Criconematina (Nematoda: Tylenchida)

Wim M Wouts

Abstract


Sixty-eight species of Criconematina, in 13 genera, are recorded from New Zealand. Sixteen new species are described: Criconema (Criconema) mackenziei sp. nov., C. (C.) makahuense sp. nov., C. (C.) nelsonense sp. nov., Criconema (Nothocriconema) grandisoni sp. nov., Macroposthonia campbelli sp. nov., Ogma alternum sp. nov., O. capitulatum sp. nov., O. catherinae sp. nov., O. inaequale sp. nov., O. mucronatum sp. nov., O. niagarae sp. nov., O. sturhani sp. nov., Syro tribulosus sp. nov., S. glabellus sp. nov., Blandicephalanema inserratum sp. nov., and B. nothofagi sp. nov. Fourteen species introduced from other parts of the world are described from local material and illustrated. Of the endemic species, Pateracephalanema imbricatum is the only species shared with Australia. Because of the predominance of the subgenus Nothocriconemella in New Zealand, the cosmopolitan Criconema (Nothocriconemella) sphagni may be a New Zealand species now spread worldwide.

Siddiqi’s (2000) classification of Criconematina, with 3 superfamilies, is accepted here. Eubostrichus guernei is recognised as a valid species and as the type species of Criconema Hofmänner & Menzel, 1914. In species with ornate cuticles, the type of scale or spine, rather than their orientation on the body, is considered phylogenetically significant. The genus Criconema is redefined, and the genera of the family Criconematidae (Criconematoidea) are rearranged accordingly. The taxon Nothocriconema, previously a synonym of Criconema is reinstated as subgenus Criconema (Nothocriconema) and the subgenus Ogma (Pateracephalanema) as genus Pateracephalanema. Crossonema is synonymised with Ogma and Amphisbaenema with Blandicephalanema.

For each species a detailed description of the female is given, including morphometrics and illustrations, supplemented with SEM micrographs of morphological details. Details of males and juveniles are given, if available. A diagnosis is presented to distinguish each species from other New Zealand species. Locations and plant species associations of each species are indicated and the significance of each species as a taxonomic unit is commented upon. Lists of nematode species present at various localities and associated with individual plant species are given in appendices. Keys to all taxa covered are provided.

Checklist of taxa

Suborder CRICONEMATINA Siddiqi, 1980
Superfamily  Criconematoidea Taylor, 1936
Family Criconematidae Taylor, 1936
Subfamily Criconematinae Taylor, 1936

Genus Criconema Hofmänner & Menzel, 1914
   Subgenus Criconema Hofmänner & Menzel, 1914
     aucklandicum Loof, Wouts & Yeates, 1997
     cristulatum Loof, Wouts & Yeates, 1997
     mackenziei sp. nov.
     makahuense sp. nov
     nelsonense sp. nov.
     spinicaudatum (Raski & Pinochet, 1976) Raski & Luc, 1985

  Subgenus Nothocriconema Ebsary, 1981
     annuliferum (de Man, 1921) Micoletzky, 1925
     grandisoni sp. nov.
     lineatum Loof, Wouts & Yeates, 1997
     magnum Loof, Wouts & Yeates, 1997
     undulatum Loof, Wouts & Yeates, 1997

  Subgenus Nothocriconemella Ebsary, 1981
     mutabile (Taylor, 1936) Raski & Luc, 1985
     californicum Diab  & Jenkins, 1966
     pasticum (Raski & Pinochet, 1976)  Raski & Luc,1985
     alpinum Loof, Wouts & Yeates, 1997
     graminicola Loof, Wouts & Yeates, 1997
     acuticaudatum Loof, Wouts & Yeates, 1997
     sphagni Micoletzky, 1925
     macilentum (Raski & Pinochet, 1976) Raski & Luc, 1985
     crosbyi Wouts, 2000
     farrelli Wouts, 2000
     ramsayi Wouts, 2000
     dugdalei Wouts, 2000

Genus Ogma Southern, 1914
     alternum sp. nov.
     campbelli Wouts,  Yeates & Loof, 1999
     capitulatum sp. nov.
     catherinae sp. nov.
     civellae (Steiner,  1949) Mehta & Raski, 1971
     crenulatum Wouts, Yeates  & Loof, 1999
     inaequale sp. nov.
     latens Mehta & Raski, 1971
     mucronatum sp. nov.
     niagarae sp. nov.
     palmatum (Siddiqi & Southey, 1962) Siddiqi, 1986
     paucispinatum Wouts, Yeates & Loof, 1999
     polyandra Wouts, Yeates & Loof, 1999
     semicrenatum Wouts, Yeates & Loof, 1999
     sexcostatum Wouts, Yeates & Loof, 1999
     sturhani sp. nov.
     subantarcticum Wouts, Yeates & Loof, 1999

Genus Syro Orton  Williams, 1985
     glabellus sp. nov.
     tribulosus sp. nov.

Genus Pateracephalanema Mehta & Raski, 1971
     imbricatum (Colbran, 1956) Mehta & Raski, 1971

Genus Blandicephalanema Mehta & Raski, 1971
     serratum Mehta & Raski, 1971
     inserratum sp. nov.
     nothofagi sp. nov.
     pilatum Mehta & Raski, 1971

Subfamily Macroposthoniinae Skarbilovich, 1959
Genus Macroposthonia de Man, 1880
     campbelli sp.  nov.
     rustica (Micoletzky, 1915) De Grisse & Loof, 1965
     xenoplax (Raski, 1952) De Grisse & Loof, 1965

Genus Criconemoides Taylor, 1936
   Subgenus Criconemoides Taylor, 1936
     informis (Micoletzky, 1922) Taylor, 1936

  Subgenus Criconemella De Grisse & Loof, 1965
     parvus Raski, 1952

Subfamily Hemicriconemoidinae Andrássy, 1979
Genus Hemicriconemoides Chitwood & Birchfield, 1957
     cocophillus (Loos, 1949) Chitwood & Birchfield, 1957

Superfamily Tylenchuloidea Skarbilovich, 1947
Family Tylenchulidae Skarbilovich, 1947 (Kirjanova, 1955)
Genus Tylenchulus Cobb, 1913
     semipenetrans Cobb,  1913

Genus Trophotylenchulus Raski, 1957
     okamotoi (Minagawa, 1983) Siddiqi, 2000

Family Sphaeronematidae Raski & Sher, 1952
Genus Sphaeronema Raski & Sher, 1952
     californicum Raski & Sher, 1952

Family Paratylenchidae Thorne, 1949
Genus Paratylenchus Micoletzky, 1922
   Subgenus Paratylenchus Micoletzky, 1922
     halophilus Wouts, 1966

  Subgenus Gracilacus Raski, 1962

Superfamily Hemicycliophoroidea Skarbilovich, 1959
Family Hemicycliophoridae Skarbilovich, 1959
Genus Hemicycliophora de Man, 1921
     chathami Yeates, 1978
     halophila Yeates, 1967


Keywords


Nematoda; Tylenchida; Criconematina; criconematina nematodes; taxonomy; phylogeny; keys; new species; biology; juveniles

References


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