BARCODE TAXONOMY AT THE GENUS LEVEL

Rainer Breitling

Abstract


DNA barcode sequencing has rapidly become one of the most powerful tools for biodiversity assessments. Beyond its original uses for the identification of animal species, including the discovery of cryptic diversity in difficult taxonomic groups, the growing public sequence datasets also offer opportunities for more wide-ranging applications. This contribution shows how barcode data can provide useful complementary information to assist taxonomic decision making at the genus level. An analysis of public barcode datasets for 10 diverse spider families, covering more than 3400 species and morphospecies, reveals numerous examples where sequence similarities either strongly support or convincingly refute recent controversial genus assignments. The following nomenclatorial changes are suggested based on a combined assessment of morphological evidence and the barcode analysis: Acantholycosa = Pardosa (syn. nov.); Piratula = Pirata (syn. nov.); Pulchellodromus, Philodromimus, Tibellomimus, Artanes, and Emargidromus = subgenera of Philodromus (stat. nov.); Cryptachaea riparia = Parasteatoda riparia (comb. nov.); Ohlertidion = Heterotheridion (syn. nov.); Saaristoa = Aphileta (syn. nov.); Aphileta microtarsa = Eulaira microtarsa (comb. conf.); Centromerita and Tallusia = Centromerus (syn. conf.); Obscuriphantes, Agnyphantes, and Acanthoneta = Poeciloneta (syn. nov.); Bolyphantes bipartitus = Poeciloneta bipartita (comb. nov.); Anguliphantes, Improphantes, Piniphantes, and Mansuphantes = Oryphantes (syn. nov.), Palliduphantes antroniensis = Oryphantes antroniensis (comb. nov.), Lepthyphantes nodifer = Oryphantes nodifer (comb. nov.), Hypositticus, Sittipub, Calositticus, Sittisax, Sittiflor, and Attulus = Sitticus (syn. nov.).

Full Text:

PDF

References


Archer, A. F. (1946) The Theridiidae or comb-footed spiders of Alabama. Museum Paper, Alabama Museum of Natural History 22, 1–67.

Archer, A. F. (1950) A study of theridiid and mimetid spiders with descriptions of new genera and species. Museum Paper, Alabama Museum of Natural History 30, 1–40.

Archer, A. F. (1951) Remarks on certain European genera of argiopid spiders. Chicago Academy of Sciences, Natural History Miscellanea 84, 1–4.

Archer, A. F. (1958) Studies in the orbweaving spiders (Argiopidae). 4. American Museum Novitates 1922, 1–21.

Astrin, J. J., Höfer, H., Spelda, J., Holstein, J., Bayer, S., Hendrich, L., Huber, B. A., Kielhorn, K. H., Krammer, H. J., Lemke, M., Monje, J. C., Morinière, J., Rulik, B., Petersen, M., Janssen, H. & Muster, C. (2016) Towards a DNA barcode reference database for spiders and harvestmen of Germany. PLoS ONE 11 (e0162624), 1–24.

Ballesteros, J. A. & Hormiga, G. (2018) Species delimitation of the North American orchard–spider Leucauge venusta (Walckenaer, 1841) (Araneae, Tetragnathidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 121, 183–197.

Barrett, R. D. H. & Hebert, P. D. N. (2005) Identifying spiders through DNA barcodes. Canadian Journal of Zoology 83(3), 481–491.

Blagoev, G. A. & Dondale, C. D. (2014) A new species of Alopecosa (Araneae: Lycosidae) from Canada: a morphological description supported by DNA barcoding of 19 congeners. Zootaxa 3894, 152–160.

Blagoev, G. A., Nikolova, N. I., Sobel, C. N., Hebert, P. D. N. & Adamowicz, S. J. (2013) Spiders (Araneae) of Churchill, Manitoba: DNA barcodes and morphology reveal high species diversity and new Canadian records. BMC Ecology 13(44), 1–17.

Blagoev, G. A., DeWaard, J. R., Ratnasingham, S., DeWaard, S. L., Lu, L. Q., Robertson, J., Telfer, A. C. & Hebert, P. D. N. (2016) Untangling taxonomy: a DNA barcode reference library for Canadian spiders. Molecular Ecology Resources 16, 325–341.

Bond, J. E., Garrison, N. L., Hamilton, C. A., Godwin, R. L., Hedin, M. & Agnarsson, I. (2014) Phylogenomics resolves a spider backbone phylogeny and rejects a prevailing paradigm for orb web evolution. Current Biology 24(15), 1765–1771.

Breitling, R. (2017) Public DNA barcoding data resolve the status of the genus Arboricaria (Araneae: Gnaphosidae). Arachnologische Mitteilungen 54, 24–27.

Buchar, J. & Thaler, K. (1993) Die Arten der Gattung Acantholycosa in Westeuropa (Arachnida, Araneida: Lycosidae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 100, 327–341.

Coddington, J. A., Agnarsson, I., Cheng, R.-C., Čandek, K., Driskell, A., Frick, H., Gregorič, M., Kostanjšek, R., Kropf, C., Kweskin, M., Lokovšek, T., Pipan, M., Vidergar, N. & Kuntner, M. (2016) DNA barcode data accurately assign higher spider taxa. PeerJ 2016(7), e2201.

Crawford, R. L. (1988) An annotated checklist of the spiders of Washington. Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 5, 1–48.

Dereeper, A., Guignon, V., Blanc, G., Audic, S., Buffet, S., Chevenet, F., Dufayard, J. F., Guindon, S., Lefort, V., Lescot, M., Claverie, J.M. & Gascuel, O. (2008) Phylogeny.fr: robust phylogenetic analysis for the non-specialist. Nucleic Acids Research 36 (Web Server issue), W465–W469.

Dondale, C. D. & Redner, J. H. (1981) Classification of two North American species of Pirata, with a description of a new genus (Araneae, Lycosidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 170, 106–110.

Dupérré, N. (2013) Taxonomic revision of the spider genera Agyneta and Tennesseelum (Araneae, Linyphiidae) of North America north of Mexico with a study of the embolic division within Micronetinae sensu Saaristo & Tanasevitch 1996. Zootaxa 3674, 1–189.

Eskov, K. Y. (1992). A restudy of the generic composition of the linyphiid spider fauna of the Far East (Araneida: Linyphiidae). Entomologica Scandinavica 23, 153–168.

Fernández, R., Hormiga, G. & Giribet, G. (2014) Phylogenomic analysis of spiders reveals nonmonophyly of orb weavers. Current Biology 24(15), 1772–1777.

Fišer, C., Robinson, C. T. & Malard, F. (2018) Cryptic species as a window into the paradigm shift of the species concept. Molecular Ecology 27(3), 613–635.

Garrison, N. L., Rodriguez, J., Agnarsson, I., Coddington, J. A., Griswold, C. E., Hamilton, C. A., Hedin, M., Kocot, K. M., Ledford, J. M. & Bond, J. E. (2016) Spider phylogenomics: Untangling the Spider Tree of Life. PeerJ 4, e1719.

Godwin, R. L., Opatova, V., Garrison, N. L., Hamilton, C. A., Bond, J. E. (2018) Phylogeny of a cosmopolitan family of morphologically conserved trapdoor spiders (Mygalomorphae, Ctenizidae) using Anchored Hybrid Enrichment, with a description of the family, Halonoproctidae Pocock 1901. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 126, 303–313.

Goodwin, K. D., Thompson, L. R., Duarte, B., Kahlke, T., Thompson, A. R., Marques, J. C. & Caçador, I. (2017) DNA sequencing as a tool to monitor marine ecological status. Frontiers in Marine Science 4, 107.

Grasshoff, M. (1976) Zur Taxonomie und Nomenklatur mitteleuropäischer Radnetzspinnen der Familie Araneidae (Arachnida: Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57, 143–154.

Hamilton, C. A., Formanowicz, D. R. & Bond, J. E. (2011) Species delimitation and phylogeography of Aphonopelma hentzi (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae): Cryptic diversity in North American tarantulas. PLoS ONE 6(10), e26207.

Hamilton, C. A., Lemmon, A. R., Lemmon, E. M. & Bond, J. E. (2016) Expanding anchored hybrid enrichment to resolve both deep and shallow relationships within the spider tree of life. BMC Evolutionary Biology 16(1), 1–20.

Hebert, P. D. N., Cywinska, A., Ball, S. L. & DeWaard, J. R. (2003) Biological identifications through DNA barcodes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 270(1512), 313–321.

Hedin, M., Derkarabetian, S., Ramírez, M. J., Vink, C. & Bond, J. E. (2018) Phylogenomic reclassification of the world’s most venomous spiders (Mygalomorphae, Atracinae), with implications for venom evolution. Scientific Reports 8(1), 1636.

Heimer, S. & Nentwig, W. (1991) Spinnen Mitteleuropas: Ein Bestimmungsbuch. Paul Parey, Berlin, 543 pp.

Hellberg, R. S., Hernandez, B. C. & Hernandez, E. L. (2017) Identification of meat and poultry species in food products using DNA barcoding. Food Control 80, 23–28.

Janzen, D. H., Burns, J. M., Cong, Q., Hallwachs, W., Dapkey, T., Manjunath, R., Hajibabaei, M., Hebert, P. D. N. & Grishin, N. V. (2017) Nuclear genomes distinguish cryptic species suggested by their DNA barcodes and ecology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114(31), 8313–8318.

Kallal, R. J., Fernández, R., Giribet, G. & Hormiga, G. (2018) A phylotranscriptomic backbone of the orb-weaving spider family Araneidae (Arachnida, Araneae) supported by multiple methodological approaches. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 126, 129–140.

Kastrygina, Z. A. & Kovblyuk, M. M. (2014) The spider genus Pulchellodromus Wunderlich, 2012 in the Crimea (Aranei: Philodromidae). Arthropoda Selecta 23(3), 279–283.

Kastrygina, Z. A. & Kovblyuk, M. M. (2016) The spider genus Rhysodromus Schick, 1965 in the Crimea (Aranei: Philodromidae). Arthropoda Selecta 25(3), 283–292.

Knoflach, B. (1994) Zur Genitalmorphologie und Biologie der Crustulina-Arten Europas (Arachnida: Araneae, Theridiidae). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 67, 327–346.

Knoflach, B. (2004) Diversity in the copulatory behaviour of comb-footed spiders (Araneae, Theridiidae). In: Thaler, K. (ed.) Diversität und Biologie von Webspinnen, Skorpionen und anderen Spinnentieren. Denisia 12, 161–256.

Kronestedt, T. & Marusik, Y. M. (2002). On Acantholycosa solituda (Levi & Levi) and A. sterneri (Marusik) (Araneae: Lycosidae), a pair of geographically distant allied species. Acta Arachnologica 51, 63–71.

Kropf, C., Blick, T., Brescovit, A. D., Chatzaki, M., Dupérré, N., Gloor, D., Haddad, C. R., Harvey, M. S., Jäger, P., Marusik, Y. M., Ono, H., Rheims, C. A. & Nentwig, W. (2019) How not to delimit taxa: a critique on a recently proposed “pragmatic classification” of jumping spiders (Arthropoda: Arachnida: Araneae: Salticidae). Zootaxa 4545(3), 444–446. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4545.3.10

Levi, H. W. (1957) The spider genera Crustulina and Steatoda in North America, Central America, and the West Indies (Araneae, Theridiidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 117, 367–424.

Levi, H. W. (1973) Small orb-weavers of the genus Araneus north of Mexico (Araneae: Araneidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 145, 473–552.

Levi, H. W. (1991) The Neotropical and Mexican species of the orb-weaver genera Araneus, Dubiepeira, and Aculepeira (Araneae: Araneidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 152, 167–315.

Levi, H. W. & Levi, L. R. (1962) The genera of the spider family Theridiidae. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 127, 1–71.

Levy, G. & Amitai, P. (1979) The spider genus Crustulina (Araneae: Theridiidae) in Israel. Israel Journal of Zoology 28, 114–130.

Locket, G. H., Millidge, A. F. & Merrett, P. (1974) British Spiders, Volume III. Ray Society London, 315 pp.

Lohmander, H. (1944) Vorläufige Spinnennotizen. Arkiv för Zoologi 35(A, 16), 1–21.

Luong, P. T. H., Yamasaki, T. & Eguchi, K. (2016) Conspecificity of Phintella aequipeiformis Zabka, 1985 and P. lucai Zabka, 1985 (Araneae: Salticidae) confirmed by DNA barcoding. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 123(2), 283–290.

Maddison, W. P., Evans, S. C., Hamilton, C. A., Bond, J. E., Lemmon, A. R. & Lemmon, E. M. (2017) A genome-wide phylogeny of jumping spiders (Araneae, Salticidae), using anchored hybrid enrichment. ZooKeys 2017(695), 89–101.

Magalhães, I. L. F., Martins, P. H., Nogueira, A. A. & Santos, A. J. (2017) Finding hot singles: matching males to females in dimorphic spiders (Araneidae: Micrathena) using phylogenetic placement and DNA barcoding. Invertebrate Systematics 31(1), 8–36.

Marusik, Y. M., Azarkina, G. N. & Koponen, S. (2004) A survey of east Palearctic Lycosidae (Aranei). II. Genus Acantholycosa F. Dahl, 1908 and related new genera. Arthropoda Selecta 12, 101–148.

Marusik, Y. M., Fomichev, A. A. & Vahtera, V. (2018) A new species of Chalcoscirtus (Araneae: Salticidae) from Altai, South Siberia, Russia. Entomologica Fennica 29(1), 39–48.

Mendoza, J. & Francke, O. (2017) Systematic revision of Brachypelma red-kneed tarantulas (Araneae:Theraphosidae), and the use of DNA barcodes to assist in the identification and conservation of CITES-listed species. Invertebrate Systematics 31(2), 157–179.

Miller, F. & Kratochvíl, J. (1938) Quelques nouveaux araignées pour la faune tchechoslov. Casopis Národního Muzea Praze 1938, 234–244.

Millidge, A. F. (1977) The conformation of the male palpal organs of linyphiid spiders, and its application to the taxonomic and phylogenetic analysis of the family (Araneae: Linyphiidae). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 4, 1–60.

Millidge, A. F. (1978) The genera Saaristoa n. gen. and Metapanamomops Millidge (Araneae: Linyphiidae). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 4, 123.

Murphy, J. A. & Roberts, M. J. (2015) Spider families of the world and their spinnerets. British Arachnological Society, York, volume 1 & 2, pp. i–xii, 1–189; xiii–xvi, 191–353.

Muster, C. (2009) Phylogenetic relationships within Philodromidae, with a taxonomic revision of Philodromus subgenus Artanes in the western Palearctic (Arachnida: Araneae). Invertebrate Systematics 23, 135–169.

Nadolny, A. A., Omelko, M. M., Marusik, Y. M. & Blagoev, G. (2016) A new species of spider belonging to the Pardosa lugubris-group (Araneae: Lycosidae) from Far East Asia. Zootaxa 4072(2), 263–281.

Omelko, M. M., Marusik, Y. M. & Koponen, S. (2011) A survey of the east Palearctic Lycosidae (Aranei). 8. The genera Pirata Sundevall, 1833 and Piratula Roewer, 1960 in the Russian Far East. Arthropoda Selecta 20, 195–232.

Ortiz, D. & Francke, O. F. (2016) Two DNA barcodes and morphology for multi-method species delimitation in Bonnetina tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 101, 176–193.

Oxford, G. S. & Bolzern, A. (2018) Molecules v. morphology—is Eratigena atrica (Araneae: Agelenidae) one species or three? Arachnology 17(7), 337–357.

Planas, E. & Ribera, C. (2015) Description of six new species of Loxosceles (Araneae: Sicariidae) endemic to the Canary Islands and the utility of DNA barcoding for their fast and accurate identification. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 174(1), 47–73.

Platnick, N. I. (1976) Are monotypic genera possible? Systematic Zoology 25, 198–199.

Porter, T. M. & Hajibabaei, M. (2018) Automated high throughput animal CO1 metabarcode classification. Scientific Reports 8(1), 4226.

Prosser, S. W. J., Hebert, P. D. N. (2017) Rapid identification of the botanical and entomological sources of honey using DNA metabarcoding. Food Chemistry 214, 183–191.

Prószyński, J. (2016) Delimitation and description of 19 new genera, a subgenus and a species of Salticidae (Araneae) of the world. Ecologica Montenegrina 7: 4–32.

Prószyński, J. (2017) Revision of the genus Sitticus Simon, 1901 s. l. (Araneae: Salticidae). Ecologica Montenegrina 10, 35–50.

R Core Team (2018) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R–project.org/

Raja, H. A., Baker, T. R., Little, J. G. & Oberlies, N. H. (2017) DNA barcoding for identification of consumer-relevant mushrooms: A partial solution for product certification? Food Chemistry 214, 383–392.

Ratnasingham, S. & Hebert, P. D. N. (2007) BOLD: The Barcode of Life Data system (www.barcodinglife.org). Molecular Ecology Notes 7, 355–364.

Roewer, C. F. (1960) Araneae Lycosaeformia II (Lycosidae) (Fortsetzung und Schluss). Exploration du Parc National de l’Upemba, Mission G. F. de Witte 55, 519–1040.

Saaristo, M. I. (2006) Theridiid or cobweb spiders of the granitic Seychelles islands (Araneae, Theridiidae). Phelsuma 14, 49–89.

Saaristo, M. I. & Tanasevitch, A. V. (1996) Redelimitation of the subfamily Micronetinae Hull, 1920 and the genus Lepthyphantes Menge, 1866 with descriptions of some new genera (Aranei, Linyphiidae). Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlich–Medizinischen Vereins in Innsbruck 83, 163–186.

Saaristo, M. I. & Tanasevitch, A. V. (2000) Systematics of the Bolyphantes-Poeciloneta genus-group of the subfamily Micronetinae Hull, 1920 (Arachnida: Araneae: Linyphiidae). Reichenbachia 33, 255–265.

Saaristo, M. I. & Tanasevitch, A. V. (2003) Helsdingenia gen.n., a new micronetid genus from Old-World tropics (Aranei: Linyphiidae: Micronetinae). Arthropoda Selecta 11, 153–158.

Saaristo, M. I. & Tanasevitch, A. V. (2004) New taxa for some species of the genus Lepthyphantes Menge sensu lato (Araneae, Linyphiidae, Micronetinae). Revue Arachnologique 14, 109–128.

Sim, K. A., Buddle, C. M. & Wheeler, T. A. (2014) Species boundaries of Pardosa concinna and P. lapponica (Araneae: Lycosidae) in the northern Nearctic: morphology and DNA barcodes. Zootaxa 3884(2), 169–178.

Simon, E. (1884) Les arachnides de France. Tome cinquième, deuxième et troisième partie. Roret, Paris, 180–885.

Spasojevic, T., Kropf, C., Nentwig, W. & Lasut, L. (2016) Combining morphology, DNA sequences, and morphometrics: Revising closely related species in the orb-weaving spider genus Araniella (Araneae, Araneidae). Zootaxa 4111 (4), 448–470.

Taberlet, P., Coissac, E., Hajibabaei, M. & Rieseberg, L.H. (2012) Environmental DNA. Molecular Ecology 21(8), 1789–1793.

Tanasevitch, A. V. (1989) The linyphiid spiders of Middle Asia (Arachnida: Araneae: Linyphiidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 69, 83–176.

Tanasevitch, A. V. (1992) New genera and species of the tribe Lepthyphantini (Aranei Linyphiidae Micronetinae) from Asia (with some nomenclatorial notes on linyphiids). Arthropoda Selecta 1(1), 39–50.

Tanasevitch, A. V. (2001) A new micronetine genus proposed for the tchatkalensis species-group of Lepthyphantes Menge (sensu lato) (Arachnida: Araneae: Linyphiidae: Micronetinae). Reichenbachia 34, 19–32.

Thaler, K. (1981) Über Oreonetides quadridentatus (Wunderlich, 1972) nov. comb. (Arachnida: Aranei, Linyphiidae). Archives des Sciences, Genève 34, 143–152.

Thaler, K. (1982) Weitere wenig bekannte Leptyphantes–Arten der Alpen (Arachnida: Aranei, Linyphiidae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 89: 395–417.

Thaler, K. & Buchar, J. (1993) Eine verkannte Art der Gattung Lepthyphantes in Zentraleuropa: L. tripartitus Miller & Svaton (Araneida: Linyphiidae). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 66, 149–158.

Thomsen, P. F. & Willerslev, E. (2015) Environmental DNA – An emerging tool in conservation for monitoring past and present biodiversity. Biological Conservation 183, 4–18.

Venables, W. N. & Ripley, B. D. (2002) Modern Applied Statistics with S. Fourth Edition. Springer, New York.

Vences, M., Guayasamin, J.M., Miralles, A. & de la Riva, I. (2013) To name or not to name: Criteria to promote economy of change in Linnaean classification schemes. Zootaxa 3636, 201–244.

Wallace, H. K. (1942) A revision of the burrowing spiders of the genus Geolycosa. American Midland Naturalist 27, 1–62.

Wallach, V., Wüster, W. & Broadley, D. G. (2009) In praise of subgenera: taxonomic status of cobras of the genus Naja Laurenti (Serpentes: Elapidae). Zootaxa 2236, 26–36.

Wheeler, W. C., Coddington, J. A., Crowley, L. M., Dimitrov, D., Goloboff, P. A., Griswold, C. E., Hormiga, G., Prendini, L., Ramírez, M. J., Sierwald, P., Almeida–Silva, L. M., Álvarez–Padilla, F., Arnedo, M. A., Benavides, L. R., Benjamin, S. P., Bond, J. E., Grismado, C. J., Hasan, E., Hedin, M., Izquierdo, M. A., Labarque, F. M., Ledford, J., Lopardo, L., Maddison, W. P., Miller, J. A., Piacentini, L. N., Platnick, N. I., Polotow, D., Silva–Dávila, D., Scharff, N., Szűts, T., Ubick, D., Vink, C., Wood, H. M. & Zhang, J. X. (2017) The spider tree of life: phylogeny of Araneae based on target–gene analyses from an extensive taxon sampling. Cladistics 33(6), 576–616.

Wiehle, H. (1931) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea. 27. Familie. Araneidae. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 23, 47–136.

Wiehle, H. (1965) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der deutschen Spinnenfauna IV. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 41(1), 11–57.

Willette, D. A., Simmonds, S. E., Cheng, S. H., Esteves, S., Kane, T. L., Nuetzel, H., Pilaud, N., Rachmawati, R. & Barber, P. H. (2017) Using DNA barcoding to track seafood mislabeling in Los Angeles restaurants. Conservation Biology 31(5), 1076–1085.

Wright, E. S. (2016) Using DECIPHER v2.0 to Analyze Big Biological Sequence Data in R. The R Journal 8(1), 352–359.

Wunderlich, J. (1984) Zu Taxonomie und Determination europäischer Spinnen-Gattungen. 1. Wolfspinnen (Lycosidae) (Arachnida: Araneae: Neue Entomologische Nachrichten 7, 21–29.

Wunderlich, J. (1992) Die Spinnen–Fauna der Makaronesischen Inseln: Taxonomie, Ökologie, Biogeographie und Evolution. Beiträge zur Araneologie 1, 1–619.

Wunderlich, J. (1995) Linyphiidae aus der Mongolei (Arachnida: Araneae). Beiträge zur Araneologie 4, 479–529.

Wunderlich, J. (2008) On extant and fossil (Eocene) European comb–footed spiders (Araneae: Theridiidae), with notes on their subfamilies, and with descriptions of new taxa. Beiträge zur Araneologie 5: 140–469, 792–794, 796–800, 803, 819–859.

Wunderlich, J. (2012) Contribution to taxonomy and evolution of the European genera of the spider family Philodromidae (Araneae). Beiträge zur Araneologie 7: 25–56.

Xu, X., Liu, F. X., Chen, J., Li, D. Q. & Kuntner, M. (2015) Integrative taxonomy of the primitively segmented spider genus Ganthela (Araneae: Mesothelae: Liphistiidae): DNA barcoding gap agrees with morphology. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 1752): 288–306.

Yan, M., Liang, X. & Tu, L. (2015) On the desmitracheate “micronetine” genus Nippononeta Eskov, 1992 (Araneae, Linyphiidae). ZooKeys 484: 95–109.

Yoshida, H. (2008) A revision of the genus Achaearanea (Araneae: Theridiidae). Acta Arachnologica 57: 37–40.

Yoshida, H. (2016) Parasteatoda, Campanicola, Cryptachaea and two new genera (Araneae: Theridiidae) from Japan. Bulletin of the Yamagata Prefectural Museum 34: 13–30.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.