Amphibians and reptiles from the Mt. Hamiguitan Range of eastern Mindanao Island, Philippines: new distribution records

Christian E. Supsup, Faith M. Guinto, Bernard R. Redoblado, Rai S. Gomez


Despite extensive surveys conducted in the past, many remote areas in the Philippines remain unexplored and many species are unknown to science. The Mount Hamiguitan Range (MHR) is among these areas, containing large remaining forests tracts. In this study, we report new records of amphibians and reptiles from MHR and propose removing two species from the previously listed species from this mountain range. We used standardized techniques to sample populations of amphibians and reptiles in fragmented forests of Mt. Hamiguitan. Our survey resulted in 16 new records of species (four frogs, three lizards and nine snakes). Combining our results with previous studies, the known species diversity from the MHR is now increased to a total of 61 taxa. Our results highlight the underestimated diversity of herpetofauna of Mt. Hamiguitan, and we discuss the importance of repeated surveys for determining species occurrences and assessing their conservation status.


checklist; herpetofauna; conservation status; repeated surveys

Full Text:



Alcala, A.C. 1986. Guide to Philippine flora and fauna: Amphibians and reptiles. Manila: Natural Resource Management Center, Ministry of Natural Resources and the University of the Philippines. 195 pp.

Alcala, A.C. & W.C. Brown. 1998. Philippine amphibians: An illustrated field guide. Makati: Bookmark Inc. Press. 113 pp.

Alcala, A.C., A.A. Bucol, A.C. Diesmos & R.M. Brown. 2012. Vulnerability of Philippine amphibians to climate change. Philippine Journal of Science 141: 77–87.

Amoroso, V.B. & R. A. Aspiras. 2011. Hamiguitan Range: a sanctuary for native flora. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 18: 7–15.

AmphibiaWeb. 2016. Information on amphibian biology and conservation. Accessed at, 7 July 2016.

Bacon, J.P. 1980. A new Tropidophorus from the Philippine Islands; pp 229–232, in: W.C. Brown & A.C. Alcala. Philippine lizards of the family Scincidae. Dumaguete: Silliman University Press.

Barley, A., J. White, A.C. Diesmos & R.M. Brown. 2013. The challenge of species delimitation at the extremes: diversification without morphological change in Philippine sun skinks. Evolution 67: 3556–3572.

Beukema, W. 2011. Herpetofauna of disturbed forest fragments on the lower Mt. Kitanglad Range, Mindanao Island, Philippines. Salamandra 47: 90–98.

Boettger, O. 1893. Drei neue Wasserfrösche (Rana) von den Philippinen. Zoologischer Anzeiger 16: 363–366.

Boulenger, G.A. 1882. Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia, s. Ecaudata in the collection of the British Museum, 2nd edition. London: British Museum. 503 pp.

Boulenger, G.A. 1895. Second report on additions to the lizard collection in the Natural History Museum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1894: 722–736.

Boulenger, G.A. 1887. Descriptions of new reptiles and batrachians in the British Museum (Natural History). — Part III. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 20: 50–53.

Brown, R. M., C. H. Oliveros, C. D. Siler, J. B. Fernandez, L. J. Welton, P. A. C. Buenavente, M. L. D. Diesmos, & A. C. Diesmos. 2012. Amphibians and Reptiles of Luzon Island (Philippines), VII: Herpetofauna of Ilocos Norte Province, Northern Cordillera Mountain Range. Check List 8: 469–490.

Brown, R. M., C D. Siler, C. H. Oliveros, J. A. Esselstyn, A. C. Diesmos, P. A. Hosner, C. W. Linkem, A. J. Barley, J. R. Oaks, M. B. Sanguila, L. J. Welton, D. S. Blackburn, R. G. Moyle, A. T. Peterson, & A. C. Alcala. 2013a. Evolutionary processes of diversification in a model island archipelago. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 44: 411–435.

Brown, R.M., C.D. Siler, C.H. Oliveros, L.J. Welton, A. Rock, J. Swab, M. van Weerd, J. Beijnen, E. Jose, D. Rodriquez, E. Jose & A.C. Diesmos. 2013b. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range. ZooKeys 266: 1–120.

Brown, R. M. & A. C. Diesmos. 2009. Philippines, Biology; pp. 723–732, in: R. Gillespie & D. Clague (eds.). Encyclopedia of Islands. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Brown, R.M., A. C. Diesmos & A. C. Alcala. 2001. The state of Philippine herpetology and the challenges for the next decade. Siliman Journal 42: 18–87.

Brown, R.M., J.A. McGuire, J.W. Ferner, N. Icarangal, & R.S. Kennedy. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, II: preliminary report on the herpetofauna of Aurora Memorial National Park, Philippines. Hamadryad-Madras 25: 175–195.

Brown, R.M., C.D. Siler, A.C. Diesmos & A.C. Alcala. 2009. Philippine frogs of the genus Leptobrachium (Anura; Megophryidae): phylogeny-based species delimitation, taxonomic review, and descriptions of three new species. Herpetological Monographs 23: 1–44.

Brown, R.M., J.W. Ferner & R.V. Sison. 1995. Rediscovery and Redescription of Sphenomorphus beyeri Taylor (Reptilia: Lacertilia: Scincidae) from the Zambales Mountains of Luzon, Philippines. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 108: 6–17.

Brown, R.M., C.W. Linkem, D. Balete, M.V. Duya, A.C. Diesmos & J.W. Ferner. 2010. Species boundaries in Philippine montane forest skinks (Genus Sphenomorphus): three new species from the mountains of Luzon and clarification of the status of the poorly known S. beyeri, S. knollmanae, and S. laterimaculatus. Scientific Papers of the Natural History Museum of the University of Kansas 42: 1–27.

Brown, W.C., & A.C. Alcala. 1994. Philippine frogs of the family Rhacophoridae. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 48: 185–220.

Brown, W.C. & A.C. Alcala. 1977. A new frog of the genus Rana from the Philippines. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 90: 669–675.

Brown, W.C. & A.C. Alcala. 1978. Philippine Lizards of the Family Gekkonidae. Dumaguete: Silliman University Press. 146 pp.

Brown, W.C. & A.C. Alcala. 1980. Philippine lizards of the Family Scincidae. Dumaguete: Silliman University Press. 264 pp.

Brown W.C. & D.S. Rabor. 1967. Review of the genus Brachymeles (Sauria), with descriptions of new species and subspecies. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 34: 525–548.

Brown, W.C. & D.S. Rabor. 1967. A new spehenomorphid lizard (Scincidae) from the Philippine islands. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 80: 69–72.

David P., O.S.G. Pauwels, P.F.A.G. Lays & G.L. Lenglet. 2006. On a collection of reptiles from southern Mindanao Island, the Philippines. Biologie 76: 201–227.

Delima, E., A.C. Diesmos & J.C. Ibanez. 2007. The Herpetological Importance of Mt. Hamiguitan Range, Mindanao Island, Philippines. Banwa: The Multidisciplinary Journal of University of the Philippines-Mindanao 4: 27–40.

Denzer, W., K. Henle, M. Gaulke, J. Margraf & P. P. Milan. 1994. Annotated checklist of the reptiles and amphibians of Leyte, Philippines with notes on their ecology and conservation. Annals of Tropical Research 16: 44–70.

Devan-Song, A. & R. M. Brown. 2012. Amphibians and Reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VI: The Herpetofauna of the Subic Bay Area. Asian Herpetological Research 3: 1–20.

Dickinson, E.C., R.S. Kennedy & K.C. Parkes. 1991. The birds of the Philippines: an annotated checklist. Tring: British Ornithologist’s Union. 507 pp.

Diesmos, A.C. 2008. Ecology and diversity of herpetofaunal communities in fragmented lowland rainforests in the Philippines [PhD dissertation]. Singapore: National University of Singapore. 112 pp.

Diesmos, A.C. & R. M. Brown. 2009a. Diversity, biogeography, and conservation of Philippine amphibians; pp. 26–49, in: I. Das, A. Haas & A. Alek Tuen (eds.). Biology and conservation of tropical Asian amphibians. Proceedings of the Conference on Biology of the Amphibians in the Sunda Region, South-east Asia.

Diesmos, A.C. & R.M. Brown. 2009b. Ramphotyphlops cumingii. The IUCN Red List of threatened species. Version 2015.4. Accessed at, 19 November 2015.

Diesmos, A.C., J.L. Watters, N.A. Huron, D.R. Davis, A.C. Alcala, R.I. Crombie, L.E. Afuang, G. Gee-Das, R.V. Sison, M.B. Sanguila, M.L. Penrod, M.J. Labonte, C.S. Davey, E.A. Leone, M.L. Diesmos, E.Y. Sy, L.J. Welton, R.M. Brown & C.D. Siler. 2015. Amphibians of the Philippines, part I: checklist of the species. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 62: 457–539.

Duméril, A H.A. 1853. Mémoire sur les batraciens anoures, de la famille des hylaeformes ou rainettes, comprenent la description d’un genre nouveau et de onze espèces nouvelles. Annales des Sciences Naturelles. Zoologie et Biologie Animale 19: 135–179.

Fernando, E.S., M.H. Suh, J. Lee & D.K. Lee. 2008. Forest Formations of the Philippines. Korea: GeoBook Publishing Co. 228 pp

Ferner, J.W., R.M. Brown, R.V. Sison & R.S. Kennedy. 2000. The amphibians and reptiles of Panay Island, Philippines. Asiatic Herpetological Research 9: 34–70.

Forest Management Bureau. 2013. 2013 Philippine Forestry Statistics. Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Accessed at, 18 November 2015.

Fischer, J.G. 1885. Ichthyologische und herpetologische Bemerkungen. V. Herpetologische Bemerkungen. Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen. Wissenschaftlichen Anstalten 2: 82–121.

Frost, D.R. 2016. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Accessed at, 7 July 2016.

Gaulke, M. 2011. Herpetofauna of Panay Island, Philippines. Frankfurt am Main: Edition Chimaira. 388 pp.

Gravenhorst, J.L.C. 1829. Deliciae Musei Zoologici Vratislaviensis. Fasciculus primus. Chelonios et Batrachia. Leipzig: Leopold Voss. 162 pp.

Gray, J.E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. London: Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman. 289 pp.

Grismer, L.L., K.O. Chan, J.L. Grismer, P.L. Wood & A. Norhayati. 2010. A checklist of the herpetofauna of the Banjaran Bintang, Peninsular Malaysia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 17: 147–160.

Grismer, L.L., P.LJ. Wood, C.H. Lee, E.S.H. Quah, S. Anuar, E. Ngadi & J.W.J. Sites. 2015. An integrative taxonomic review of the agamid genus Bronchocela (Kuhl, 1820) from Peninsular Malaysia with descriptions of new montane and insular endemics. Zootaxa 3948: 1–23.

Grismer, L.L., P.L.J Wood, A. Aowphol, M. Cota, M.L. Murdoch, C. Aguilar & M.S. Grismer. 2016. Taxonomy, phylogeny, and distribution of Bronchocela rayaensis (Squamata: Agamidae) on the Thai-Malay Peninsula. Zootaxa 4092: 414–420.

Gonzalez, P., Y.C. Su, C.D. Siler, A. Barley, M.B. Sanguila, A.C. Diesmos & R.M. Brown. 2014. Archipelago colonization by ecologically dissimilar amphibians: evaluating the expectation of common evolutionary history of geographical diffusion in co-distributed rainforest tree frogs in islands of Southeast Asia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 72: 35–41.

Günther, A.C. 1858. Neue Batrachier in der Sammlung des britischen Museums. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 24: 319–328.

Günther, A.C. 1864. The reptiles of British India. London: Taylor & Francis. 452 pp.

Günther, A. 1883. Description of two snakes from the “Challenger” collections. The Annal and Magazine of Natural History 11: 136–137.

Inger, R.F. 1954. Systematics and zoogeography of Philippine Amphibia. Fieldiana. Zoology 33: 183–531.

Hallermann, J. 2013. A Taxonomic Review of the Genus Bronchocela (Squamata: Agamidae), with Description of a New Species from Vietnam. Russian Journal of Herpetology 12:167–182.

Heaney, L.R. 1985. Zoogeographic evidence for middle and late Pleistocene land bridges to the Philippine Islands. Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia 9: 127–144.

Heaney, L.R. 1986. Biogeography of mammals in SE Asia: estimates of rates of colonization, extinction and speciation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 28: 127–165.

Heaney, L.R., B.R. Tabaranza, E.A. Rickart, D.S. Balete & N.R. Ingle. 2006. The Mammals of Mt. Kitanglad Nature Park, Mindanao, Philippines. Fieldiana Zoology 112: 1–63.

Hijmans, R.J., S.E. Cameron, J.L. Parra, P.G. Jones & A. Jarvis. 2005. Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology 25: 1965–1978.

Heyer, W.R., M.A. Donnelly, R.W. McDiarmid, L.A.C Hayek & M.S. Foster. 1994. Measuring and monitoring biological diversity: standard methods for amphibians. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. 364 pp.

Inger, R.F. 1954. Systematics and zoogeography of Philippine Amphibia. Chicago: Chicago Natural History Museum. 525 pp.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of threatened species. Version 2015.4. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Accessed at, 22 November 2015.

Leviton, A.E. 1963. Remarks on the zoogeography of Philippine terrestrial snakes. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 31: 369–416.

Leviton, A.E. 1967a. Contributions to a review of Philippine snakes, X. The snakes of the genus Ahaetulla. Philippine Journal of Science 96: 73–90.

Leviton, A.E. 1967b. Contributions to a review of Philippine snakes, IX. The snakes of the genus Cyclocorus. Philippine Journal of Science 94: 519–533.

Leviton, A.E. 1964. Contributions to a review of Philippine snakes, VI. The snakes of the genus Oxyrhabdium. Philippine Journal of Science 93: 407–422.

Leviton, A.E. 1968. Contributions to a review of Philippine snakes, XII. The Philippine snakes of the genus Dendrelaphis (Serpentes: Colubridae. Philippine Journal of Science 97: 371–396.

Linkem, C.W., A.C. Diesmos & R.M. Brown. 2011. Molecular systematics of the Philippine forest skinks (Squamata: Scincidae: Sphenomorphus): testing morphological hypotheses of interspecific relationships. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 163: 1217–1243.

Mallari, N.A.D, R.A. Altamirano, A.C. Diesmos, N. Puna, C.E. Supsup, E.L. Rico, J.D. de Alban, A. Monzon, J. Avancena, R.K. Verindiano, A.A. Asis, A. Bringas, S. Lapuz, M. Musa and D. Tablazon. The species was previously considered a 2013a. Biodiversity Baseline Assessment in the REDD-Plus Pilot Area on Leyte lsland as an Input for the Elaboration of a MRV system for REDD-plus including biodiversity co-benefits. Manila: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). 75 pp.

Mallari, N.A.D, E.L. Rico, J.D. de Alban, A.C. Diesmos, R.A. Altamirano, N. Puna, C.E. Supsup, M. Ledesma, C.E. Nuevo, E. Lillo, A. Monzon, R.K. Veridiano, J. Wenceslao, D. Tablazon, J. Masigan, R. Lorca, R. Tumaneng, J. Pales, F. Guinto, A.A. Asis, J. Avancena, A. Bringas, S. Lapuz & M. Musa. 2013b. Biodiversity baseline assessment in the REDD-Plus pilot and key biodiversity area in Mt. Nacolod, Southern Leyte. Manila: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). 80 pp.

Mallari, N.A.D, R. Tumaneng, R. Lapuz, C.E. Nuevo, J. Masigan, J. D. de Alban, A. Monzon, M. Parinas, L.M. Pornel, J.R. Pales, F.M. Guinto, J.L. Wenceslao, M. Ledesma, R.K. Veridiano, C.E. Supsup, E.L. Rico & D. Tablazon. 2014. Sibuyan Island resource and socio-economic assessment [unpublished report]. Tagaytay: Fauna and Flora International. 111 pp.

Mallari, N.A.D., M.J. Crosby & N.J. Collar. 2004. Unexplored Philippine forests as revealed by point-locality mapping. Forktail 20: 124–128.

Mallari, N.A.D., B.R. Tabaranza & M.J. Crosby. 2001. Key conservation sites in the Philippines. Manila: Bookmark Inc. Press. 485 pp.

Manthey, U. & C. Steiof. 1998. Rhacophorus cyanopunctatus sp. n. (Anura: Rhacophoridae), ein neuer Flugfrosch von der Malaiischen Halbinsel, Sumatra und Borneo. Sauria 20: 37–42.

Margules, C.R. & R.L. Pressey. 2000. Systematic conservation planning. Nature 405: 243–253.

McGuire, J.A. & A.C. Alcala. 2000. A taxonomic revision of the Flying Lizards (Iguania: Agamidae: Draco) of the Philippine Islands, with a description of a new species. Herpetological Monographs 14: 81–138.

Mcleod, D.S., C.D. Siler, A.C. Diesmos, M.L. Diesmos, V.S. Garcia, A.O. Arkonceo, K.L. Balaquit, C.C. Uy, M.M. Villaseran & E.C. Yarra. 2011. Amphibians and Reptiles of Luzon Island, V: The Herpetofauna of Angat Dam Watershed, Bulacan Province, Luzon Island, Philippines. Asian Herpetological Research 2: 177–198.

Mertens, R. 1929. Die Rassen des Smaragdskinkes, Dasia smaragdinum Lesson. Zoologischer Anzeiger 84: 209–220.

Nuñeza O.M., M.R. Calizo-Enguito, Y. Labajo-Villantes & A.G. Ponce. 2015. Species richness and endemism of cave herpetofauna in Northern Mindanao, Philippines. ELBA Bioflux 7: 10–24.

Oliveros, C.H., H. Ota, R.I. Crombie & R.M. Brown. 2011. The Herpetofauna of the Babuyan group of islands, northern Philippines. Scientific Publications of the Natural History Museum of the University of Kansas 43: 1–20.

PBCPP. 2002. Philippine Biodiversity Conservation Priorities: A second iteration of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Quezon: Department of Environment and Natural Resources-Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau, Conservation International Philippines, Biodiversity Conservation Program-University of the Philippines Center for Integrative and Development Studies and Foundation for the Philippine Environment. 113 pp.

Peters, W.C.H. 1867. Herpetologische Notizen. Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussische Akademie des Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1867: 13–37.

Peters, W.C. H. 1863. Fernere Mittheilungen über neue Batrachier. Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussische Akademie des Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1863: 445–470.

Peterson, A.T., T. Brooks, A. Gamauf, J.C. Gonzalez, N.A.D. Mallari, G. Dutson, S.E. Bush, D.H. Clayton & R. Fernandez. 2008. The Avifauna of Mt. Kitanglad, Bukidnon Province, Mindanao, Philippines. Fieldiana Zoology 114: 1–43.

Plaza, J.L. & M. B. Sanguila. 2015. Preliminary report on the Anurans of Mount Hilong-hilong, Agusan Del Norte, Eastern Mindanao, Philippines. Asian Herpetological Research 6: 18–33.

Relox, R.E., E.P. Leaño & F. Bates-Camino. 2011. Herpetofaunal endemism and diversity in tropical forests of Mt. Hamiguitan in the Philippines. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 6: 107–113.

Sanguila, M.B., K.A. Cobb, C.D. Siler, A.C. Diesmos, A.C. Alcala & R.M. Brown. 2016. The amphibians and reptiles of Mindanao Island, southern Philippines, II: the herpetofauna of northeast Mindanao and adjacent islands. ZooKeys 624: 1–132.

Siler, C.D., J.D. McVay, A.C. Diesmos & R.M. Brown. 2009. A new species of Fanged Frog, Genus Limnonectes (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Southeast Mindanao Island, Philippines. Herpetologica 65: 105–114.

Siler, C.D., J. Swab, A.C. Diesmos, L. Averia, A.C. Alcala & R. M. Brown. 2012. Amphibians and Reptiles, Romblon Island Group, central Philippines: Comprehensive herpetofaunal inventory. Check List 8: 443–462.

Siler, C.D., L.J. Welton, J.M. Siler, J. Brown, A. Bucol, A.C. Diesmos, & R.M. Brown. 2011. Amphibians and Reptiles, Luzon Island, Aurora Province and Aurora Memorial National Park, Northern Philippines: New island distribution records. Check List 7: 182–195.

Smith, B.E. 1993a. Notes on a Collection of Squamate Reptiles from Eastern Mindanao, Philippine Islands Part 2: Serpentes. Asiatic Herpetological Research 5: 96–102.

Smith, B.E. 1993b. Notes on a collection of squamate reptiles from eastern Mindanao, Philippines Islands, Part 1: Lacertilia. Asiatic Herpetological Research 5: 85–95.

Supsup, C.E. 2014. Identification of high conservation value areas for herpetofauna on Cebu, Philippines [M.Sc. dissertation]. Dasmariñas: De La Salle University-Dasmriñas. 107 pp.

Supsup, C.E., N. Puna, A.A. Asis, B. Redoblado, M.F. Panaguinit, F. Guinto, E.L. Rico, A.C. Diesmos, R.M. Brown & N.A.D. Mallari. 2016. Amphibians and Reptiles of Cebu, Philippines: The poorly understood herpetofauna of an island with very little remaining natural habitat. Asian Herpetological Research 7: 151–179.

Steindachner, F. 1867. Reptilien; pp.1–98, in: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858,1859 unter den Befehlen des Commodore B. von Wüllerstorf-Urbair (Zoologie), Vol. 1, part 3. Wien: K. Gerold’s Sohn/Kaiserlich-Königl. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei.

Stejneger, L. 1910. Description of a new frog from the Philippine Islands. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 52: 437–439.

Uetz, P., P. Freed & J. HOŠEK. 2016. The Reptile Database. Accessed at, 7 July 2016.

Taylor, E.H. 1915. New species of Philippine lizards. Philippine Journal of Science 10: 89–109.

Taylor, E.H. 1919. New or rare Philippine reptiles. Philippine Journal of Science 14: 105–125.

Taylor, E.H. 1920. Philippine Amphibia. Philippine Journal of Science 16: 213–359.

Taylor, E.H. 1921. Amphibians and Turtles of Philippine Islands. Manila: Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Bureau of Science, Publication 15. 193 pp.

Taylor, E.H. 1922a. Additions to the herpetological fauna of the Philippine Islands, II. Philippine Journal of Science 21: 257–303.

Taylor, E.H. 1922b. The lizards of Philippine Islands. Manila: Philippine Bureau of Science, Monograph 17. 178 pp.

Taylor, E.H. 1922c. The snakes of Philippine Islands. Manila: Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Bureau of Science. 312 pp.

Taylor, E.H. 1925. Additions to the herpetological fauna of the Philippines, IV. Philippine Journal of Science 26: 97–111.

van Dijk, P. P., D. T. Iskandar, R. F. Inger, J. Sukumaran, N. Yaakob, T. Ming, & Y. Chuaynkern. 2004. Rhacophorus cyanopunctatus. The IUCN Red List of threatened species 2004. Accessed at, 18 November 2015.

Vogel, G. & J. Rooijen. 2008. Contributions to a review of the Dendrelaphis pictus (Gmelin, 1789) complex-2. the eastern forms (Serpentes: Colubridae). Herpetozoa 21: 3–29.

Wallach, V., K.L. Williams & J. Boundy. 2015. Snakes of the world: a catalogue of living and extinct species. Boca Raton: CRC Press. 1227 pp.

Zug G.R., D.G. Mulcahy & J.V. Vindum. 2017. Resurrection of Bronchocela burmana Blanford, 1878 for the Green Crested Lizard (Squamata, Agamidae) of southern Myanmar. ZooKeys 657: 141–156.