Naturalised terrestrial Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

Gary M Barker


The naturalised terrestrial gastropod fauna of New Zealand is shown to comprise a total of 29 species representing 11 stylommatophoran families. Taxa previously recognised in New Zealand's naturalised fauna and confirmed in this study are (with recommended common names): Agriolimacidae - Deroceras laeve (marsh slug), D. panormitanum (brown field slug), D. reticulatum (grey field slug); Arionidae - Arion hortensis (Férussac's orange soled slug), A. intermedius (glade slug); Cochlicopidae - Cochlicopa lubrica (slippery moss snail); Ferussaciidae - Cecilioides acicula (blind pin snail); Helicidae - Cantareus aspersus (brown garden snail); Hygromiidae - Candidula intersecta (wrinkled snail); Limacidae - Lehmannia nyctelia (Bourguignat's slug), Limacus flavus (yellow cellar slug), Limax maximus (tiger slug); Milacidae - Milax gagates (jet slug), Tandonia budapestensis (Budapest slug), T. sowerbyi (Sowerby's slug); Pupillidae - Lauria cylindracea (chrysalis snail); Testacellidae - Testacella haliotidea (shelled slug); Valloniidae - Vallonia excentrica (eccentric grass snail); Vertiginidae - Vertigo ovata (grassland whorl snail); Zonitidae - Oxychilus alliarius (garlic glass snail), O. cellarius (cellar glass snail), O. draparnaudi (Drapamaud's glass snail), Vitrea crystallina (crystal snail). Consistent with recent revisions, several generic-species epithet combinations are applied for the first time to the New Zealand naturalised fauna: these include Cantareus aspersus (formerly in genus Helix); Limacus flavus (formerly in Limax(Limacus) or Lehmannia); Tandonia budapestensis and T. sowerbyi (formerly Milax).

Arion distinctus (Arionidae) (Mabille's orange soled slug) is shown to have been long established and widespread in New Zealand, but previously not recognised as a component of A. hortensis s.l. Zonitoides arboreus (Zonitidae) (orchid snail) is formally recorded as a naturalised species, although its presence since the 1950s has been recognised in the popular press and unpublished plant protection records. Helicodiscus singleyanus (Helicodiscidae) (Singley's subterranean discus snail) is recorded in the naturalised fauna for the first time with recognition of the presumedly indigenous species Hydrophrea academia as a new junior synonym; this small, largely subterranean species has been known from widely scattered localities since 1970. Lehmannia valentiana (Limacidae) (Valencia slug) is recorded in New Zealand for the first time, although specimen material indicates that it has been established at various localities in the North Island since the 1970s. Prietocella barbara (Hygromiidae) (banded conical snail) is formally added to the naturalised fauna, although its establishment was recorded in 1983 but not published; this species is rapidly spreading through northernmost New Zealand. Coneuplecta calculosa (Euconulidae) (calculus cone snail) is the species most recently confirmed (1995) as a naturalisation, and is known at present from a single locality.

Family and generic diagnoses are presented; these were initially developed from the literature, but incorporate much new anatomical observation. All species are redescribed and illustrated on the basis of conchological and anatomical observations of New Zealand and extralimital material, with new or corrected anatomical data, and haploid chromosome numbers taken from the literature. The systematic status of each species is discussed, and information is presented on their distribution, history in New Zealand, and biology. A key to their identification is included. Methods for collection, preparation, and curation of these molluscs are briefly outlined. The systematic treatment of the taxa and the key are supported by a comprehensive description and discussion of the body plan and organ systems in Stylommatophora that are important in systematics and in taxon recognition. Most species are illustrated from life in a series of colour plates.

Checklist of Taxa


Genus Deroceras Rafinesque Schmaltz, 1820
    Subgenus Deroceras Rafinesque Schmaltz, 1820
         laeve (Mūller, 1774) - marsh slug
         panormitanum (Lessona & Pollonera, 1882) - brown field slug
    Subgenus Agriolimax Mōrch, 1865
        reticulatum (Mūller, 1774) - grey field slug

Subfamily Arioninae

Genus Arion d'Audebard de Férussac, 1819
        distinctus Mabille, 1868 - Mabille's orange soled slug
        hortensis d'Audebard de Férussac, 1819 - Férussac's orange soled slug
        intermedius Normand, 1852 - glade slug

Genus Cochlicopa d'Audebard de Férussac, 1821
        lubrica (Mūller, 1774) - slippery moss snail

Genus Coneuplecta Mōllendorff, 1893
        calculosa (Gould, 1852) - calculus cone snail

Genus Cecilioides d'Audebard de Férussac, 1814
    Subgenus Cecilioides d'Audebard de Férussac, 1814
        acicula (Mūller, 1774) - blind pin snail

Subfamily Helicinae
Genus Cantareus Risso, 1826
        aspersus (Mūller, 1774) - brown garden snail

Genus Helicodiscus Morse, 1864
    Subgenus Hebetodiscus Baker, 1929
        singleyanus (Pilsbry, 1889) - Singley's subterranean discus snail

Genus Candidula Kobelt, 1871
        intersecta (Poiret, 1801) - wrinkled snail

Genus Prietocella Schileyko & Monkhorst, 1997
        barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) - banded conical snail

Genus Lehmannia Heynemann, 1862
        nyctelia (Bourguignat, 1861) - Bourguignat's slug
        valentiana (d'Audebard de Férussac, 1823) - Valencia slug

Genus Limacus Lehmann, 1864
        flavus (Linnaeus, 1758) - yellow cellar slug

Genus Limax Linnaeus, 1758 
    Subgenus Limax Linnaeus, 1758
        maximus Linnaeus, 1758 - tiger slug

Genus Milax Gray, 1855
        gagates (Draparnaud, 1801) - jet slug 

Genus Tandonia Lessona & Pollonera, 1882
        budapestensis (Hazay, 1881) - Budapest slug
        sowerbyi (d'Audebard de Férussac, 1823) - Sowerby's slug

Subfamily Lauriinae
Genus Lauria Gray, 1840
        cylindracea (da Costa, 1778) - chrysalis snail

Genus Testacella Draparnaud, 1801
        haliotidea Draparnaud, 1801 - shelled slug

Genus Vallonia Risso, 1826
        excentrica Sterki, 1893 - eccentric grass snail

Subfamily Vertigininae
Genus Vertigo Mūller, 1774
        ovata (Say, 1822) - grassland whorl snail

Subfamily Zonitinae
Genus Oxychilus Fitzinger, 1833
     Subgenus Oxychilus Fitzinger, 1833
         alliarius (Miller, 1822) - garlic glass snail
        cellarius (Mūller, 1774) - cellar glass snail
        draparnaudi (Beck, 1837) - Drapamaud's glass snail

Genus Vitrea Fitzinger, 1833 
    Subgenus Vitrea Fitzinger, 1833
        crystallina (Mūller, 1774) - crystal snail
Subfamily Gastrodontinae
Genus Zonitoides Lehmann, 1862
    Subgenus Zonitoides Lehmann, 1862
        arboreus (Say, 1816) - orchid snail


Taxonomy; morphology; biology; keys; Mollusca; Stylommatophora


Adam, W. 1947: Révisión des Mollusques de la Belgique, I. Mollusques terrestres et dulcicoles. Mémoires du Musée Royal d’Histoire Naturelle de Belgique, Bruxelles 106. 298 pp., 6 pls.

Adam, W. 1960: Faune de Belgique. Mollusques terrestres et dulcicoles. Patrimoine de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Bruxelles. 402 pp., 4 pls.

Adamo, S.A.; Chase, R. 1988: Courtship and copulation in the terrestrial snail Helix aspersa. Canadian journal of zoology 66: 1446–1453.

Adams, H. 1865: see Wallace, A.R. 1865.

Adams, L.E. 1898: Observations on the pairing of Limax maximus L. Journal of conchology 9: 92–95, 1 pl.

Albers, J.C. 1850: Die Heliceen, nach natürlicher Ver-wandtschaft systematisch geordnet. Berlin, T.C.F. Verlag. 262 pp.

Albers, J.C. 1852: Neue Heliceen. Zeitschrift für Malakozoologie 9: 124–125.

Albers, J.C. 1854: Malacographia Maderensis sive enumeratio Molluscorum quae in Insulis Maserae et Portus Sancti aut viva exstant aut Fossilia Reperiuntur. Berolini, Reimer. 94 pp., 17 pls.

Albers, J.C. 1857: Diagnosen neuer Heliceen mit gelegentlicher Berichtigung einiger älteren Arten. Malakozoologische Blätter 4: 89–100.

Albuquerque de Matos, R.M. 1989: Contributions of gen-etics to snail farming and conservation. Pp. 11–18 In: I.F. Henderson (ed.), Slugs and snails in world agri-culture. British Crop Protection Council monograph no. 41.

Albuquerque de Matos, R.M. 1990: Genetic and adaptive characteristics in Helix aspersa of direct interest in snail farming. Snail farming research 3: 33–43.

Albuquerque de Matos, R.M.; Serra, J.A. 1984: Taxonomic polymorphism and intrinsic factors in Helix aspersa. Brotéria-genética 5: 181–220.

Albuquerque de Matos, R.M.; Serra, J.A. 1988: Ce que la génétique a fait et peut faire pour l’héliciculture. Brotéria-genética 9: 25–81.

Alicata, J.E. 1950: Observations on the biology and control of a garden slug injurious to orchids in Hawaii. Pacific Orchid Society, Hawaii 8: 279–285.

Allman, G.J. 1843: On a new genus of terrestrial gastropod. Athenaeum (1843): 851.

Alonso, M.R.; Diaz, J.A.; Ibáñez, M. 1986: Los pulmon-ados desnudos de las Islas Canarias. II. Superfamilia Limacoidea Rafinesque 1815. Vieraea 16: 97–112.

Alonso, M.R.; Ibáñez, M. 1984: Contribución al estudio de los pulmonados desnudos (Mollusca, Gastropoda) del Pla de Manlleu (Tarragona). Miscellània Zoològica, Museu de Zoologia Barcelona 8: 35–40.

Altonaga, K. 1986: A new Oxychilus (Gastropoda, Styl-ommatophora, Zonitidae) from N Iberian Peninsula. Iberus 6: 237–244.

Altonaga, K. 1989a: El genero Vitrea Fitzinger 1833 (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora: Zonitidae) en la Peninsula Iberica. Graellsia 45: 79–112.

Altonaga, K. 1989b: La familia Endodontidae Pilsbry 1894 (Pul-monata: Stylommatophora) en la Peninsula Iberica. Kobie 18: 123–136.

Altonaga, K.; Puente, A.I. 1991: Sur Oxychilus cellarius (Müller, 1774) et O. draparnaudi (Beck, 1837) (Pul-monata: Stylommatophora: Zonitidae) dans la Pen-insule Ibérique. Bulletin du Centre d’Études et de Recherches Scientifiques Biarritz 15: 177–218.

Ancey, C.F. 1893: Description d’une nouvelle Hélice de Kabylie. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 18: 136–138.

Aparicio, M.T.; Seddon, M.B.; Holyoak, D.T. 1991: Systematics and distribution of Helicopsis (Xeroleuca) in Morocco (Mollusca, Gastropoda: Helicidae). Journal of conchology 34: 47–58.

Arias, R.O.; Crowell, H.H. 1963: A contribution to the biology of the grey garden slug. Bulletin of the South California Academy of Science 62: 83–97.

Armbruster, G. 1994: The taxonomically relevant parts of the male genitalia of Cochlicopa: seasonal variability within two field populations and observations under laboratory conditions (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Coch-licopidae). Malakologische Abhandlungen 17: 47–56.

Armbruster, G. 1995: Univariate and multivariate analyses of shell variables within the genus Cochlicopa (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Cochlicopidae). Journal of molluscan studies 61: 225–235.

Armbruster, G.; Schlegel, M. 1994: The land-snail species of Cochlicopa (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Cochlico-pidae): Presentation of taxon-specific allozyme pat-terns, and evidence for a high level of self-fertilization. Journal of zoological systematics and evolutionary research 32: 282–296.

Associazione Nazionale Elicicoltori 1986–90: Snail farming research. Cherasco, Italy. Vol. 1 (1986), viii + 92 pp.; Vol. 2 (1988), v + 74 pp.; Vol. 3 (1990), vii + 64 pp.

Aupinel, P. 1987: Étude préliminaire du rôle de la photo-période sur l’hibernation de jeunes escargots petits-gris (Helix aspersa Müller) (Mollusque Gastéropode, Pulmoné Stylommatophore). Haliotis 16: 47–55.

Aupinel, P.; Daguzan, J. 1989: Étude du rôle de la photo-période sur l’activité metabolique de jeunes escargots petits gris (Helix aspersa Müller) et mise en evidence d’une phase photosensible. Haliotis 19: 47–55.

Avagnina, G. 1983: Principi di Elicicoltura. Edagricole, Bologna.

Babor, J.F. 1898: Über die von Herrn Dr H. Rebel im Jahre 1896 in Ostrumelien gesammelten Nacktschnecken. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums in Wien 13: 40–44, 1 pl.

Babor, J.; Kostál, J. 1893: Note sur une espèce nouvelle d’Arion. Vêstník Královské Ceské Spolecnosti Náuk (1893): 1–4, 1 pl.

Backeljau, T. 1985a: Estimation of genic similarity within and between Arion hortensis s.l. and A. intermedius by means of isoelectric focused esterase patterns in hepatopancreas homogenates (Mollusca, Pulmonata: Arionidae). Zeitschrift für zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 23: 38–49.

Backeljau, T. 1985b: Arion intermedius Normand 1852 in southern Italy. Journal of conchology 32: 69–70.

Backeljau, T. 1990: Case 2670. Kobeltia Seibert, 1873 (Mollusca, Gastropoda): proposed confirmation of Arion hortensis Férussac, 1819 as the type species. Bulletin of zoological nomenclature 47: 270–273.

Backeljau, T.; Ahmadyar, S.Z.; Selens, M.; van Rompaey, J.; Verheyen, W. 1987: Comparative electrophoretic analyses of three European Carinarion species (Mol-lusca, Pulmonata: Arionidae). Zoologica scripta 16: 209–222.

Backeljau, T.; de Brito, C.P.; Tristao da Cunha, R.M.; Frias Martins, A.M. 1992: Colour polymorphism and genetic strains in Arion intermeditus from Flores, Azores (Mol-lusca: Pulmonata). Biological journal of the Linnean Society 46: 131–143.

Backeljau, T.; de Bruyn, L. 1990: On the infrageneric sys-tematics of the genus Arion Férussac, 1819 (Mollusca, Pulmonata). Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, biologie 60: 35–68.

Backeljau, T.; de Winter, A.J. 1987: An electrophoretic characterisation of three paratypes of Arion fagophilus de Winter, 1986, with notes on the sub-generic division of the genus Arion Ferussac, 1819 (Mollusca, Pulmonata). Zeitschrift für zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 25: 169–180.

Backeljau, T.; Marquet, R. 1985: An advantageous use of multivariate statistics in a biometrical study on the Arion hortensis complex (Pulmonata: Arionidae) in Belgium. Malacological review 18: 57–72.

Backeljau, T.; van Beeck, M. 1986: Epiphallus anatomy in the Arion hortensis species aggregate (Mollusca, Pulmonata). Zoologica scripta 15: 61–68.

Backhuys, W. 1975: Zoogeography and taxonomy of the land and freshwater molluscs of the Azores. Amster-dam, Backhuys & Meesters. xii + 350 pp, 2 pls.

Bailey, S.E.R. 1981: Circannual and circadian rhythms in the snail Helix aspersa Müller and the photoperiodic control of annual activity and reproduction. Journal of comparative physiology 142: 89–94.

Bailey, S.E.R. 1983: The photoperiodic control of hibernation and reproduction in the landsnail Helix aspersa Müller. Journal of molluscan studies 12, supplement: 2–5.

Baker, F.C. 1938: New land and freshwater Mollusca from the Upper Pliocene of Kansas and a new species of Gyraulus from Early Pleistocene strata. The nautlius 51: 126–131.

Baker, F.C. 1939: Field book of Illinois land snails. Illinois Natural History Survey manual no. 2. Urbana. 166 p.

Baker, H.B. 1927: Minute Mexican land snails. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 79: 223–246, 6 pls.

Baker, H.B. 1928: Minute American Zonitidae. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 80: 1–44, 8 pls.

Baker, H.B. 1929: New southern Appalachian land snails. The nautilus 42: 86–93.

Baker, H.B. 1930: Mexican mollusks collected for Dr Bryant Walker in 1926. Occasional papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 220: 1–45, 4 pls.

Baker, H.B. 1933: A check list of Nearctic Zonitidae. Occasional papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 269: 1–14.

Baker, H.B. 1941: Zonitid snails from Pacific Islands. Parts 3 and 4. Bernice P. Bishop Museum bulletin 166: 202–370, 22 pls.

Baker, H.B. 1955: Heterurethrous and aulacopod. The nautilus 68: 109–112.

Baker, R.E. 1969: Population changes shown by Cochli-copa lubrica (Müller) in a grass sward habitat. Journal of conchology 27: 101–104.

Bargmann, H.E. 1930: The morphology of the central ner-vous system in the Gastropoda Pulmonata. Journal of the Linnean Society, zoology 37: 1–58.

Barker, G.M. 1979: The introduced slugs of New Zealand (Gastropoda: Pulmonata). New Zealand journal of zoology 6: 411–437.

Barker, G.M. 1982: Notes on the introduced terrestrial Pulmonata (Gastropoda: Mollusca) of New Zealand. Journal of molluscan studies 48: 174–181.

Barker, G.M. 1985: Aspects of the biology of Vallonia excentrica (Mollusca – Vallonidae) in Waikato pastures. Pp. 64–70 In: R.B. Chapman (ed.), Proceedings of the 4th Australasian Conference on Grassland Invertebrate Ecology. Christchurch, Caxton Press.

Barker, G.M. 1986: Pests of orchids. 2. Slugs and snails. Orchids in New Zealand 12: 192–194.

Barker, G.M. 1989: Slug problems in New Zealand pastoral agriculture. Pp. 59–68 In: I.F. Henderson, (ed.), Slugs and snails in world agriculture. British Crop Protection Council monograph no. 41.

Barker, G.M. 1990: Pasture renovation: interactions of vegetation control with slug and insect infestations. Journal of agricultural science 115: 195–202.

Barker, G.M. 1991a: Biology of slugs (Agriolimacidae and Arionidae: Mollusca) in New Zealand hill country pastures. Oecologia 85: 581–595.

Barker, G.M. 1991b: Slug density – seedling establishment relationships in a pasture renovated by direct drilling. Grass and forage science 46: 113–120.

Barker, G.M. 1992: Naturalised terrestrial molluscs in New Zealand: origins and establishment. Proceedings, 41st annual conference, Entomological Society of New Zealand: 54–62.

Barker, G.M.; Addison, P.J. 1992: The pest status of slugs (Stylommatophora: Mollusca) in two New Zealand pastures. Crop protection 11: 439–442.

Barker, G.M.; Addison, P.J.; Robertson, L.N.; Willoughby, B.E. 1990: Interactions of seeding rate with pesticide treatments in pasture renovation by direct drilling. New Zealand journal of agricultural research 33: 595–605.

Barker, G.M.; McGhie, R.A. 1984: The biology of introduced slugs (Pulmonata) in New Zealand. 1. Introduction and notes on Limax maximus. The New Zealand entomologist 8: 106–111.

Barker, G.M.; Pottinger, R.P. 1983: Three slugs of the Altiplano, Peru (Mollusca, Stylommatophora). Revista peruana de entomologia 26: 67–73.

Barker, G.M.; Pottinger, R.P.; McGhie, R.A.; Addison, P.J. 1984: Slug control in direct-drilled maize. New Zealand journal of experimental agriculture 12: 155–159.

Barnes, H.F. 1950: Worm-eating slugs in Bedford gardens. Bedfordshire naturalist 4: 24–26.

Barnes, H.F.; Stokes, B.M. 1951: Marking and breeding Testacella slugs. Annals of applied biology 38: 540–545.

Bartsch, P.; Quick, M.E. 1926: An anatomic study of Zonitoides arboreus Say. Journal of agricultural research 32: 783–791, 4 pls.

Basinger, A.J. 1931: The European brown snail in California. University of California Agricultural Experimental Station bulletin 515: 1–20.

Baudon, A. 1868: Description d’un Limacien de France nouveau. Journal de conchyliologie 16: 142–144.

Baudon, A. 1884: Troisième catalogue des Mollusque vivants du département de l’Oise. Journal de conchyliologie 32: 193–325, 4 pls.

Beck, H.H. 1837–38: Index Molluscorum praesentis ævi Musei principis augustissimi Christiani Frederici. I–II, Mollusca Gastræopoda Pulmonata, no. 4. Hafniae, Beck. 124 + 8 pp.

Beeson, G.E. 1960: Chromosome numbers of slugs. Nature 186: 257–258.

Benoit, L. 1857: Illustrazione sistematica critica icono-grafica de’testacei estramarini della Sicilia ulteriore e delle isole circostanti. Napoli, Nobile. xvi + 180 pp., 4 pls.

Benoit, L. 1862: Illustrazione sistematica critica iconografica de’testacei estramarini della Sicilia ulteriore e delle isole circostanti. Napoli, Nobile. Pp. 181–248, 2 pls.

Benoit, L. 1875: Catalogo delle conchiglie terrestri e fluviatili della Sicilia e delle isole circostante. Bulletino della Societá Malacologia Italiana 1: 129–163.

Benoit, L. 1882: Nuovo catalogo delle conchiglie terrestri e fluviatili della Sicilia, Continuazione alla Illustrazione sistematica critica iconografica de testacei estramarini della Sicilia Ulteriore e delle isole circostanti. Messina, Amico. vi + 176 pp.

Benson, W.H. 1851: Descriptions of new land shells from St. Helena, Ceylon, and China. Annals and magazine of natural history 23: 262–266.

Benoit, L. 1856: New land shells collected by E.L. Layard, Esq. Annals and magazine of natural history 28: 433–439.

Bequaert, J.C.; Miller, W.B. 1973: The mollusks of the arid southwest. Tucson, University of Arizona Press. xvi + 271 pp.

Berry, A.J.; Loong, S.C.; Thum, H.H. 1967: Genital systems of Pythia, Cassidula and Auricula (Ellobiidae, Pulmonata) from Malayan mangrove swamps. Pro-ceedings of the Malacological Society of London 37: 325–337.

Bett, J.A. 1960: The breeding seasons of slugs in gardens. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 135: 559–568.

Bielz, E.A. 1860: Vorarbeiten zu einer Fauna der Land- und Süsswasser-Mollusken Siebenbürgens. Verhandlungen und Mitteilungen des Siebenbürgischen Vereins für Naturwissenschaften 11: 49–52, 60–68, 114–116, 133–140, 149–164, 199–204, 220–228, 250–252, 288–296.

Binney, A. 1843: On some of the species of naked pneu-monobranchus Mollusca of the United States. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 1: 51–52.

Binney, W.G. 1875: On the jaw and lingual membrane of North American terrestrial Pulmonata. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural History, Philadelphia (1875): 140–243, 18 pls.

Binney, W.G. 1890: A third supplement to the fifth volume of “The terrestrial air-breathing mollusks of the United States and adjacent territories.” Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College 19: 183–266, 11 pls.

Binney, W.G. 1892: A fourth supplement to the fifth volume of “The terrestrial air-breathing mollusks of the United States and adjacent territories”. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College 22: 163–204, 4 pls.

Bishop, M.J. 1978: The value of the pulmonate nervous system in phylogenetic hypothesis. Journal of molluscan studies 44: 116–119.

Bittante, G. 1984: Voluntary intake and digestibility of barley and wheat bran by Helix pomatia and Helix aspersa. Zootecnica e nutrizione animale 10: 449–462.

Bleakney, M.M.; Fleming, C.C.; Marks, R.J. 1989: Genetic and phenotypic variation in allopatric populations of Helix aspersa (Müller): A preliminary report. Pp. 319–326 In: I.F. Henderson, (ed.), Slugs and snails in world agriculture. British Crop Protection Council monograph no. 41.

Boettger, C.R. 1930: Untersuchungen über die Gewächs-hausfauna Unter- und Mittelitaliens. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere 19: 534–590.

Boettger, O. 1879: Kaukasische Mollusken gesammelt von Herrn Hans Leder. Jahrbuch der Deutschen Malako-zoologischen Gesellschaft 6: 1–42, 388–412.

Boettger, O. 1880: Zur Molluskenfauna der Schweiz. Jahrbuch der Deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft 7: 31–40.

Boettger, O. 1881: Sechstes Verzeichniss transkaukasischer, ar-menischer und nordpersischer Mollusken. Jahrbuch der Deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft 8: 167–261.

Boettger, O. 1882: Nacktschnecken aus Epirus und von den Jonischen Inseln. Nachrichtsblatt der Deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft 14: 96–102.

Bonnefoy-Claudet, R.; Deray, A. 1984: Influence de la durée d’hibernation sur l’activité reproductrice de l’ Escargot Helix aspersa Müller. Comptes rendus de la Société de Biologie 178: 442–449.

Bouchard-Chantereaux, N.R. 1837: Catalogue des mol-lusques terrestres et fluviatiles observés jusqua’à ce jour à l’état vivant dans le département du Pas-de-Calais. Mémoires de la Société Agricole de Boulogne (ser. II) 1: 141–230.

Bourguignat, J.R. 1853: Catalogue raisonné des Mollus-ques terrestres et fluviatiles recueillies par M.F. de Saulcy pendant son voyage en Orient. In: F. De Saulcy, Voyage autour de la Mer Morte et dans les terres bibliques exécuté de décembre 1850 à avril 1851, Livr. 15. Paris, Gide et Beaudry. xxvi + 96 pp., 4 pls.

Bourguignat, J.R. 1856–60: Aménités malacologiques. Paris, Bouchard-Houzard. Vol. 1, viii + 255 pp., 21 pls; Vol. 2, 216 pp., 24 pls.

Bourguignat, J.R. 1856a: Des Zonites de la section des Crystallines. Revue et magasin de zoologie pure et appliquée (ser. II) 8: 268–277.

Bourguignat, J.R. 1856b: Du genre Caecilianella. Revue et magasin de zoologie pure et appliquée (ser. II) 8: 378–386, 424–435, 1 pl.

Bourguignat, J.R. 1857: Aménités malacologiques. Revue et magasin de zoologie pure et appliquée (ser. II) 9: 3–21.

Bourguignat, J.R. 1859: Limaces des iles Madere et Teneriffe. Aménités malacologiques 2: 140–144.

Bourguignat, J.R. 1860: Malacologie terrestre et fluviatile de la Bretagne. Paris. 178 pp., 2 pls.

Bourguignat, J.R. 1861: Des limaces Algériennes. Revue et magasin de zoologie pure et appliquée (ser. II) 13: 299–306.

Bourguignat, J.R. 1860–62: Les specilèges malacologiques. Paris, Baillière. vii + 287 pp., 15 pls.

Bourguignat, J.R. 1864a: Malacologie d’Aix-les-Bains. Paris, Bour-guignat. 86 pp., 3 pls.

Bourguignat, J.R. 1864b: Malacologie de l’Algérie ou l’histoire nat-urelle des animaux Mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles recueillis jusqu’à ce jour dans nos possessions du Nord de l’Africa. Paris, Challamel Ainé. Vol. I, xii + 294 pp., 32 pls.; Vol. II, 380 pp., 26 pls.

Bourguignat, J.R. 1864c: Malacologie de la Grande-Chartreuse. Paris, Savy. 103 pp.

Bourguignat, J.R. 1863–70: Mollusques nouveaux, litigieux ou peu connus. Paris, Savy. 324 + 55 pp., 45 + 4 pls.

Bourguignat, J.R. 1869: Catalogue des Mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles des environs de Paris à l’époque quaternaire. Annexe de l’ouvrage de F.E. Belgrand, La Seine. I. Le bassin parisien aux âges antéhistoriques. Paris. 32 pp., 3 pls.

Bourguignat, J.R. 1870: Description d’espèces nouvelles de Mollusques terrestres du département des Alpes-Maritimes. Mém-oires de la Société des Naturalistes de Cannes 1: 45–59.

Bourguignat, J.R. 1877: Descriptions de deux nouveaux genres Al-gériens, suivis d’une classification des familles et des genres de mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles du système Européen. Bulletin de la Société des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles de Toulouse 3: 1–57.

Bourguignat, J.R. 1880: see Servain 1880.

Bourguignat, J.R. 1881: Histoire malacologique de la colline de Sansan. Bibliothèque de l’Ecole des Hautes Etudes 22: 1–175, 8 pls.

Bourguignat, J.R. 1882: see Locard 1882.

Bourguignat, J.R. 1890: Des formes européennes trocho-hyalinoïdes classées jusqu’à présent sous le nom générique de Conulus. Bulletins de la Société Malacologique de France 7: 325–338, 1 pl.

Boycott, A.E. 1917: The genitalia of Acanthinula aculeata. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 12: 221–226.

Boycott, A.E. 1934: The habitats of land Mollusca in Britain. Journal of ecology 22: 1–38.

Boyd, J.M. 1960: Studies of the differences between the fauna of grazed and ungrazed grassland in Tiree, Argyll. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 135: 33–54.

Brard, C.P. 1815: Histoire naturelle des coquilles terrestres et fluviatiles qui vivent aux environs de Paris. Paris et Geneva, Paschoud. 239 pp., 10 pls.

Brevière, L. 1881: Tableau des Limaciens des environs du Saint-Saulge (Nièvre). Journal de conchyliologie 29: 306–316.

Brockie, R.E. 1957: The hedgehog population and invertebrate fauna of the west coast sand dunes. Proceedings of the New Zealand Ecological Society 5: 27–29.

Broun, T. 1897: Division of Biology and Pomology. Report on entomological observations from the 1st April, 1896, to 31st March, 1897. Report of the New Zealand Agriculture Department 5: 147–155.

Brown, T. 1827: Illustrations of conchology of Great Britain and Ireland. London, Lizars & Highley. iii + 5 pp., 52 pls.

Brown, T. 1837–49: Illustrations of the land and fresh water conchology of Great Britain and Ireland. London, Lizars, Engravers and Lizars. xi + 142 pp., 27 pls.

Bruguière, J.G. 1789-1816: Encyclopédie méthodique ou par ordre de matières. Histoire naturelle des vers, des mollusques. Paris, Liège. 758 pp., 488 pls.

Bruijns, M.F.; van Regteren Altena, C.O.; Butot, L.J.M. 1959: The Netherlands as an environment for land Mollusca. Basteria 23: 135–162.

Burch, J.B. 1960: Some snails and slugs of quarantine significance to the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service bulletin no. 82-1. iv + 73 pp.

Burch, J.B.; Heard, W.H. 1962: Chromosome numbers of two species of Vallonia (Mollusca, Stylommatophora, Orthurethra). Acta biologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 12: 305–312.

Butot, L.J.M.; Kiauta, B. 1969: Cytotaxonomic obser-vations in the stylommatophoran family Helicidae, with considerations on the affinities within the family. Malacologia 9: 261–262.

Cameron, R.A.D. 1982: Life histories, density and biomass in a woodland snail community. Journal of molluscan studies 48: 159–166.

Cameron, R.A.D.; Redfern, M. 1972: The terrestrial mollusca of the Malham area. Field studies 4: 589–602.

Carrick, R. 1938: The life history and development of Agriolimax agrestis L., the grey field slug. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 59: 563–597.

Carrick, R. 1942: The grey field slug Agriolimax agrestis L. and its environment. Annals of applied biology 29: 43–45.

Castillejo, J. 1982: Los pulmonados desnudos de Galicia II. Genero Lehmannia Heymann, 1862 (Pulmonata: Limacidae). Iberus 2: 19–28.

Castillejo, J. 1985: Caracoles terrestres de Galicia, II. Familia Zonitidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata). Iberus 5: 63–81.

Caziot, E. 1903: Etude sur la fauna des Mollusques vivants terrestres et fluviatiles de l’ile de Corse. Bulletin de la Société des Sciences Historiques et Naturelles de Corse, Bastia 23: 1–354.

Cederman, J.A. 1951: The brown snail – Helix aspersa. New Zealand journal of agriculture 83: 207–208.

Cesari, P. 1978: La malacolofauna del territorio Italiano (Note di aggiornamento e diffusione conoscitiva). 1o Contributo: il genere Helix (Pulmonata, Stylommato-phora). Conchiglie 14: 35–90, 12 pls.

Cesari, P. 1988: La malacofauna della Laguna Veneta. 1. Gasteropodi terrestri, dulciacquicoli e salmastri dei litorali di Pellestrina, Lido e Cavallino (Mollusca Pro-sobranchia e Pulmonata). Bollettino del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Venezia 38: 7–42, 3 pls.

Chadwick, A.A. 1970: Bush snail control in the amateur greenhouse. American Orchid Society bulletin (1970): 528–531.

Charlton, J.F.L. 1978a: Slugs as a possible cause of estab-lishment failure in pasture legumes oversown in boxes. New Zealand journal of experimental agriculture 6: 313–317.

Charlton, J.F.L. 1978b: Control of slug damage in oversown pasture legumes. Proceedings of the New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference 31: 127–130.

Chatfield, J.F. 1975: Non-marine Mollusca in Jersey. A revised list. Annual bulletin of the Société Jersiaise 21: 397–408.

Chatfield, J.F. 1976: Limax grossui Lupu, 1970, a slug new to the British Isles. Journal of conchology 29: 1–4.

Chatfield, J.F. 1977: Helicodiscus singleyanus (Pilsbry) (Pulmonata: Endodontidae) found in the British Isles. Journal of conchology 29: 137–140.

Chelazzi, G.; Le Voci, G.; Parpagnoli, D. 1988: Relative importance of airborne odours and trails in the group homing of Limacus flavus (Linnaeus) (Gastropoda, Pulmonata). Journal of molluscan studies 54: 173–180.

Chemin, E. 1939a: Observations sur la Testacelle: Testa-cella europea Roissy = T. haliotidea Drap. Travaux de la Station Zoologique de Wimereux 13: 77–85, 1 pl.

Chemin, E. 1939b: L’autofecondation chez Testacella europea Roissy (= T. haliotidea Drap.). Compte rendu de la Société de Biologie 132: 249–252.

Chevallier, H. 1977: La variabilité de l’Escargot Petit-Gris Helix aspersa Müller. Bulletin du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle (ser. 3) 448, zoologie 311: 425–442.

Chevallier, H. 1983: Recherches appliquées pour l’élevage des escargots du genre Helix. Journal of molluscan studies, supplement 12A (Proceedings of the 2nd Franco-British Symposium on Molluscs): 27–30.

Chevallier, H. 1985: L’élevage des escargots. Production et preparation du Petit Gris. Maisons Alfort, Editions du Point Veterinaire. 127 pp.

Chichester, L.F.; Getz, L.L. 1968: Terrestrial slugs. Bio-logist 50: 148–166.

Chichester, L.F.; Getz, L.L. 1973: The terrestrial slugs of northeastern North America. Sterkiana 51: 11–42.

Chitty, E. 1853: Descriptions of thirty supposed new species and varieties of land and fluviatile shells of Jamaica, with observations on some shells already described. Contribution conchology, Kingston, Jamaica 13: 1–19.

Chung, D.J.D. 1986a: Stimulation of genital eversion in the land snail Helix aspersa by extracts of the glands of the dart apparatus. Journal of experimental zoology 238: 129–139.

Chung, D.J.D. 1986b: Initiation of growth of the first dart in Helix aspersa Müller. Journal of molluscan studies 52: 253–255.

Chung, D.J.D. 1987: Courtship and dart shooting behavior of the land snail Helix aspersa. The veliger 30: 24–39.

Clessin, S. 1875: Mollusken des Wolgagebietes. Jahrbuch der Deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft 2: 36–42.

Clessin, S. 1876–77: Die Molluskenfauna Europas. Deutsche Excursions Molluskenfauna. 1. Aufl. Nürnberg. Pp. 1–288 (1876), pp. 289–581 (1877).

Clessin, S. 1880a: Zur Molluskenfauna Podoliens. Malakozoologische Blätter 2: 200–203.

Clessin, S. 1880b: Die Sectio Vitrea des Genus Hyalina. Malakozoologische Blätter 2: 204–208.

Clessin, S. 1884–85: Die Molluskenfauna Europas. Deutsche Excursions Molluskenfauna. 2. Aufl. Nürnberg. Pp. 1–480 (1884), pp. 481–663 (1885).

Climo, F.M. 1970: Two new species of punctid land snail from the South Island, New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand (biological sciences) 12: 209–212.

Climo, F.M. 1974: Description and affinities of the subterranean molluscan fauna of New Zealand. New Zealand journal of zoology 1: 247–284.

Climo, F.M. 1984: Classification of New Zealand Arionacea (Mollusca: Pulmonata). X. Montaropa macsweeneyi n. gen., n. sp. (Charopidae) and the identity of Flammulina alpina Suter, 1904. Records of the National Museum of New Zealand 2: 207–210.

Cockerell, T.D.A. 1888: Mollusca in Colorado. Hard-wicke’s science gossip 24: 257.

Cockerell, T.D.A. 1890: Notes on slugs, chiefly in the collection at the British Museum. Annals and magazine of natural history (ser. 6) 6: 277–288.

Cockerell, T.D.A. 1891a: Notes on slugs, chiefly in the collection at the British Museum. Annals and magazine of natural history (ser. 6) 7: 97–107, 328–341.

Cockerell, T.D.A. 1891b: New forms of American Mollusca. Zoe 2: 18.

Cockerell, T.D.A. 1891c: Notes on Arion hortensis, A. circumscriptus, and their allies. The conchologist 1: 49–52.

Cockerell, T.D.A. 1892: New varieties of Californian slugs. The conchologist 2: 72.

Cockerell, T.D.A. 1893: A check-list of the slugs, with appendix and notes by Walter E. Collinge. The conchologist 2: 168–176, 185–232.

Cockerell, T.D.A. 1914: Some slugs (Agriolimax) from Guatemala. The nautilus 28: 55–58.

Coleman, B.P. 1970: The slug problem. Proceedings of the New Zealand weed and pest control conference 23: 220–224.

Collinge, W.E. 1894: The anatomy and description of a new species of Arion. Annals and magazine of natural history (ser. 6) 13: 66–67.

Collinge, W.E. 1895a: Amalia parryi, a supposed new species. Journal of malacology 3: 7.

Collinge, W.E. 1895b: Notes on some slugs from Algiers. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 1: 336–337, 1 pl.

Collinge, W.E. 1897a: On some European slugs of the genus Arion. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 3: 439–450, 3 pls.

Collinge, W.E. 1897b: On a further collection of slugs from the Hawaiian (or Sandwich) Islands. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 2: 293–297.

Companyo, J.B.L. 1837: Rapport de MM Delogre et Companyo sur un tableau contenant une collection des Mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles du département des Pyrénées-Orientales offert à la Société ... par M. Aleron. M. Companyo, Rapporteur. Bulletin de la Société Philomathique de Perpignan 3: 85–104.

Cook, A. 1981: A comparative study of aggregation in pulmonate slugs (genus Limax). Journal of animal ecology 50: 703–713.

Cook, A.; Radford, D.J. 1988: The comparative ecology of four sympatric limacid slug species in Northern Ireland. Malacologia 28: 131–146.

Cooke, A.H. 1895: Mollusca. In: S.F. Harmer & A.E. Shipley, Cambridge natural history, Vol. 3. London, Macmillan & Co. xii + 459 pp.

Cooper, J.G. 1872: On new Californian Pulmonata. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila-delphia (1872): 143–154, 1 pl.

Costa, O.G. 1839: Fauna del Regno di Napoli. Ordine I. Gasteropodi Pulmonati. Helix Lin. Gasteropoda Pulmonata. Napoli. Pp. 9–32, 1 pl.

Cotton, B.C. 1954: A catalogue of introduced snails and slugs in Australia. Records of the Australian Museum 11: 177–187, 1 pl.

Cowie, R.H. 1980: Precocious breeding of Theba pisana (Müller) (Pulmonata: Helicidae). Journal of conch-ology 30: 238.

Cox, J.C. 1864: Catalogue of the specimens of Australian land shells in the collection of James C. Cox, M.D., F.R.C.S. Edinburgh & Sydney, J.A. Engel. 46 pp.

Cox, J.C. 1868: Monograph of Australian land shells. Sydney, Maddock. 111 pp., 20 pls.

Crampton, D.M. 1975: The anatomy and method of functioning of the buccal mass of Testacella maugei Férussac. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 41: 549–570.

Crawford-Sidebotham, T.J. 1972: The influence of weather upon the activity of slugs. Oecologia 9: 141–154.

Crook, S.J. 1981: Genetic studies of allozyme variation in leucine aminopeptidase in the landsnail Helix aspersa Müller. Journal of molluscan studies 48: 362–365.

Crosby, T.K.; Dugdale, J.S.; Watt, J.C. 1976: Recording specimen localities in New Zealand: an arbitrary system of areas and codes defined. New Zealand journal of zoology 3: 69 + map.

Crosby, T.K.; Dugdale, J.S.; Watt, J.C. 1998: Area codes for recording specimen localities in the New Zealand subregion. New Zealand journal of zoology 25: 175–183.

Crosse, H. 1893: Note préliminaire sur la faune malacologique terrestre et fluviatile de la Nouvelle-Zélande et sur ses affinités. Journal de conchyliologie 41: 209–219.

Crosse, H.; Fischer, P. 1870: Diagnoses Molluscorum novorum, Reipublicae Mexicanae et Guatemalae incolarum. Journal de conchyliologie (ser. 3) 18: 297.

Crowell, H. 1973: Laboratory study of calcium requirements of the brown garden snail, Helix aspersa Müller. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 40: 491–503.

d’Audebard de Férussac, J.B.L. 1814: Mémoires Géologiques sur les terreins formés sous l’eau douce par les débris fossiles des Mollusques vivant sur la terre ou dans l’eau non salée. Paris. 76 pp, 4 pls.

d’Audebard de Férussac, J.B.L. 1819: Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles II. Paris, Bertrand. xvi + 96 pp.

d’Audebard de Férussac, A.E.J.P.J.F. 1821: Tableaux systématiques des animaux mollusques classés en familles naturelles, dans lesquels on a établi la concordance de tout les systèmes; suivis d’un prodrome général pour tous les mollusques terrestres ou fluviatiles, vivants ou fossiles. Tableau systématique de la famille des limaçons, Cochleae. Parts 1–4. Paris, Arthus Bertrand. xlviii + 114 pp.

d’Audebard de Férussac, A.E.J.P.J.F.; Deshayes, G.-P. 1820–51: Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des Mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles II (Nouvelle divi-sion des pulmones sans opercule). Paris, Baillière. xvi + 260 pp.

d’Orbigny, A.C.V.M. 1836–42: Mollusques, Echino-dermes, Foraminifères et Polypiers recueillis aux îles Canaries par MM. Webb et Berthelot. In: P.B. Webb & S. Berthelot, Histoire Naturelle des Iles Canaries 2 (2 zoologie). Paris. 152 pp., 14 pls.

d’Orbigny, A.C.V.M. 1834–47: Voyage dans l’Amérique méridionale, 5(3) Mollusques. Strasbourg, Levrault. xliii + 758 pp.

da Costa, E.M. 1778: Historia naturalis testaceorum Britanniae, or, the British conchology; containing the descriptions and other particulars of natural history of the shells of Great-Britain and Ireland. London, Millan, White & Elmsley. xii + 254 + vii pp., 17 pls.

Daguzan, J. 1981: Contribution a l’élevage de l’éscargot Petit Gris: Helix aspersa Müller (Mollusque Gastér-opode Pulmoné Stylommatophore). I. Reproducion et éclosion des jeunes en bâtiment et en conditions thermohygrométriques controlées. Annales de zootechnie 30: 249–272.

Daguzan, J. 1983: L’Escargot et l’Héliciculture. Paris, Inform-ations Techniques des Services Vétérinaires. 207 pp.

Daguzan, J. 1985: Contribution a l’élevage de l’escargot Petit Gris: Helix aspersa Müller (Mollusque Gastéropode Pulmoné Stylommatophore). III. Elevage mixte (reproduction en bâtiment contrôlé et engraissement en parc exterieur): activité des individus et évolution de la population juvénile selon la charge biotique du parc. Annales de zootechnie 34: 127–148.

Daguzan, J. 1989: Snail rearing or heliciculture of Helix aspersa Müller. Pp. 3–10 In: I.F. Henderson (ed.), Slugs and snails in world agriculture. British Crop Protection Council monograph no. 41.

Dan, N.; Bailey, S.E.R. 1982: Growth, mortality and feeding rates of the snail Helix aspersa at different population densities in the laboratory, and the depression of activity of helicid snails by other individuals or their mucus. Journal of molluscan studies 48: 257–265.

da Silva e Castro, J. 1873: Mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles du Portugal. Espèces nouvelles ou peu connues. Jornal de Sciencias Mathematicas, Physicas e Natur-ales, Lisboa 15: 241–246.

da Silva e Castro, J. 1894: see Locard 1894.

Davidson, R.E. 1962: Experiments with Zectran to control snails attacking orchids. Down to earth 18: 2, 23–24.

Davies, S.M. 1977: The Arion hortensis complex, with notes on A. intermedius Normand. Journal of conch-ology 29: 173–187.

Davies, S.M. 1979: Segregates of the Arion hortensis complex (Pulmonata: Arionidae), with the description of a new species, Arion owenii. Journal of conchology 30: 123–127.

Davies, S.M. 1987: Arion flagellus Collinge and A. lusitanicus Mabille in the British Isles: a morphological, biological and taxonomic investigation. Journal of conchology 32: 339–354.

de Blainville, H.M.D. 1817: Mémoire sur quelques Mollusques Pulmonobranches. Journal de physique 85: 437–444.

de Brito, C.P. 1992: Electrophoretic results of a bio-chemical systematic survey of Oxychilus (Drouetia) atlanticus and some other Zonitidae (Gastropoda: Zonitidae). Biological journal of the Linnean Society 46: 145–151.

de Charpentier, J. 1837: Catalogue des mollusques ter-restres et fluviatiles de la Suisse. Neue Denkschriften der Allgemeinen Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für die Gesamten Naturwissenschaften 1: 1–28, 2 pls.

de Cristofori, G.; Jan, G. 1832: Catalogus in quatuor sectiones divisus rerum naturalium in Museo exstantium Josephi De Cristofori et Georgii Jan plurimum Acad. scient. et Societ. nat. cur. sodalium complectens adumbratrionem oryctognosiae et geognosiae atque prodromus Fauna et Flora Italiae superioris. Sectio II (I) Conchyliologia. Parmae, Carmignani. 22 pp.

de Cuvier, G.L.C.F. 1804: Mémoire sur la Dolabelle, sur la Testacelle et sur un nouveau genre de mollusques à coquille cachée, nommé Parmacelle. Annales du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 5: 435–444, 1 pl.

de Gregorio, A. 1896: Appunti su talune conchiglie estre-marine di Sicilia viventi e fossili con la spiegazione delle tavole dell’opera di Benoit. Il naturalista siciliano 14: 183–212.

de Grisse, A. 1991: Automatisatie van de vetmesting van escargots. Mededelingen Faculteit Landbouwweten-schappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent 56: 83–96.

de Kaleniczenko, J. 1851: Description d’un nouveau genre de limaces de la Russie méridionale (Krynickillus). Bulletin de la Société des Naturalistes de Moscou 24: 215–228, 2 pls.

de Lacaze-Duthiers, H. 1887: Histoire de la Testacelle. Archives de zoologie expérimentale et générale (ser. 2) 5: 459–596.

Delhaye, W.; Bouillon, J. 1972a–c: L’évolution et l’ adaptation de l’organe excréteur chez les mollusques gastéropodes pulmonés. I. Introduction générale et histophysiologie comparée du rein chez les bas-ommatophores. II. Histophysiologie comparée du rein chez les stylommatophores. III. Histophysioologie comparée du rein chez les soléolifères et conclusions générales pour tous les stylommatophores. Bulletin biologique 106: 45–77, 123–142, 295–314.

de Monte de Lamarck, J.B.P.A. 1799: Prodrome d’une nouvelle classification des coquilles, comprenant une rédaction appropriée des caractères générique, et l’ éstablissement d’un gran nombre de genres nouveaux. Mémoires de la Société d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris 1: 63–91.

de Monte de Lamarck, J.B.P.A. 1801: Système des animaux sans vertèbres; ou, tab-leau général des classes, des orders, et des genres de ces animaux: précedée du discours d’ouverture du cours de zoologie, donné dans le Museum national d’histoire naturelle l’an 8 de la Republique. Vol. 8. Paris, Chez Deterville. viii + 432 pp.

de Montfort, P.D. 1810: Conchyliologie systématique et classification méthodique de coquilles, Vol. 2. Paris, F. Schoell. 679 pp.

de Razoumowsky, G. 1789: Histoire naturelle du Jorat et de ses environs (2 vols). Lausanne. Mollusca, pp. 266–278.

de Roissy, A.F.P.M. 1805: Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière, des Mollusques, animaux sans vertebres et a sang blanc. Suites à Histoire Naturelle de Buffon, redig. Sonnini. Paris, Dufart. Vol. 5, viii + 450 pp.; vol. 6, 480 pp.

de Wilde, J.J.A. 1983: Notes on the Arion hortensis com-plex in Belgium (Mollusca, Pulmonata: Arionidae). Annales de la Société Royale Zoologique de Belgique 113: 87–96.

de Wilde, J.J.A. 1986: Further notes on the species of the Arion hortensis complex in Belgium (Mollusca, Pulmonata: Arionidae). Annales de la Société Royale Zoologique de Belgique 116: 71–74.

de Winter, A.J. 1984: The Arion hortensis complex (Pulmonata: Arionidae): designation of types, descriptions, and distributional patterns, with special reference to the Netherlands. Zoölogische mededelingen 59: 1–17.

de Winter, A.J. 1985: A new Deroceras species from North-western Spain (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Agriolimacidae). Zoölogische mededelingen 59: 69–77.

de Winter, A.J. 1986: Little known and new South-west European slugs (Pulmonata: Agriolimacidae, Arionidae). Zoölogische mededelingen 60: 135–158.

Dezallier d’Argenville, A.J. 1757: l’Histoire Naturelle éclaircie dans deux de ses parties principales, la Lithologie et la Conchyliologie. Part 2 (2nd edn). Paris, Bure. 33 pp., 9 pls.

di Maria di Monterosato, T.A. 1892: Molluschi terrestri delle isole adiacenti alla Sicilia. Atti della Regia Accademia di Scienze, Lettere e Arti di Palermo (ser. III) 2: 1–34.

di Maria di Monterosato, T.A. 1894: Conchiglie terrestri viventi e fossili di Monte Pellegrino. Naturalista Siciliano 13: 165–173.

Diaz, J.A.; Alonso, M.R; Ibáñez, M. 1986: Los pulmonados desnudos de las Islas Canarias. I. Superfamilia Testa-celloidea Gray 1840 y Zonitoidea Morch 1864. Vieraea 16: 81–96.

Dimitriadis, V.K.; Hondros, D. 1992: Effect of starvation and hibernation on the fine structural morphology of digestive gland cells of the snail Helix lucorum. Malacologia 34: 63–73.

Dmitrieva, E.F. 1969: Population dynamics, growth, feeding and reproduction of Deroceras reticulatum in Leningrad region. Zoologicheskii zhurnal 48: 802–810 [in Russian].

Dohrn, H. 1869: Die Binnenconchylien der Capverdischen Inseln. Malakozoologische Blätter 16: 1–23.

Dolan, S.; Fleming, C.C. 1988: Isoenzymes in the identification and systematics of terrestrial slugs of the Arion hortensis complex. Biochemical systematics and ecology 16: 195–198.

Draparnaud, J.P.R. 1801: Tableau des mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles de la France. Montpellier et Paris, Renaud. 116 pp., 13 pls.

Draparnaud, J.P.R. 1805: Histoire naturelle des mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles de la France. Paris, Louis Collas. viii + 164 pp., 13 pls.

Drouët, H. 1867: Mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles de la Côte-d’Or. Mémoires de l’Académie du Dijon (ser. II) 14: 33–154.

Duncan, C.J. 1960: The evolution of the pulmonate genital system. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Lon-don 135: 339–356.

Dupuy, D. 1849: Histoire naturelle des Mollusques terrestres et d’eau douce qui vivent en France, 3. Paris, Masson. Pp. 227–330, 4 pls.

Duval, A. 1982: Le système circulatoire des limaces. Malacologia 22: 627–630.

Ellis, A.E. 1967: Agriolimax agrestis (L.): some observations. Journal of conchology 26: 189–196.

Elmslie, L.J. 1982: Snails and snail farming. World animal review 41: 20–26.

Elmslie, L.J. 1988: Studies on the feeding of newly hatched Helix aspersa. Snail farming research 2: 45–48.

Elmslie, L.J. 1989: Snail farming in field pens in Italy. Pp. 19–25 In: I.F. Henderson (ed.), Slugs and snails in world agriculture. British Crop Protection Council monograph no. 41.

Els, W.J. 1978: Histochemical studies on the maturation of the genital system of the slug Deroceras laeve (Pulmonata, Limacidae) with special reference to the identification of mucosubstances secreted by the genital tract. Annale Universiteit van Stellenbosch (ser. A) 2 zoologie, 1. 116 pp.

Emberton, K.C. 1991: Polygyrid relations: a phylogenetic analysis of 17 subfamilies of land snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Stylommatophora). Zoological journal of the Linnean Society 103: 207–224.

Emberton, K.C. 1994a: Land-snail community morphologies of the highest-diversity sites of Madagascar, North America, and New Zealand, with recommended alternatives to height-diameter plots. Malacologia 36: 43–66.

Emberton, K.C. 1994b: Polygrid land snail phylogeny: external sperm exchange, early North American biogeography, iterative shell evolution. Biological journal of the Linnean Society 52: 241–271.

Emberton, K.C.; Kuncio, G.S.; Davis, G.M.; Phillips, S.M.; Monderewicz, K.M.; Hua Guo, Y. 1990: Comparison of recent classifications of stylommatophoran land-snail families, and evaluation of large-ribosomal-RNA sequences for their phylogenetics. Malacologia 31: 327–352.

Emberton, K.C.; Tillier, S. 1995: Clarification and evaluation of Tillier’s (1989) stylommatophoran monograph. Malacologia 36: 203–208.

Enée, J.; Bonnefoy-Claudet, R.; Gomot, L. 1982: Effet de la photopériode artificielle sur la reproduction de l’ escargot Helix aspersa Müller. Compte rendu de l’Académie des Sciencies (ser. III) 294: 357–360.

Evans, N.J. 1978a: Limax pseudoflavus sp. n. a new species of slug for Ireland. Irish naturalist’s journal 19: 173.

Evans, N.J. 1978b: Limax pseudoflavus Evans: a critical des-cription and comparison with related species. Irish naturalist’s journal 19: 231-236.

Evans, N.J. 1982: Observations on variation in body coloration and patterning in Limax flavus L. and Limax pseudo-flavus Evans. Journal of natural history 16: 847–857.

Evans, N.J. 1983: Notes on self-fertilization and variation in body colour in Limax flavus L. and L. pseudoflavus Evans. Irish naturalists’ journal 21: 37–40.

Evans, N.J. 1985: The use of electrophoresis in the separation of two closely related species of terrestrial slugs. Biochemical systematics and ecology 13: 325–328.

Evans, N.J. 1986: The status of Limax maculatus (Kaleniczenko 1851), Limax grossui Lupu 1970, and Limax pseudoflavus Evans 1978 (Gastropoda, Limacidae). Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 138: 576–588.

Evans, J.G.; Jones, H. 1973: Subfossil and modern land-snail faunas from rock-rubble habitats. Journal of conchology 28: 103–129.

Fagot, P. 1877: Catalogue des Mollusques des Pyrénées de la Haute-Garonne comprises entre Cazères et Saint-Martory. Bulletin de la Société d’Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse 11: 33–50.

Fagot, P. 1879: Mollusques quaternaires des environs de Toulouse et de Villefranche (Haute-Garonne). Bulletin de la Société d’Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse 13: 1–27.

Fagot, P. 1890: Histoire malacologique des Pyrénées françaises et espagnoles. Bulletin de la Société Ramond, Paris (1890): 215–244.

Fagot, P. 1892: Histoire malacologique des Pyrénées françaises et espagnoles. Bulletin de la Société Ramond, Paris (1892): 1–156.

Falkner, G. 1992: The slippery snails of Frederiksdal: Revision of Helix lubrica O.F. Müller at its type locality (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora: Cochlicopidae). Pp. 337–340 In: F. Giusti & G. Manganelli (eds), Abstracts of the 11th International Malacological Congress, Siena 1992. Siena, Unitas Malacologica.

Ferguson, C.; Barratt, B.I.P. 1983: Slug damage to pasture renovated by direct drilling. Proceedings of the New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference 36: 212–215.

Ferro, D.N.; Lowe, A.D.; Ordish, R.G.; Somerfield, K.G.; Watt, J.C. 1977: Standard names for common insects of New Zealand. Bulletin of the Entomological society of New Zealand 4, 42 pp.

Fitzinger, L.J.F. 1833: Systematisches Verzeichniss der im Erzherzogthume Österreich vorkommenden Weich-tiere, als Prodrom einer Fauna derselben. Beiträge zur Landeskunde Österreichs unter der Enns, Wien 3: 88–122.

Flasar, I. 1977: Helicodiscus (Hebetodiscus) singleyanus inermis H.B. Baker, 1929, in der Tschechoslowakei (Gastropoda, Endodontidae, Helicodiscinae). Malako-logische Abhandlungen 5: 237–242.

Fleming, J. 1813: Conchology. In: D. Brewster, Edinburgh encyclopedia, Vol. 7. 76 pp., 3 pls.

Fleming, J. 1822: Philosophy of zoology, or a general view of the structure, functions and classifications of animals, Vol. 2, Edinburgh, Hurst. 618 pp.

Fleming, J. 1827–28: A history of British animals. Edinburgh and London, Bell & Bradfute. xxiii + 565 pp.

Focardi, S.; Quattrini, D. 1972: Structure of the reproductive apparatus and life cycle of Milax gagates (Draparnaud) Mollusca Gastropoda Pulmonata. Bollettino di zoologia, Perugia 39: 9–27.

Foltz, D.W.; Ochman, H.; Jones, J.S.; Evangelisti, S.M.; Selander, R.K. 1982a: Genetic population structure and breeding systems in arionid slugs (Mollusca: Pulmonata). Biological journal of the Linnean Society 17: 225–241.

Foltz, D.W.; Schaitkin, B.M.; Selander, R.K. 1982b: Gametic disequilibrium in the self-fertilizing slug Deroceras laeve. Evolution 36: 80–85.

Foltz, D.W.; Ochman, H.; Selander, R.K. 1984: Genetic diversity and breeding systems in terrestrial slugs of the families Limacidae and Arionidae. Malacologia 25: 593–605.

Foord, M. 1990: The New Zealand descriptive animal dictionary. Dunedin, Foord. 502 pp.

Forcart, L. 1957: Taxonomische Revision paläarktischer Zonitinae, I. Archiv für Molluskenkunde 86: 101–136.

Forcart, L. 1976: Die Cochlicellinae und Helicellinae von Paläs-tina und Sinai. Archiv für Molluskenkunde 106: 123–189.

Forcart, L. 1986: Limax maculatus (Kaleniczenko) und Limacus flavus (Linnaeus). Mitteilungen der Deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft 38: 21–23.

Fox, L.; Landis, B.J. 1973: Notes on the predaceous habits of the gray field slug, Deroceras laeve. Environmental entomology 2: 306–307.

Franzen, D.S.; Leonard, A.B. 1947: Fossil and living Pupillidae (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in Kansas. University of Kansas science bulletin 31: 311–411.

Frest, T.J.; Sanders Rhodes, R. 1982: Oxychilus draparnaldi in Iowa. The nautilus 96: 36–39.

Frömming, E. 1954: Biologie der Mitteleuropäischen Landgastropoden. Berlin, Duncker & Humbolt. 404 pp.

Furey, L. 1982: An archaeological investigation of the Bri-ers Block (Whangapoua State Forest). Report of the Auckland Conservancy, New Zealand Forest Service, A478/13. 48 pp.

Gardner, N. 1977: Vertigo pygmaea Deshayes. Poirieria 9: 58.

Garrett, A. 1884: The terrestrial Mollusca inhabiting the Society Islands. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (ser. II) 9: 17–114.

Garrido, C.; Castillejo, J.; Iglesias, J. 1995: The spermato-phore of Arion intermedius (Pulmonata: Arionidae). Journal of molluscan studies 61: 127–133.

Gassies, J.B. 1849: Tableau méthodique et descriptif des Mollusques terrestres et d’eau douce de l’Agenais. Paris, Baillière. 209 pp.

Gassies, J.B. 1856: Description d’une Limace nouvelle (Limax argillaceus). Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux 22: 231–232.

Gassies, J.B. 1867: Malacologie terrestre et d’eau douce de la région intra-littorale de l’Aquitaine. Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux 26: 109–136, 1 pl.

Gassies, J.B. 1871: Faune conchyliologique terrestre et fluvio-lacustre de la Nouvelle-Caledonie. Part II. Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux 28: 1–212, 8 pls.

Gelperin, A. 1974: Olfactory basis of homing behavior in the giant garden slug, Limax maximus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 71: 966–970.

Gerber, J. 1996: Revision der Gattung Vallonia Risso 1826 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Valloniidae). Schriften zur Malakozoologie aus dem Haus der Natur 8: 1–227.

Gerhardt, U. 1933: Zur Kopulation der Limaciden. I. Mitteilung. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere 27: 401–450.

Gerhardt, U. 1934: Zur Biologie der Kopulation der Limaciden. II. Mitteilung. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere 28: 229–258.

Gerhardt, U. 1936: Weitere Untersuchungen zur Kopulation der Nacktschnecken. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere 30: 297–332.

Gerhardt, U. 1939: Neue biologische Untersuchungen an Lima-ciden. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere 35: 183–202.

Germain, L. 1907: Liste des mollusques recueillis par M. H. Gadeau de Kerville, pendant son voyage en Khroumirie. Bulletin du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle 13: 154–158.

Germain, L. 1930: Mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles. Faune de France 21 (Lechevallier ed.). Paris, Faculté des Sciences. 477 + viii pp., 13 pls.

Getz, L.L. 1959: Notes on the ecology of slugs: Arion circumscriptus, Deroceras reticulatum and D. laeve. American midland naturalist 61: 485–498.

Gittenberger, E. 1983: On Iberian Cochlicopidae and the genus Cryptazeca (Gastropoda, Pulmonata). Zoölog-ische mededelingen 57: 301–320.

Gittenberger, E. 1993a: Digging in the graveyard of synonymy, in search of Portuguese species of Candidula Kobelt, 1871 (Mollusca: Gastropoda Pulmonata: Hygromi-idae). Zoölogische mededelingen 67: 283–293.

Gittenberger, E. 1993b: On Trochoidea geyeri (Soós, 1926) and some conchologically similar taxa (Mollusca: Gastropoda Pulmonata: Hygromiidae). Zoölogische mededelingen 67: 303–320.

Gittenberger, E.; Backhuys, E.; Ripken, Th.E.J. 1984: De landslakken van Nederland. Leiden, Koninklijke Nederlandse Natuurhistorische Vereniging. 183 pp.

Giusti, F. 1968a: Notulae Malacologicae, II. Il genere Oxychilus nell’Arcipelago Toscano. Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Residente in Pisa, Mem-orie Serie B 75: 218–235, 2 pls.

Giusti, F. 1969: Notulae Malacologicae, VII. Oxychilus (Ortizius) alliarius (Miller) nuovo reperto per l’Italia appenninica. Memorie del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona 16: 375–378.

Giusti, F. 1970: Notulae Malacologicae, XII. L’isola di Pianosa e lo scoglio La Scola (Arcipelago Toscano). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova 78: 59–148, 15 pls.

Giusti, F. 1973: Notulae Malacologicae, XVIII. I molluschi terrestri e salmastri delle Isole Eolie. Lavori della Società Italiana di Biogeografia (n.s.) 3: 113–306, 16 pls.

Giusti, F. 1976: Notulae Malacologicae, XXIII. I molluschi terrestri, salmastri e di acqua dolce dell’Elba, Giannutri e scogli minori dell’Arcipelago Toscano. Conclusioni generali sul popolamento malacologico dell’Arcipel-ago Toscano e descrizione di una nuova specie (Studi sulla riserva naturale dell’Isola de Montecristo, IV). Lavori della Societa Italiana di Biogeografia (n.s.) 5: 98–355, 19 pls.

Giusti, F. 1986: Notulae Malacologicae XXXIV. Again on the taxonomic status of Deroceras panormitanum (Less-ona & Pollonera, 1882), Deroceras pollonerai (Simroth, 1889) and Deroceras caruanai (Pollonera, 1891) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata). Bollettino malacologico 22: 57–64.

Giusti, F.; Lepri, A. 1980: Aspetti morphologici ed etologici dell’accoppiamento in alcune specie della famiglia Hel-icidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata). Atti Accademia della Scienze di Siena della dei Fisiocritici (1980): 11–71.

Giusti, F.; Manganelli, G. 1986: ‘Helixsororcula Benoit 1859 and its relationships to the genera Vallonia Risso and Planogyra Morse (Pulmonata: Pupilloidea). Archiv für Molluskenkunde 116: 157–181.

Giusti, F.; Manganelli, G. 1987: Notulae Malacologicae, XXXVI. On some Hygromiidae (Gastropoda: Helicoidea) living in Sar-dinia and in Corsica. (Studies on the Sardinian and Corsican Malacofauna VI). Bollettino malacologico 23: 123–206.

Giusti, F.; Manganelli, G. 1989: Notulae Malacologicae, XLV. A new Hygromiidae from the Tyrrhenian islands of Capraia and Sardinia with notes on the genera Xeromicra and Xerotricha (Pulmonata: Helicoidea). (Studies on the Sardinian and Corsican Malacofauna, VIII). Bollettino malacologico 25: 23–62.

Giusti, F.; Manganelli, G. 1990a: Notulae Malacologicae, XLIV. A neotype for ‘Agriolimax caruanae’ Pollonera, 1891 (Pulmonata: Agriolimacidae). Archiv für Molluskenkunde 119: 235–240.

Giusti, F.; Manganelli, G. 1990b: Ciliellopsis oglasae, a new hygromiid from Montecristo Island (Tuscan Archipelago, Italy) (Pul-monata: Helicoidea). Journal of conchology 33: 269–277.

Giusti, F.; Manganelli, G. 1997: How to distinguish Oxychilus cellarius (Müller, 1774) easily from Oxychilus draparnaudi (Beck, 1837) (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora, Zonitidae). Basteria 61: 43–56.

Giusti, F.; Manganelli, G.; Crisci, J.V. 1992: A new problematical Hygromiidae from the Aeolian Islands (Italy) (Pulmonata: Helicoidea). Malacologia 34: 107–128.

Giusti, F.; Manganelli, G.; Schembri, P.J. 1995: The non-marine molluscs of the Maltese Islands. Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, monografie 15: 10–167.

Giusti, F.; Selmi, M.G. 1985: The seminal receptacle and sperm storage in Cochlostoma montanum (Issel) (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Journal of morphology 184: 121–133.

Gmelin, G.F. 1791: Caroli a Linné. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus differentiis synonymis locis. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. Vol. I, part 6. Lipsiae, Beer. Pp. 3021–3910.

Godan, D. 1983: Pest slugs and snails. Biology and control. (Translated by S. Gruber from German edition). Berlin and Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag. x + 445 pp.

Golikov, A.N.; Starobogatov, J.I. 1988: Voprosy filogenii I sistemy perednezabernyh brjuhonogih molljuskov. Akademii Nauk SSSR T


  • There are currently no refbacks.