Criconematina (Nematoda: Tylenchida)

Wim M Wouts


Sixty-eight species of Criconematina, in 13 genera, are recorded from New Zealand. Sixteen new species are described: Criconema (Criconema) mackenziei sp. nov., C. (C.) makahuense sp. nov., C. (C.) nelsonense sp. nov., Criconema (Nothocriconema) grandisoni sp. nov., Macroposthonia campbelli sp. nov., Ogma alternum sp. nov., O. capitulatum sp. nov., O. catherinae sp. nov., O. inaequale sp. nov., O. mucronatum sp. nov., O. niagarae sp. nov., O. sturhani sp. nov., Syro tribulosus sp. nov., S. glabellus sp. nov., Blandicephalanema inserratum sp. nov., and B. nothofagi sp. nov. Fourteen species introduced from other parts of the world are described from local material and illustrated. Of the endemic species, Pateracephalanema imbricatum is the only species shared with Australia. Because of the predominance of the subgenus Nothocriconemella in New Zealand, the cosmopolitan Criconema (Nothocriconemella) sphagni may be a New Zealand species now spread worldwide.

Siddiqi’s (2000) classification of Criconematina, with 3 superfamilies, is accepted here. Eubostrichus guernei is recognised as a valid species and as the type species of Criconema Hofmänner & Menzel, 1914. In species with ornate cuticles, the type of scale or spine, rather than their orientation on the body, is considered phylogenetically significant. The genus Criconema is redefined, and the genera of the family Criconematidae (Criconematoidea) are rearranged accordingly. The taxon Nothocriconema, previously a synonym of Criconema is reinstated as subgenus Criconema (Nothocriconema) and the subgenus Ogma (Pateracephalanema) as genus Pateracephalanema. Crossonema is synonymised with Ogma and Amphisbaenema with Blandicephalanema.

For each species a detailed description of the female is given, including morphometrics and illustrations, supplemented with SEM micrographs of morphological details. Details of males and juveniles are given, if available. A diagnosis is presented to distinguish each species from other New Zealand species. Locations and plant species associations of each species are indicated and the significance of each species as a taxonomic unit is commented upon. Lists of nematode species present at various localities and associated with individual plant species are given in appendices. Keys to all taxa covered are provided.

Checklist of taxa

Suborder CRICONEMATINA Siddiqi, 1980
Superfamily  Criconematoidea Taylor, 1936
Family Criconematidae Taylor, 1936
Subfamily Criconematinae Taylor, 1936

Genus Criconema Hofmänner & Menzel, 1914
   Subgenus Criconema Hofmänner & Menzel, 1914
     aucklandicum Loof, Wouts & Yeates, 1997
     cristulatum Loof, Wouts & Yeates, 1997
     mackenziei sp. nov.
     makahuense sp. nov
     nelsonense sp. nov.
     spinicaudatum (Raski & Pinochet, 1976) Raski & Luc, 1985

  Subgenus Nothocriconema Ebsary, 1981
     annuliferum (de Man, 1921) Micoletzky, 1925
     grandisoni sp. nov.
     lineatum Loof, Wouts & Yeates, 1997
     magnum Loof, Wouts & Yeates, 1997
     undulatum Loof, Wouts & Yeates, 1997

  Subgenus Nothocriconemella Ebsary, 1981
     mutabile (Taylor, 1936) Raski & Luc, 1985
     californicum Diab  & Jenkins, 1966
     pasticum (Raski & Pinochet, 1976)  Raski & Luc,1985
     alpinum Loof, Wouts & Yeates, 1997
     graminicola Loof, Wouts & Yeates, 1997
     acuticaudatum Loof, Wouts & Yeates, 1997
     sphagni Micoletzky, 1925
     macilentum (Raski & Pinochet, 1976) Raski & Luc, 1985
     crosbyi Wouts, 2000
     farrelli Wouts, 2000
     ramsayi Wouts, 2000
     dugdalei Wouts, 2000

Genus Ogma Southern, 1914
     alternum sp. nov.
     campbelli Wouts,  Yeates & Loof, 1999
     capitulatum sp. nov.
     catherinae sp. nov.
     civellae (Steiner,  1949) Mehta & Raski, 1971
     crenulatum Wouts, Yeates  & Loof, 1999
     inaequale sp. nov.
     latens Mehta & Raski, 1971
     mucronatum sp. nov.
     niagarae sp. nov.
     palmatum (Siddiqi & Southey, 1962) Siddiqi, 1986
     paucispinatum Wouts, Yeates & Loof, 1999
     polyandra Wouts, Yeates & Loof, 1999
     semicrenatum Wouts, Yeates & Loof, 1999
     sexcostatum Wouts, Yeates & Loof, 1999
     sturhani sp. nov.
     subantarcticum Wouts, Yeates & Loof, 1999

Genus Syro Orton  Williams, 1985
     glabellus sp. nov.
     tribulosus sp. nov.

Genus Pateracephalanema Mehta & Raski, 1971
     imbricatum (Colbran, 1956) Mehta & Raski, 1971

Genus Blandicephalanema Mehta & Raski, 1971
     serratum Mehta & Raski, 1971
     inserratum sp. nov.
     nothofagi sp. nov.
     pilatum Mehta & Raski, 1971

Subfamily Macroposthoniinae Skarbilovich, 1959
Genus Macroposthonia de Man, 1880
     campbelli sp.  nov.
     rustica (Micoletzky, 1915) De Grisse & Loof, 1965
     xenoplax (Raski, 1952) De Grisse & Loof, 1965

Genus Criconemoides Taylor, 1936
   Subgenus Criconemoides Taylor, 1936
     informis (Micoletzky, 1922) Taylor, 1936

  Subgenus Criconemella De Grisse & Loof, 1965
     parvus Raski, 1952

Subfamily Hemicriconemoidinae Andrássy, 1979
Genus Hemicriconemoides Chitwood & Birchfield, 1957
     cocophillus (Loos, 1949) Chitwood & Birchfield, 1957

Superfamily Tylenchuloidea Skarbilovich, 1947
Family Tylenchulidae Skarbilovich, 1947 (Kirjanova, 1955)
Genus Tylenchulus Cobb, 1913
     semipenetrans Cobb,  1913

Genus Trophotylenchulus Raski, 1957
     okamotoi (Minagawa, 1983) Siddiqi, 2000

Family Sphaeronematidae Raski & Sher, 1952
Genus Sphaeronema Raski & Sher, 1952
     californicum Raski & Sher, 1952

Family Paratylenchidae Thorne, 1949
Genus Paratylenchus Micoletzky, 1922
   Subgenus Paratylenchus Micoletzky, 1922
     halophilus Wouts, 1966

  Subgenus Gracilacus Raski, 1962

Superfamily Hemicycliophoroidea Skarbilovich, 1959
Family Hemicycliophoridae Skarbilovich, 1959
Genus Hemicycliophora de Man, 1921
     chathami Yeates, 1978
     halophila Yeates, 1967


Nematoda; Tylenchida; Criconematina; criconematina nematodes; taxonomy; phylogeny; keys; new species; biology; juveniles


Andrássy, I. 1963. The zoological results of Gy. Topál’s collectings in South Argentina. 2. Nematoda. Neue und einige seltene Nematoden-Arten aus Argentinien. Annale Historico-Naturalis Musei Nationalis Hungarici, pars zoologica 55: 243–273.

Andrássy, I. 1979. Revision of the subfamily Criconematinae Taylor, 1936 (Nematoda). Opuscula Zoologica 16: 11–57.

Baines, R. C. 1950. Nematodes on citrus. Californian Agriculture 4: 7.

Baines, R. C.; Martin, J. P.; DeWolfe, T. A.; Boswell, S. B.; Garber, M. J. 1962. Effect of high doses of D-D on soil organisms and the growth and yield of lemon trees (abstract). Phytopathology 51: 723.

Blair, I. D.; Morrison, L. 1949. Wheat diseases and insect pests. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Information Service Bulletin 3: 59 pp.

Brzeski, M. W. 1998. Nematodes of Tylenchina in Poland and temperate Europe. Muzeum i Institut Zoologii Polska Akademia Nauk, Warszawa. 397 pp.

Certes, A. 1889. Protozoaires. Appendice: organismes divers appartenant à la faune microscopique de la Terre de Feu. In: Mission scientifique du Cap Horn (1882–1883), Tome 6, Zoologie. Paris, Gauthier-Villars: 45–50.

Chitambar, J. J. 1992. SEM observations of species of Ogma Southern, 1914 and Criconemella De Grisse & Loof, 1965 (Nematoda: Criconematidae). Fundamental and Applied Nematology 15: 297–303.

Clark, W. C. 1963. A review of plant parasitic nematodes in New Zealand. Proceedings of the New Zealand Weed Control Conference 16: 91–95.

Colbran, R. C. 1962. Studies of plant and soil nematodes 5. Four new species of Tylenchoidea from Queensland pineapple fields. Queensland Journal of Agricultural Science 19: 231–239.

Colbran, R. C. 1965. Studies of plant and soil nematodes. 8. Two new species of Criconema (Nematoda: Criconematidae) from Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agriculture and Animal Science 22: 481–484.

Cottier, W. 1956. Insect Pests. In: Plant Protection in New Zealand (Eds Atkinson, J. D.; Brien, R. M.; Chamberlain, E. E.; Cottier, W.; Dingley, J. M.; Jacks, H.; Reid, W. D.; Taylor, G. G.) Government Printer, Wellington.

Dale, P. S. 1972a. List of host plants of nematodes in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Science 15: 442–448.

Dale, P. S. 1972b. Potato cyst nematode at Pukekohe. New Zealand Journal of Agriculture 125: 33–36.

Dale, P. S. 1973. Potato cyst nematode found for the first time at Pukekohe. New Zealand Commercial Grower 28: 13–15.

Dasgupta, D. R.; Raski, D. J.; Van Gundy, S. D. 1969. Revision of the genus Hemicriconemoides Chitwood & Birchfield, 1957 (Nematoda: Criconematidae). Journal of Nematology 1: 126–145.

Decraemer, W.; Geraert, E. 1992. Criconema paradoxiger, Ogma civellae and O. paracivellae sp. n. from Papua New Guinea (Nemata: Tylenchida). Fundamental and Applied Nematology 15: 355–366.

Decraemer, W.; Baldwin, J.; Eddleman, C.; Geraert, E. 1996. Criconema paradoxiger (Orton Williams, 1982) Raski & Luc, 1985: cuticle ultrastructure and revalidation of the genus Amphisbaenema. Nematologica 42: 408–416.

De Grisse, A. 1967. Description of fourteen new species of Criconematidae with remarks on different species of this family. Biologisch Jaarboek, Koninklijk Natuurwetenschappelijk Genootschap Dodonaea, Gent 35: 66–125.

De Grisse, A. 1969. Contribution to the morphology and the systematics of the Criconematidae (Taylor, 1936) Thorne, 1949. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Gent, Belgium. (Translation PhD study 1968).

De Grisse, A.; Loof, P. A. A. 1965. Revision of the genus Criconemoides (Nematoda). Mededelingen van de Landbouwhogeschool en de Opzoekingsstations van de Staat te Gent 30: 577–603.

Edward, C. J.; Misra, S. L. 1964. Criconemoides magnoliae n. sp. and C. juniperi n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae) from Kumaon region Uttar Pradesh, India. Nematologica 10: 95–100.

Esser, R. P. 1992. A diagnostic compendium to species included in Paratylenchinae Thorne, 1949 and Tylenchocriconematinae Raski & Siddiqui, 1975 (Nematoda: Criconematoidea). Nematologica 38: 146–163.

Gomez Barcina, A.; Castillo, P. 1990. Trophonema arenarium (Nematoda: Tylenchulidae) and its junior synonyms. Nematologica 36: 404–407.

Grandison, G. S.; Atkins, A. 1985. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with decline of grapevines. Annual report 1984/1985, Entomology Division, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, 69.

Hofmänner, B.; Menzel, R. 1914. Neue Arten freilebender Nematoden aus der Schweiz. Zoologischer Anzeiger 44: 80–91.

Hunt, D. J. 1993. Aphelenchida, Longidoridae and Trichodoridae: Their systematics and bionomics. International Institute of Parasitology, CAB, Hertfordshire U.K, 352 pp.

Inserra, R. N.; Vovlas, N.; Crozzoli, R. 1993. Geographical distribution, hosts and biological characteristics of Trophonema okamotoi (Nematoda: Tylenchulidae). Nematologica 39: 328–345.

Jacks, H. 1944. Soil disinfection I. Preliminary report on control of eelworm. New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology 26A: 186–189.

Jacks, H. 1945. Soil disinfection III. Chemical treatments for eelworm control. New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology 27A: 93–97.

Jacks, H. 1948. Soil disinfection IX. Control of eelworm in outdoor soil. New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology 30A: 123–126.

Jacks, H. 1963. Soil disinfection XVI. Note on the control of rootknot eelworm by insecticide drenches. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 6: 112–114.

Jairajpuri, M. S. 1963. Criconema simlaensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae) from India. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde 23: 235–238.

Jairajpuri, M. S.; Southey, J. F. 1984. Nothocriconema shepherdae n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae) with observations on extracuticular layer formation. Revue de Nématologie 7: 73–79.

Khan, S. H. 1964. Criconemoides siddiqii n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae) from North India. Zoologischer Anzeiger 173: 342–344.

Kirk, T. W. 1899. Ear-cockle, peppercorns, purplers in wheat. New Zealand Department of Agriculture Leaflets for Farmers 48: 2pp

Knight, K. W. L. 2001. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with six subtropical crops in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 29: 267–275.

Knight, K. W. L.; Barber, C. J.; Page, G. D. 1997. Plant-parasitic nematodes of New Zealand recorded by host association. Journal of Nematology 29 (supplement): 640–656.

Loof, P. A. A.; Andrássy, I.; Luc, M.; Raski, D. J.; Siddiqi, M. R.; Wouts, W. M. 2001. Criconema Hofmänner & Menzel, 1914 (Nematoda: Criconematidae): proposed designation of Eubostrichus guernei Certes, 1899 as the type species. Case 3185. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 58: 179–181.

Loof, P. A. A.; Wouts, W. M.; Yeates, G. W. 1997. Crico-nematidae (Nematoda: Tylenchida) from the New Zealand Region: Genera Mesocriconema, Criconema, Discocriconemella and Hemicriconemoides. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 24: 123–152.

Loos, C. A. 1949. Notes on free-living and plant-parasitic nematodes of Ceylon 4. Ceylon Journal of Science, Section B, Zoology 23: 119–124.

Maggenti, A. R. 1990. Nemata: Higher Classification. In: Manual of Agricultural Nematology (Ed. W. R. Nickle) p. 147–190. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.

Maggenti, A. R.; Luc, M.; Raski, D. J.; Fortuner, R.; Geraert, E. 1988 A reappraisal of Tylenchina (Nemata). 11. List of generic and supra-generic taxa, with their junior synonyms. Revue de Nématologie 11: 177–188.

Mai, W. F. 1977. Worldwide distribution of potato cyst nematodes and their importance in crop production. Journal of Nematology 9: 30–34.

Mehta, U. K.; Raski, D. J. 1971. Revision of the genus Criconema Hofmänner & Menzel, 1914 and other related genera (Criconematidae: Nematoda). Indian Journal of Nematology 1:145–198.

Mehta, U. K.; Raski, D. J.; Valenzuela A. 1982. Five new species of Criconematidae (Nemata) from Southern Chile. Nematologica 28: 398–411.

Micoletzky, H. 1925. Die freilebenden Süsswasser- und Moornematoden Dänemarks. Mémoires de l’Académie Royale des Sciences et des Lettres de Danemark, Copenhague, Section des Sciences, Series 8, Tome 10 (2): 1–310.

Muggeridge, J.; Cottier, W. 1937. Black-currant-bud eelworm in New Zealand. Journal of Agriculture 55: 209–215.

Minagawa, N. 1983. Descriptions of two new species of nematode genus Trophonema Raski, 1991 (Tylenchida: Tylenchulidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology 18: 90–97.

Orton Williams, K. J. 1982. A new genus and four new species of Criconematidae (Nematoda) from the Pacific. Systematic Parasitology 4: 239–251.

Orton Williams, K. J. 1985. Some Pacific Criconematina (Nemata). Records of the Australian Museum 37: 71–83.

Raski, D. J. 1952. On the morphology of Criconemoides Taylor, 1936, with descriptions of six new species (Nematoda: Criconematidae). Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 19: 85–99.

Raski, D. J. 1962. Paratylenchidae n. fam. with descriptions of five new species of Gracilacus n.g. and an emendation of Cacopaurus Thorne, 1943, Paratylenchus Micoletzky , 1922 and Criconematidae Thorne, 1943. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 29: 189–207.

Raski, D. J.; Golden, A. M. 1966. Studies on the genus Criconemoides Taylor, 1936 with descriptions of eleven new species and Bakernema variabile n. sp. (Criconematidae: Nematoda). Nematologica 11: 501–565.

Raski, D. J.; Luc, M. 1985. A reappraisal of the genus Criconema Hofmänner & Menzel, 1914 (Nematoda: Criconematidae). Revue de Nématologie 7 (1984): 323–334.

Raski, D. J.; Luc, M. 1987. A reappraisal of Tylenchina (Nemata). 10. The superfamily Criconematoidea Taylor, 1936. Revue de Nématologie 10: 409–444.

Raski, D. J.; Luc, M.; Valenzuela, A. 1984. Redescription of Criconema giardi (Certes, 1889) Micoletzky, 1925, type species of the genus Criconema Hofmänner & Menzel, 1914 (Criconematidae: Nematoda). Revue de Nématologie 7: 301–314.

Raski, D. J.; Pinochet, J. 1976. Descriptions of four new species of Nothocriconema and the male of N. sphagni (Criconematidae: Nematoda). Nematologica 22: 265–276.

Raski, D. J.; Valenzuela, A. 1986. Descriptions of four new species of Criconematoidea (Tylenchina: Nemata) from Southern Chile. Journal of Nematology 18: 252–266.

Reay, F. 1987. Plant nematodes from Australia: Blandicephalanema bossi n. sp., Pateracephalanema pellitum Andrássy, 1979 and P. imbricatum (Colbran, 1965) Mehta & Raski, 1971 (Nematoda: Criconematidae). Revue de Nématologie 10: 309–318.

Reay, F.; Davies, K. 1998. The genus Ogma (Criconematidae – Nematoda) in Australia. Australasian Plant Path-ology 27: 131–162.

Reid, W. D.; Cottier, W. 1935. Eelworm diseases of chrysanthemums. New Zealand Journal of Agriculture 51: 219–223.

Sher, S. A. 1968. Revision of the genus Radopholus Thorne, 1949 (Nematoda: Tylenchoidea). Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 35: 219–237.

Siddiqi, M. R. 1980. Taxonomy of the plant nematode superfamily Hemicycliophoroidea, with a proposal for Criconematina, new suborder. Revue de Nématologie 3: 179–199.

Siddiqi, M. R. 1986. Tylenchida: parasites of plants and insects. Farnham Royal: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, 645 pp.

Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of Plants and Insects 2nd Edn, CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, U.K., 833 pp.

Stanton, D. J. 1956. Effect of steam and of soil disinfections on yield and quality of Nelson glasshouse tomatoes. New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology 38A: 66–77.

Stiles, C. W.; Hassall, A. 1920. Index-catalogue of medical and veterinary zoology. Subjects: Roundworms (Nematoda, Gordiacea and Acanthocephali) and the diseases they cause. Hygienic Laboratory Bulletin 114, United States Public Health Service, 886 pp.

Stout, J. D. 1958. Biological studies of some tussock grassland soils. VII. Protozoa. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 1: 974–984.

Stout, J. D. 1960. Biological studies of some tussock grassland soils. XVIII. Protozoa of two cultivated soils. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 3: 237–244.

Taylor, A. L. 1936. The genera and species of the Criconematinae, a sub-family of the Anguillulinidae (Nematoda). Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 55: 391–421.

Van den Berg, E. 1984. New and known species of some genera of Criconematidae (Nematoda) from South Africa. Phytophylactica 16: 33–48.

Wouts, W. M. 1966. Paratylenchus halophilus (Nematoda: Criconematidae) a new species from New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Science 9: 281–286.

Wouts, W. M. 2000. The subgenus Nothocriconemella Ebsary, 1981 (Nematoda: Criconematidae) with the description of four new species from New Zealand. Russian Journal of Nematology 8: 7–31.

Wouts, W. M.; Sher, S. A. 1971. The genera of the subfamily Heteroderinae (Nematoda: Tylenchoidea) with the description of two new genera. Journal of Nematology 3: 129–144.

Wouts, W. M.; Sturhan, D. 1999. Mesocriconema hymenophorum sp. nov. (Nematoda: Criconematidae) from forest soil in Germany. Russian Journal of Nematology 7: 29–32.

Wouts, W. M.; Yeates, G. W.; Loof, P. A. A. 1999. Criconematidae (Nematoda: Tylenchida) from the New Zealand region: genera Ogma Southern, 1914 and Blandicephalanema Mehta & Raski, 1971. Nematology 1: 561–590.

Yeates, G. W. 1967. Studies on nematodes from dune sands. 8. Hemicycliophora halophila n. sp. and Ereptonema inflatum n. sp. New Zealand Journal of Science 10: 802–807.

Yeates, G. W. 1968. An analysis of annual variation of the nematode fauna in dune sand, at Himatangi Beach, New Zealand. Pedobiologia 8: 173–207.

Yeates, G. W. 1974. Studies on a climosequence of soils in tussock grasslands. 2. Nematodes. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 1: 171–177.

Yeates, G. W. 1975. Nematode genera from some New Zealand pastures. New Zealand Soil Bureau scientific report 21: 1–22.

Yeates, G. W. 1978. Hemicycliophora chathami n. sp. (Nematoda: Tylenchida) from Chatham Island, New Zealand, with the description of two subspecies. Nematologica 24: 425–535.

Yeates, G. W. (in press). Phylum Nematoda – roundworms and eelworms. In D. P. Gordon (ed). The New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity: A Species 2000 Symposium Review, volume 1, Animalia. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch.

Yeates, G. W.; Loof, P. A. A.; Wouts, W. M. 1997. Criconematidae (Nematoda: Tylenchida) from the New Zealand region: analysis of and key to Criconema (Nothocriconemella) species. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 24: 153–162.


  • There are currently no refbacks.