Apoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera)

Barry J Donovan

Abstract


The superfamily Apoidea in New Zealand is represented by 41 species in 4 families. The 28 species of the family Colletidae are represented by 12 previously described endemic species (Leioproctus (Leioproctus) boltoni, L. (L.) imitatus, L. (L.) metallicus, L. (L.) purpureus, L. (L.) vestitus, L. (Nesocolletes) fulvescens, L. (N.) hudsoni, L. (N.) maritimus, L. (N.) monticola, Hylaeus (Prosopisteron) agilis, H. (P.) capitosus, and H. (P.) relegatus), 12 newly described endemic species (Leioproctus (Leioproctus) huakiwi, L. (L.) kanapuu, L. (L.) keehua, L. (L.) otautahi, L. (L.) pango, L. (L) waipounamu, L. (Nesocolletes) nunui, L. (N.) paahaumaa, L. (N.) pekanui, Hylaeus (Prosopisteron) kermadecensis, H. (P.) matamoko, and H. (P.) murihiku), and 4 adventive species from Australia (Hylaeus (Prosopisteron) asperithorax, H. (P.) perhumilis, Hyleoides concinna, and Euryglossina (Euryglossina) proctotrypoides). The 5 species of the family Halictidae are represented by the imported Nomia (Acunomia) melanderi melanderi, the previously described endemic species Lasioglossum (Austrevylaeus) sordidum, the 2 newly described endemic species L. (A.) mataroa and L. (A.) maunga, and the indigenous species L. (Chilalictus) cognatum, which is also found in Australia. The 3 species of the family Megachilidae consist of the adventive Anthidium (Anthidium) manicatum, and the imported Osmia (Helicosmia) coerulescens, and Megachile (Eutricharaea) rotundata. The 5 species of the family Apidae are represented by the imported species Bombus (Bombus) terrestris, B. (Megabombus) hortorum, B. (M.) ruderatus, B. (Subterraneobombus) subterraneus, and Apis mellifera. 10 new synonymies are established (valid name listed after equal sign): Paracolletes maorium Cockerell, 1913 and Paracolletes viridibasis Cockerell, 1936 = Leioproctus (Leioproctus) imitatus Smith, 1853; Dasycolletes hirtipes Smith, 1878, Paracolletes waterhousei Cockerell, 1905, and Paracolletes opacior Cockerell, 1936 = Leioproctus (Nesocolletes) fulvescens (Smith, 1876); Prosopis maorica Kirkaldy, 1909 and Hylaeus (Prosopisteron) laevigatulus Mitchener, 1965 = Hylaeus (Prosopisteron) agilis (Smith, 1854); and Prosopis cameroni Cockerell, 1905, Prosopis maoriana Cockerell, 1909, and Hylaeus hudsoni Cockerell, 1925 = Hylaeus (Prosopisteron) relegatus (Smith, 1876).

Data are presented and discussed on the origin, biogeography, history of research, the evolutionary relationships among endemic bees, life cycles, economic value, impact on human health, conservation status, and, for imported bees, their environmental impacts. Keys are given according to sex to families, subfamilies, genera, subgenera, and species, and by nests to genera.

For the endemic, indigenous, and adventive species except Anthidium manicatum, all known references are presented with annotations, while for Anthidium manicatum and the imported species, the most important references are selected. All 27 previously named species and 14 new species are described, and distribution data with maps and details of biology are presented. For all species except Bombus and Apis, all flower visiting records for New Zealand are listed separately for native plants and introduced plants, while for Bombus flower visiting records for native plants are presented. The appendices provide information on species recorded in New Zealand but not established, species recorded incorrectly for New Zealand, and a subjective evaluation of the occurrence and abundance of the species throughout New Zealand. /p>

During this study 24,529 bees were inspected microscopically, many scores of thousands of Leioproctus spp., Hylaeus spp., and Lasioglossum spp. were observed on the wing, and for N. melanderi, O. coerulescens, M. rotundata, Bombus spp., and Apis mellifera collectively, millions have been handled and observed.

Checklist of taxa

Superfamily APOIDEA

Family Colletidae
Subfamily Colletinae
Genus Leioproctus Smith, 1853
   Subgenus Leioproctus Smith, 1853
     boltoni Cockerell, 1904
     huakiwi new species
     imitatus Smith, 1853
          maorium Cockerell, 1913 new synonym
          viridibasis Cockerell, 1936 new synonym
     kanapuu new species
     keehua new species
     metallicus (Smith, 1853)
          trichopus “White”, Butler, 1874
     otautahi new species
     pango new species
     purpureus (Smith, 1853)
     vestitus (Smith, 1876)
     waipounamu new species

  Subgenus Nesocolletes Michener, 1965
     fulvescens (Smith, 1876)
          hirtipes Smith, 1878 new synonym
          waterhousei Cockerell, 1905 new synonym
          opacior Cockerell, 1936 new synonym
     hudsoni (Cockerell, 1925)
     maritimus (Cockerell, 1936)
     monticola (Cockerell, 1925)
     nunui new species
     paahaumaa new species
     pekanui new species

Subfamily Hylaeinae
Genus Hylaeus
   Subgenus Prosopisteron Cockerell, 1906
     agilis (Smith, 1876)
          laevigata Smith, 1854
          laevigatulus Michener, 1965 new synonym
          maorica Kirkaldy, 1909 new synonym
     asperithorax (Rayment, 1927)
     capitosus (Smith, 1876)
     innocens Cameron, 1898
     kermadecensis new species
     matamoko new species
     murihiku new species
     perhumilis (Cockerell, 1914)
          var. a Cockerell, 1914
          sagiops Snelling, 1985
     relegatus (Smith, 1876)
          cameroni Cockerell, 1905 new synonym
          hudsoni Cockerell, 1925 new synonym
          maoriana Cockerell, 1909 new synonym
          sulcifrons Cameron, 1898

Genus Hyleoides Smith, 1853
     concinna (Fabricius, 1775)
         ssp. ruficollaris Rayment, 1935
          var. collaris Friese, 1924

Subfamily Euryglossinae
Genus Euryglossina Cockerell, 1910
   Subgenus Euryglossina Cockerell, 1910
     proctotrypoides Cockerell, 1913
          minuta Rayment, 1935

Family Halictidae
Subfamily Nomiinae
Genus Nomia Latreille, 1804
   Subgenus Acunomia Cockerell, 1930, in Cockerell and Blair, 1930
     melanderi melanderi Cockerell, 1908
          melandri Cockerell, 1906

Subfamily Halictinae
Tribe Halictini
Genus Lasioglossum Curtis, 1833
   Subgenus Austrevylaeus Michener, 1965
     mataroa new species
     maunga new species
     sordidum (Smith, 1853)
          familiaris Smith, 1876
          huttoni Cameron, 1900
          smithii Dalla Torre, 1896
          smithii var. a Cockerell, 1916

  Subgenus Chilalictus Michener, 1965
     cognatum (Smith, 1853)
          haematostoma Cockerell, 1914
          inclinans Smith, 1879
          subinclinans Cockerell, 1915

Family Megachilidae
Subfamily Megachilinae
Tribe Osmiini
Genus Osmia Panzer, 1806
   Subgenus Helicosmia Thomson, 1872
     coerulescens (Linnaeus, 1758)
          aenea Linnaeus, 1761
          caerulescens Dalla Torre, 1896
          cyanea Giraud, 1866
          dutti Cockerell, 1922
          purpurea Cresson, 1864
          rustica Cresson, 1864

Tribe Anthidiini
Genus Anthidium Fabricius 1804
   Subgenus Anthidium Fabricius 1804
     manicatum (Linnaeus 1758)

Tribe Megachilini
Genus Megachile Latreille, 1802
   Subgenus Eutricharaea Thomson, 1872
     rotundata (Fabricius, 1787)
          pacifica Panzer, 1798

Family Apidae
Subfamily Apinae
Tribe Bombini
Genus Bombus Latreille, 1802
   Subgenus Bombus Latreille, 1802
     terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758)
          ssp. audax Harris, 1776

  Subgenus Megabombus Dalla Torre, 1880
     hortorum (Linnaeus, 1761)
     ruderatus (Fabricius, 1775)

  Subgenus Subterraneobombus Vogt, 1911
     subterraneus (Linnaeus, 1758)
          latreillellus Kirby, 1802

Tribe Apini
Genus Apis Linnaeus, 1758
     mellifera Linnaeus, 1758
          mellifica Linnaeus,1761
     ssp. mellifera Linnaeus, 1758
     ssp. ligustica Spinola, 1805


Keywords


Hymenoptera; Apoidea; Colletidae; Halictidae; Megachilidae; Apidae; taxonomy; keys; phylogeny; biology; morphology; plant associations; new species

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