparentale Brutpflege bei Necrophorus vespilloides. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft, 82, 318. (biology, behavior in German)

Eggert, A.-K. & Müller, J.K. (1992) Joint breeding in female burying beetles. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 31(4), 237-242. (biology, behavior) [First documentation that N. vespilloides will breed communally.] [!S]

Eggert, A.-K. & Müller, J.K. (1997) Biparental care and social evolution in burying beetles: Lessons from the larder. In: Choe, J.C. & Crespi, B.J. (eds.) Social Behavior in Insects and Arachnids. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York & Oakleigh. pp. 216-236 (biology, review of: ecology, behavior) [!S]

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Eggert, A.-K., Reinking, M. & Müller, J.K. (1998) Parental care improves offspring survival and growth in burying beetles. Animal Behaviour, 55(1), 97-107. (biology, behavior) [Feeding and carcass preparation but not symbiont transfer. ëParental regurgitations are not due to endosymbiont transfer.í Excellent overview of parental care benefits.] [!S]

Eggert, A.-K., & Sakaluk, S.K. (1995) Female-coerced monogamy in burying beetles. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 37(3), 147-153. (biology, behavior) [Males on larger carcasses try to attract a second mate.] [!S]

Eggert, A.-K., & Sakaluk, S.K. (2000) Benefits of communal breeding in burying beetles: a field experiment. Ecological Entomology, 25, 262-266. (biology, behavior) [Rejected improved defense hypothesis to explain communal breeding.] [!S]

Eisfelder, I. (1963) Käfer als Pilzbewohner. Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 29, 77-97. (biology, ecology in German)

Emden, F.I. v. (1950) Dipterous parasites of Coleoptera. Entomologistís Monthly Magazine, 86, 182-206. (biology, parasites) [!S]

Emetz, V. (1975a) Ergebnisse der zoologischen Forschungen von Dr. Z. Kaszab in der Mongolei. Nr. 358: Silphidae und Liodidae (Coleoptera). Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 28, 57-71. (checklist in German) [N. “praedator” new record for mongolia; N. morio has more collection events than other Nicrophorus.] [!N, S]

Emetz, V.M. (1975b) On the fauna of Silphidae (Coleoptera) of the Mongolian People's Republic. Nasekomye Mongolii, 3, 99-107. (checklist in Russian) [!N, S]

Emetz, V. & Schawaller, W. (1975) Silphidae aus dem Nepal-Himalaya (Ins.: Col.). Senckenbergiana Biologica,<


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