Naturalised terrestrial Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

Gary M Barker

Abstract


The naturalised terrestrial gastropod fauna of New Zealand is shown to comprise a total of 29 species representing 11 stylommatophoran families. Taxa previously recognised in New Zealand's naturalised fauna and confirmed in this study are (with recommended common names): Agriolimacidae - Deroceras laeve (marsh slug), D. panormitanum (brown field slug), D. reticulatum (grey field slug); Arionidae - Arion hortensis (Férussac's orange soled slug), A. intermedius (glade slug); Cochlicopidae - Cochlicopa lubrica (slippery moss snail); Ferussaciidae - Cecilioides acicula (blind pin snail); Helicidae - Cantareus aspersus (brown garden snail); Hygromiidae - Candidula intersecta (wrinkled snail); Limacidae - Lehmannia nyctelia (Bourguignat's slug), Limacus flavus (yellow cellar slug), Limax maximus (tiger slug); Milacidae - Milax gagates (jet slug), Tandonia budapestensis (Budapest slug), T. sowerbyi (Sowerby's slug); Pupillidae - Lauria cylindracea (chrysalis snail); Testacellidae - Testacella haliotidea (shelled slug); Valloniidae - Vallonia excentrica (eccentric grass snail); Vertiginidae - Vertigo ovata (grassland whorl snail); Zonitidae - Oxychilus alliarius (garlic glass snail), O. cellarius (cellar glass snail), O. draparnaudi (Drapamaud's glass snail), Vitrea crystallina (crystal snail). Consistent with recent revisions, several generic-species epithet combinations are applied for the first time to the New Zealand naturalised fauna: these include Cantareus aspersus (formerly in genus Helix); Limacus flavus (formerly in Limax(Limacus) or Lehmannia); Tandonia budapestensis and T. sowerbyi (formerly Milax).

Arion distinctus (Arionidae) (Mabille's orange soled slug) is shown to have been long established and widespread in New Zealand, but previously not recognised as a component of A. hortensis s.l. Zonitoides arboreus (Zonitidae) (orchid snail) is formally recorded as a naturalised species, although its presence since the 1950s has been recognised in the popular press and unpublished plant protection records. Helicodiscus singleyanus (Helicodiscidae) (Singley's subterranean discus snail) is recorded in the naturalised fauna for the first time with recognition of the presumedly indigenous species Hydrophrea academia as a new junior synonym; this small, largely subterranean species has been known from widely scattered localities since 1970. Lehmannia valentiana (Limacidae) (Valencia slug) is recorded in New Zealand for the first time, although specimen material indicates that it has been established at various localities in the North Island since the 1970s. Prietocella barbara (Hygromiidae) (banded conical snail) is formally added to the naturalised fauna, although its establishment was recorded in 1983 but not published; this species is rapidly spreading through northernmost New Zealand. Coneuplecta calculosa (Euconulidae) (calculus cone snail) is the species most recently confirmed (1995) as a naturalisation, and is known at present from a single locality.

Family and generic diagnoses are presented; these were initially developed from the literature, but incorporate much new anatomical observation. All species are redescribed and illustrated on the basis of conchological and anatomical observations of New Zealand and extralimital material, with new or corrected anatomical data, and haploid chromosome numbers taken from the literature. The systematic status of each species is discussed, and information is presented on their distribution, history in New Zealand, and biology. A key to their identification is included. Methods for collection, preparation, and curation of these molluscs are briefly outlined. The systematic treatment of the taxa and the key are supported by a comprehensive description and discussion of the body plan and organ systems in Stylommatophora that are important in systematics and in taxon recognition. Most species are illustrated from life in a series of colour plates.

Checklist of Taxa

Family AGRIOLIMACIDAE

Genus Deroceras Rafinesque Schmaltz, 1820
    Subgenus Deroceras Rafinesque Schmaltz, 1820
         laeve (Mūller, 1774) - marsh slug
         panormitanum (Lessona & Pollonera, 1882) - brown field slug
    Subgenus Agriolimax Mōrch, 1865
        reticulatum (Mūller, 1774) - grey field slug

Family ARIONIDAE
Subfamily Arioninae

Genus Arion d'Audebard de Férussac, 1819
        distinctus Mabille, 1868 - Mabille's orange soled slug
        hortensis d'Audebard de Férussac, 1819 - Férussac's orange soled slug
        intermedius Normand, 1852 - glade slug

Family COCHLICOPIDAE
Genus Cochlicopa d'Audebard de Férussac, 1821
        lubrica (Mūller, 1774) - slippery moss snail

Family EUCONULIDAE
Genus Coneuplecta Mōllendorff, 1893
        calculosa (Gould, 1852) - calculus cone snail

Family FERUSSACIIDAE
Genus Cecilioides d'Audebard de Férussac, 1814
    Subgenus Cecilioides d'Audebard de Férussac, 1814
        acicula (Mūller, 1774) - blind pin snail

Family HELICIDAE
Subfamily Helicinae
Genus Cantareus Risso, 1826
        aspersus (Mūller, 1774) - brown garden snail

Family HELICODISCIDAE
Genus Helicodiscus Morse, 1864
    Subgenus Hebetodiscus Baker, 1929
        singleyanus (Pilsbry, 1889) - Singley's subterranean discus snail

Family HYGROMIIDAE
Genus Candidula Kobelt, 1871
        intersecta (Poiret, 1801) - wrinkled snail

Genus Prietocella Schileyko & Monkhorst, 1997
        barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) - banded conical snail

Family LIMACIDAE
Genus Lehmannia Heynemann, 1862
        nyctelia (Bourguignat, 1861) - Bourguignat's slug
        valentiana (d'Audebard de Férussac, 1823) - Valencia slug

Genus Limacus Lehmann, 1864
        flavus (Linnaeus, 1758) - yellow cellar slug

Genus Limax Linnaeus, 1758 
    Subgenus Limax Linnaeus, 1758
        maximus Linnaeus, 1758 - tiger slug

Family MILACIDAE
Genus Milax Gray, 1855
        gagates (Draparnaud, 1801) - jet slug 

Genus Tandonia Lessona & Pollonera, 1882
        budapestensis (Hazay, 1881) - Budapest slug
        sowerbyi (d'Audebard de Férussac, 1823) - Sowerby's slug

Family PUPILLIDAE
Subfamily Lauriinae
Genus Lauria Gray, 1840
        cylindracea (da Costa, 1778) - chrysalis snail

Family TESTACELLIDAE
Genus Testacella Draparnaud, 1801
        haliotidea Draparnaud, 1801 - shelled slug

Family VALLONIIDAE
Genus Vallonia Risso, 1826
        excentrica Sterki, 1893 - eccentric grass snail

Family VERTIGINIDAE
Subfamily Vertigininae
Genus Vertigo Mūller, 1774
        ovata (Say, 1822) - grassland whorl snail

Family ZONITIDAE
Subfamily Zonitinae
Genus Oxychilus Fitzinger, 1833
     Subgenus Oxychilus Fitzinger, 1833
         alliarius (Miller, 1822) - garlic glass snail
        cellarius (Mūller, 1774) - cellar glass snail
        draparnaudi (Beck, 1837) - Drapamaud's glass snail

Genus Vitrea Fitzinger, 1833 
    Subgenus Vitrea Fitzinger, 1833
        crystallina (Mūller, 1774) - crystal snail
Subfamily Gastrodontinae
Genus Zonitoides Lehmann, 1862
    Subgenus Zonitoides Lehmann, 1862
        arboreus (Say, 1816) - orchid snail


Keywords


Taxonomy; morphology; biology; keys; Mollusca; Stylommatophora

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