Lucanidae (Insecta: Coleoptera)

Beverley A Holloway

Abstract


The morphology of New Zealand’s stag beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Lucanidae) is discussed and illustrated. New information is presented about the structure of the labium and profemoral setiferous patches in the family. All the genera and previously known species are redescribed and morphological structures including male and female genitalia are illustrated for the endemic species and, when appropriate, for the exotic species. The composition and relationships of the New Zealand lucanid fauna are discussed, and the known distribution and altitudinal ranges of the species are summarised and mapped. Habitats and the food of adults and larvae are discussed in general terms and in detail under each species. Keys for the identification of subfamilies, genera, and species of lucanids found in New Zealand are provided.

Thirtyfive endemic and 4 foreign species are recognised. They belong in 9 previously described genera representing 4 subfamilies: AESALINAE – Holloceratognathus Nikolaev, 1998 (3 species), Mitophyllus Parry, 1843 (14 species); LAMPRIMINAE – Dendroblax White, 1846 (1 species), Lamprima Latreille, 1807 (1 species); LUCANINAE – Geodorcus Holloway, 1996 (10 species), Paralissotes Holloway, 1996 (7 species), Ryssonotus MacLeay, 1819 (1 species), Serrognathus Motschulsky, 1861 (1 species); SYNDESINAE – Syndesus MacLeay, 1819 (1 species).

Seven new endemic species are described, 2 species are reinstated, and 1 species becomes a transferred synonym: AESALINAE: Mitophyllus angusticeps Broun, 1895, reinstated species, M. arcuatus new species, M. falcatus new species, M. fusculus (Broun, 1886) reinstated species, new combination, M. mandibularis Broun, 1917, transferred synonym of M. angusticeps Broun, 1895, M. solox new species; LUCANINAE Geodorcus alsobius new species, G. montivagus new species, G. servandus new species, G. sororum new species.

The 4 foreign species are: LAMPRIMINAE – Lamprima aurata Latreille, 1817 (from Australia, probably not established); LUCANINAE Ryssonotus nebulosus (Kirby, 1818) (from Australia, established), Serrognathus sika (Kriesche, 1921) (from Taiwan, unlikely to be established), Syndesus cornutus (Fabricius, 1801) (from Australia, established).

The following 3 species are deleted from the New Zealand fauna: LUCANINAE: Figulus modestus Parry, 1863 (=F. fissicollis Fairmaire, 1849, from the Pacific, incorrectly labelled), Figulus monilifer (= F. sublaevis (Palisot de Beauvois, 1805), from Africa, incorrectly labelled), Lissotes desmaresti Deyrolle, 1881 (from Tasmania, incorrectly labelled; Holloway (1961) incorrectly treated L. desmaresti as a synonym of Dorcus (=Geodorcus) capito).

There is special concern for the survival of some of the large bodied, flightless species of Geodorcus that have been found only on islands or isolated mountain tops. These beetles should have the same status as flightless birds in the New Zealand biota and be given the equivalent protection from habitat destruction, rodent predation and unauthorised collectors.

Checklist of taxa

All the genera and species in this list are endemic to New Zealand, apart from the 4 foreign genera and their species, marked with an asterisk (*).

Family LUCANIDAE Latreille, 1804

Subfamily AESALINAE MacLeay, 1819
Genus Holloceratognathus Nikolaev, 1998
        Neoceratognathus Nikolaev, 1998
    cylindricus (Broun, 1895)
    helotoides (Thomson, 1862)
       areolatum (Westwood, 1865)
    passaliformis (Holloway, 1962)

Genus Mitophyllus Parry, 1843
       Ptilophyllum Guérin-Méneville, 1845
    alboguttatus (Bates, 1867)
       cristatellus Broun, 1917
       sexpustulatus (Bates), Gemminger & Harold 1868, nomen nudum
    angusticeps Broun, 1895, reinstated species
       mandibularis 1917, transferred synonymy
    arcuatus new species
    dispar (Sharp, 1882)
        comognathus Broun, 1903
    falcatus new species
    foveolatus (Broun, 1880)
    fusculus (Broun, 1886), reinstated species, new combination
    gibbosus (Broun, 1885)
        tuberculatus Broun, 1893
    insignis Broun, 1923
    irroratus Parry, 1843
        curvidens Broun, 1904
        godeyi (Guérin-Méneville, 1845)
    macrocerus (Broun, 1886)
    parrianus Westwood, 1863
        marmoratus Waterhouse, 1874
        zealandicus (Broun, 1877)
    reflexus Broun, 1909
    solox new species

Subfamily LAMPRIMINAE MacLeay, 1819
Genus Dendroblax White, 1846
    earlii White, 1846
        acutangulus Arrow, 1935

Genus Lamprima* Latreille, 1807
    aurata* Latreille, 1817. Not known to be established in New Zealand

Subfamily SYNDESINAE MacLeay, 1819
Genus Syndesus* MacLeay, 1819
    cornutus* (Fabricius, 1801)

Subfamily LUCANINAE Latreille, 1804
Genus Geodorcus Holloway, 1996
    alsobius new species
    auriculatus (Broun, 1903)
    capito (Deyrolle, 1873)
        dispar (Broun, 1910)
    helmsi (Sharp, 1881)
        acmenus (Lewis, 1902)
        aemulus (Broun, 1893)
    ithaginis (Broun, 1893)
    montivagus new species
    novaezealandiae (Hope, 1845)
        abditus (Broun, 1881)
        caviceps (Westwood, 1855)
        punctulatus (White, 1846)
    philpotti (Broun, 1914)
    servandus new species
    sororum new species

Genus Paralissotes Holloway, 1996
    mangonuiensis (Brookes, 1927)
    oconnori (Holloway, 1961)
    planus (Broun, 1880)
    reticulatus (Westwood, 1844)
        cicatricosis (Burmeister, 1847)
        squamidorsis (White, 1846)
        zelandicus (Blanchard, 1847)
    rufipes (Sharp, 1886)
        elegans (Broun, 1893)
    stewarti (Broun, 1881)
    triregius (Holloway, 1963)

Genus Ryssonotus* MacLeay, 1819
    nebulosus* (Kirby, 1818)

Genus Serrognathus* Motschulsky, 1861
    sika* (Kriesche, 1921). Not known to be established in New Zealand

SPECIES DELETED FROM THE NEW ZEALAND LUCANIDAE
Figulus modestus Parry, 1862 (= F. fissicollis Fairmaire, 1849 from the Pacific) and F. monilifer Parry, 1862 (= F. sublaevis (Palinot de Beauvois, 1805) from Africa) apparently labelled from New Zealand in error, see page 14.

Lissotes desmaresti Deyrolle, 1881. Labelled in error from New Zealand, treated as a synonym of Dorcus capito Deyrolle, 1873 by Holloway (1961), now recognised as a Tasmanian species (Moore & Cassis 1992).


Keywords


Coleoptera; Lucanidae; stag beetles; Taxonomy; phylogeny; morphology; keys; biology; conservation; protected species

References


Alderson, J. 1975: Descriptions of the larvae of four species of Lucanidae (Stag Beetle). Victorian Naturalist 92: 71–79.

Araya, K. 1993a: Relationship between the decay types of dead wood and occurrence of lucanid beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology 28(1): 27–33.

Araya, K. 1993b: Size comparison of Prismognathus angularis (Coleoptera, Lucanidae) collected from brown and white rotten wood. Japan Journal of Entomology 61(3): 562.

Araya, K. 1993c: Chemical analyses of the dead wood eaten by the larvae of Ceruchus lignarius and Prismognathus angularis (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology 28(3): 353–358.

Araya, K.; Kon, M., Bartolozzi, L. 1997: Morphological comparisons of the Old World Aesalini (Insecta, Coleoptera, Lucanidae), with special reference to Aesalus imanishii from Taiwan. The Symposium on the Phylogeny, Biogeography and Conservation of Fauna and Flora of East Asian Region, 1997: 125–133.

Arrow, G. J. 1935: A contribution to the classification of the coleopterous family Lucanidae. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 83(1): 105–125, pl. 6.

Arrow, G. J. 1950: The fauna of India, including Pakistan, Ceylon, Burma and Malaya. 4. Coleoptera Lamellicornia – Lucanidae and Passalidae. Sewell, R. B. S. (Ed.). London, Taylor & Francis. xi+275 pp., 23 pls.

Bacchus, M. E. 1978: A catalogue of the type-specimens of the Scarabaeinae (Scarabaeoidea) and the smaller lamellicorn families (Coleoptera) described by G. J. Arrow. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology 37(3): 97–115.

Bartolozzi, L.; Onore, G. 1993: Observations on the biology and behaviour of Sphaenognathus oberon Kriesche (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). The Coleopterists Bulletin 47(2): 126–128.

Bartolozzi, L.; Sforzi, A. 2005. Cervi Volanti (Coleoptera Lucanidae). CD-ROM.

Bartolozzi, L.; Sforzi, A. Taroni, G.; Zuffi, S. 1998: Elenco aggiornato dei Lucanidi del Mondo. pp. 30–35 in Taroni, G. (Ed.) Il Cervo Volante (Coleoptera Lucanidae). Milano, Electa. 184 pp.

Bates, H. W. 1867: New species of insects from the province of Canterbury, New Zealand, collected by R. W. Fereday, Esq. Entomologists’s Monthly Magazine 4: 52–56, 78–80.

Benesh, B. 1960: Lucanidea [sic] in W. D. Hincks (Ed.), Coleopterorum Catalogus Supplementa. Pars 8. (editio secunda). ’s Gravenhage, W. Junk. 178 pp.

Blanchard, C. E. 1847: Voyage au Pôle Sud et dans l’Océanie sur les corvettes l’Astrolabe et la Zélée exécuté par l’ordre du Roi pendant les Années 1837–1840. Atlas Zoologique. Paris. Gide & Co. Vol. Insects, pls 1–25.

Boileau, H. 1913: Note sur Lucanides conservés dans les collections de l’Université d’Oxford et du British Museum. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1913: 213–272.

Bremner, A. G.; Butcher, C. F.; Patterson, G. B. 1984: The density of indigenous invertebrates on three islands in Breaksea Sound, Fiordland, in relation to the distribution of introduced mammals. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 14: 379–386.

Britton, E. B. 1970: Coleoptera pp. 622–635 in CSIRO, The Insects of Australia. Melbourne University Press. xiii+1029 pp.

Brookes, A. E. 1925: Coleoptera of the Chatham Islands. Records of the Canterbury Museum (New Zealand) 2: 285–293.

Brookes, A. E. 1927: A new genus and three new species of Coleoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 563–566.

Broun, T. 1877: Descriptions of new species of Coleoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 9: 371–374.

Broun, T. 1880: Manual of the New Zealand Coleoptera. Colonial Museum & Geological Survey Department. Wellington, James Hughes. xix+651 pp.

Broun, T. 1881a: On the larva and pupa of Ceratognathus irroratus. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 13: 230–231.

Broun, T. 1881b: Manual of the New Zealand Coleoptera. Part 2. Colonial Museum & Geological Survey Department. Wellington, Government Printer. Pp. viii, xxi –xxxiii, 653–744.

Broun, T. 1885: Abstract of paper on New Zealand Scydmaenidae. New Zealand Journal of Jcience 2(8): 384–387.

Broun, T. 1886: Manual of the New Zealand Coleoptera. Part 4. Colonial Museum & Geological Survey Department. Wellington, Government Printer. Pp. 817–973.

v1893: Manual of the New Zealand Coleoptera. Parts 5–7. New Zealand Institute. Wellington, Government Printer. Pp. xvii + 1504.

Broun, T. 1895: Descriptions of new Coleoptera from New Zealand. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6)15: 194–203.

Broun, T. 1903: Descriptions of new genera and species of New Zealand Coleoptera. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7)11: 602–618.

Broun, T. 1904: Descriptions of new genera and species of New Zealand Coleoptera. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7)14: 41–59.

Broun, T. 1909: Notes on Coleoptera from the Chatham Islands. Transactions of the New Zealand Institute (1908) 41: 145–151.

Broun, T. 1910a: On the Coleoptera of the Kermadec Islands. Transactions of the New Zealand Institute (1909) 42: 291–306.

Broun, T. 1910b: Additions to the coleopterous fauna of the Chatham Islands. Transactions of the New Zealand Institute (1909) 42: 306–310.

Broun, T. 1914: Descriptions of new genera and species of Coleoptera. Bulletin of the New Zealand Institute 1(2). Wellington, Government Printer. Pp. 79–142.

Broun, T. 1917: Descriptions of new genera and species of Coleoptera. Bulletin of the New Zealand Institute 1(5): 347–474.

Broun, T. 1923: Descriptions of new genera and species of Coleoptera. Bulletin of the New Zealand Institute 1(8): 667–708.

Burmeister, H. 1847: Handbuch der Entomologie 5. Coleoptera Lamellicornia Xylophila et Pectinicornia. Berlin, Theod. Chr. Fr. Enslin. Pp. viii+584.

Cameron, H. D. 1980: The etymology of the beetle name Lucanus Linnaeus [sic], Coleoptera Lucanidae. Great Lakes Entomologist 13 (1): 31–32.

Campbell, D. J; Moller, H.; Ramsay, G. W.; Watt, J. C. 1984: Observations on foods of kiore (Rattus exulans) found in husking stations on northern offshore islands of New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 7: 131–138.

Crosby, T. K.; Dugdale, J. S.; Watt, J. C. 1998: Area codes for recording specimen localities in the New Zealand subregion. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 25: 175–183.

D’Hotman, D.; Scholtz, C. H. 1990: Phylogenetic significance of the structure of the external male genitalia in Scarabaeoidea (Coleoptera). Republic of South Africa Department of Agricultural Development, Entomology Memoir 77: 1–51.

Deyrolle, H. 1873 in Parry, F. J. S. 1873: Characters of seven nondescript lucanoid Coleoptera, and remarks upon the genera Lissotes, Nigidius and Figulus. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1873: 335–344, pl. 5.

Didier, R. 1937: Études sur les Coléoptères Lucanides du Globe. Paris, Lechevalier Ed. xlix+260 pp., 214 fig., 3 pls.

Didier, R.; Séguy, E. 1952: Catalogue illustré des Lucanides du Globe. Atlas. Encyclopédie Entomologique (A)28: 112 pls. Paris, Lechevalier.

Didier, R.; Séguy, E. 1953: Catalogue illustré des Lucanides du Globe. Texte. Encyclopédie Entomologique (A)27: 1–223, 136 figs. Paris, Lechevalier.

Emberson, R. M. 1975: Bird predation on stag beetles. Entomological Society of New Zealand Scientific Newsletter 2: 1–5.

Emberson, R. M. 1982: Southern records of Lissotes reticulatus (Lucanidae). The Weta (Newsbulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand) 5(1): 21.

Emberson, R. M. 1998: The beetle (Coleoptera) fauna of the Chatham Islands. New Zealand Entomologist 21: 25–64.

Endrödy-Younga, S. 1988: Evidence for the low-altitude origin of the Cape Mountain biome derived from the systematic revision of the genus Colophon Gray (Coleoptera, Lucanidae). Annals of the South African Museum 96(9): 359–424.

Esler, A. E. 1978: Botanical features of the Mokohinau Islands. Tane 24: 187–197.

Fabricius, J. C. 1801: Systema Eleutheratorum secundum ordines, genera, species adiectis synonymis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus. Kiliae, Bibliopolii Academici. Vol. 1.

Fairmaire, L. 1849: Essai sur les Coléoptères de la Polynésie. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie pure et Appliquée 2(1): 410–422.

Fitzgerald, B. M., Meads, M. J., Whitaker, A. H. 1986: Food of the kingfisher (Halcyon sancta) during nesting. Notornis 33: 23–32.

Forster, R. R.; Forster, L. M. 1974. Small land animals of New Zealand. Revised Edition. Dunedin, John McIndoe. 175 pp.

Foster, B. J. 1966: Tama Te Kapua (c. A.D. 1350). P. 344 in A. H. McLintock (Ed.): An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. 3. Wellington, Government Printer. 848 pp.

Franciscolo, M. E. 1997: Fauna d’Italia. Vol. xxxv, Coleoptera Lucanidae. Bologna, Edizioni Calderini. xi+228 pp, 442 figs.

Fukinuki, K. 2000: Collecting stag beetles in New Zealand. Gekkan-Mushi No. 350: 32–36. [In Japanese.]

Fukinuki, K. 2001: Collecting stag beetles in New Zealand (2). Gekkan-Mushi No. 368: 15–17. [In Japanese.]

Gemminger, M; Harold, E. von 1868: Catalogus Coleopterorum. 3. Monachii, E. H. Gummi; Paris, E. Deyrolle fils. 5+753–978 pp.

Goode, J. 1980: Insects of Australia. London, Angus & Robertson. x+260 pp.

Gourlay, E. S. 1954: Records of introduced Coleoptera and notes on the 1953–54 collecting season. New Zealand Entomologist 1(4): 6–10.

Grehan, J. R. 1980: Record of Ceratognathus passaliformis (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) in Wainuiomata, New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 7(2): 171–173.

Guérin-Méneville, F. E. 1845: Untitled article in a report of the meeting of 8 October 1845 of the Société entomologique de France. Revue Zoologique 8: 439.

Guérin-Méneville, F. E. 1846: Untitled article in Ouvrages offerts at the meeting of 8 October 1845 of the Société entomologique de France. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (2) 3 (1845): xcvi-xcvii.

Hitchmough, R. 2002. New Zealand Threat Classification System Lists. Department of Conservation, Wellington.

Holloway, B. A. 1960: Taxonomy and phylogeny in the Lucanidae (Insecta: Coleoptera). Records of the Dominion Museum New Zealand 3: 321–365.

Holloway, B. A. 1961: A systematic revision of the New Zealand Lucanidae (Insecta: Coleoptera). Dominion Museum (New Zealand) bulletin 20. 139 pp.

Holloway, B. A. 1962: A new species of Ceratognathus Westwood (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) from New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand (Zoology) 2: 69–72.

Holloway, B. A. 1963a: A new species of Lissotes Westwood from New Zealand, and a description of the female of L. oconnori Holloway (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand (Zoology) 3: 77–80.

Holloway, B. A. 1963b: Wing development and evolution of New Zealand Lucanidae (Insecta: Coleoptera). Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand (Zoology) 3: 99–116.

Holloway, B. A. 1968: The relationships of Syndesus MacLeay and Sinodendron Schneider (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). New Zealand Journal of Science 11: 264–269.

Holloway, B. A. 1969: Further studies on generic relationships in Lucanidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) with special reference to the ocular canthus. New Zealand Journal of Science 12: 958–977.

Holloway, B. A. 1972: The systematic position of the genus Diphyllostoma Fall (Coleoptera Scarabaeoidea). New Zealand Journal of Science 15: 31–38.

Holloway, B. A. 1996: Two new genera of New Zealand stag beetles previously placed in Dorcus MacLeay and Lissotes Westwood (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 23: 61–66.

Holloway, B. A. 1997: Elytral surface structures as indicators of relationships in stag beetles, with special reference to the New Zealand species (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 24: 47–64.

Holloway, B. A. 1998: A re-evaluation of the genera of New Zealand aesaline stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 28: 641–656.

Hope, F. W. 1845 in Hope, F. W. & Westwood, J. O. A catalogue of the lucanoid Coleoptera in the collection of the Rev. F. W. Hope together with descriptions of the new species therein contained. London, J. C. Bridgewater. 31 pp.

Hosking, G. P. 1971: Dendroblax earlii White (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) attacking telephone poles. New Zealand Entomologist 5(1): 78–79.

Howden, H. F.; Lawrence, J. F. 1974: The New World Aesalinae, with notes on the North American lucanid subfamilies (Coleoptera, Lucanidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 52: 1505–1510, 3 pls.

Hudson, G. V. 1934: New Zealand beetles and their larvae. Wellington, Ferguson & Osborn Ltd. 5+236 pp., 17 pls.

Johnson, C. circa 1983: Field observations of the habitat of Dorcus auriculatus (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) and a description of the male genitalia. Unpublished handwritten report held by Conservation Sciences Centre, Department of Conservation, Wellington. 10 unnumbered pp.

Kirby, W. 1818: A century of insects, including several new genera described from his cabinet. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 12: 375–453.

Klimaszewski; J.; Watt, J. C. (with illustrations by D. W. Helmore) 1997: Coleoptera: family-group review and keys to identification. Fauna of New Zealand 37. 199 pp.

Kriesche, R. 1921: Ueber Eurytrachelus titanus Boisd. und seine Rassen (Coleopt. Lucan.). Archiv für Naturgeschichte, Berlin 86(1920), A8: 114–119.

Lacordaire, T. 1856: Histoire naturelle des Insectes. Genera des Coléoptères. 3 Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret. 594 pp.

Latreille, P. A. 1796: Précis des caractères générique des Insectes, disposés dans un ordre naturel par le Citoyen Latreille. 8. Bordeaux, Brive. 14+210+5 pp. [Referred to by Latreille (1804b); not seen.]

Latreille, P. A. 1802: Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière des Crustacés et des Insectes. Familles naturelles des Genres. 3. Paris, F. Dufart. 467 pp.

Latreille, P. A. 1804a: Tableau méthodique des Insectes, pp. 129–200. In Noveau Dictionnaire d’Histoire Naturelle …Vol. 24 [dated 21st March 1804]. Tableaux méthodique d’histoire naturelle. Deterville, Paris. [As cited in Lawrence & Newton (1995); not seen.]

Latreille, P. A. 1804b Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière des Crustacés et des Insectes. 10. Paris, F. Dufart. 415 pp.

Latreille, P. A. 1807 Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum secundum ordinum naturalem in familias disposita, iconibus exemplisque plurimus explicata. 2. Paris, A. Konig. 280 pp. [Cited by Moore & Cassis (1992), not seen.]

Latreille, P. A. 1817 Nouveau Dictionaire d’Histoire Naturelle, Appliquée aux arts, a l’Agriculture, a l’économie rural et domestique, á la Médicine, etc. Nouvelle Edition. 17. Paris, Deterville. [Cited by Moore & Cassis (1992), not seen.]

Lawrence, J. F. 1981a: Notes on larval Lucanidae (Coleoptera). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 20: 213–219.

Lawrence, J. F. 1981b: The occurrence of Syndesus cornutus in structural timber (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 20: 171–172.

Lawrence, J. F.; Britton, E. B. 1991: Coleoptera (Beetles), pp. 543–683 in CSIRO Division of Entomology (Ed.), The insects of Australia: a Textbook for Students and Research Workers, Second Edition. Volume 2. Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Press.

Lawrence, J. F.; Newton, A. F. 1995: Families and subfamilies of Coleoptera (with selected genera, notes, references and data on family-group names), pp 779–1006 in Pakaluk, J.; Slipinski, S. A. (Eds.). Biology, phylogeny, and classification of Coleoptera: Papers celebrating the 80th birthday of Roy A. Crowson. Warszawa Museum I Instytut Zoologii PAN. Pp. 779–1006.

Lewis, J. H. 1902: Notes on Coleoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 1901: 201–204.

Lindroth, C. H. 1957: The principal terms used for the male and female genitalia in Coleoptera. Opuscula Entomologica 22: 241–256.

MacLeay, W. S. 1819: Horae Entomologicae; or essays on the annulose animals. 1(1). London, S. Bagster. xxx+152 pp, 3 pls.

Maes, J.-M. 1982: Note sur les Dorcinae (Coleoptera Lucanidae) de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 53(24): 1–13, 5 figs.

May, B. M. 1963: New entomological records. New Zealand Entomologist 3(2): 44–53.

McCallum, J. 1980: Reptiles of the northern Mokohinau Group. Tane 26: 53–59.

McCallum, J. 1986: Evidence of predation by kiore upon lizards from the Mokohinau Islands. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 9: 83–87.

McEwen, J. M. 1966: Maori tribal history. Pp 468–476 in A. H. McLintock (Ed.): An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. 2. Wellington, Government Printer. 894 pp.

McGuinness, C. A. 2001: The conservation requirements of New Zealand’s nationally threatened invertebrates. Threatened species occasional publication No. 20. Wellington, Biodiversity Recovery Unit, Department of Conservation. 658 pp.

Miller, D. 1956: Bibliography of New Zealand Entomology 1775–1952 (With Annotations). New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 120. xxiv+492 pp.

Mitzunuma, T.; Nagai, S. 1994: The lucanid beetles of the world. Mushi-sha Iconographic Series of Insects. H. Fujita (Ed.), Tokyo, Vol. 1, 338 pp., 115 figs., 156 pls.

Moeed, A.; Meads, M. J. 1983: Invertebrate fauna of four tree species in Orongorongo Valley, New Zealand, as revealed by trunk traps. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 6: 39–53.

Moeed, A.; Meads, M. J. 1985: Seasonality of pitfall trapped invertebrates in three type of native forest, Orongorongo Valley, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 12: 17–23.

Moore, B. P.; Cassis, G. 1992: Lucanidae. Pp. 4–19 in Houston, W. W. K. (Ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea. Canberra : AGPS Vol. 9.

Motschulsky, V. 1861: Insectes du Japon. Études entomologique; redigées par Victor de Motschulsky 10: 1–24. [Not seen, cited by Moore & Cassis (1992).]

Nel, A.; Scholtz, C. H. 1990: Comparative morphology of the mouthparts of adult Scarabaeoidea (Coleoptera). Republic of South Africa Department of Agricultural Development, Entomology Memoir 80: 1–84.

Nikolaev, G. V. 1998: Taksononicheskij sostav i filogeneticheskie svyazi novozelandskikh vidov grebenchatousykh zhukov roda Ceratognathus Westwood (Coleoptera, Lucanidae). [Taxonomic composition and phylogenetic relationships of the New Zealand pectinicorn beetle species of the genus Ceratognathus Westwood (Coleoptera, Lucanidae).]. Vestnik kAZgu, Seriya Biologicheskaya 4: 55–59. [In Russian.]

Owen, K. L. 1991: A survey of stag beetle (Dorcus auriculatus) on Mount Te Aroha. Technical Report Series No. 8. Department of Conservation, Wellington. 13 pp.

Parry, F. 1843: Description of a new genus of Lucanidae from New Zealand. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 12: 362.

Parry, F. 1845: Description of a new genus of Lucanidae from New Zealand. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 4(1): 55–56, pl. 1, fig. 4.

Parry, F. J. S. 1862: Abstract of “Further descriptions and characters of undescribed lucanoid Coleoptera”. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London: 107–113.

Parry, F. J. S. 1863: A few remarks upon Mr. James Thomson’s Catalogue of Lucanidae, published in the “Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 1862”. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (3)1: 442–452.

Parry, F. J. S. 1864a: A catalogue of lucanoid Coleoptera with illustrations and descriptions of various new and interesting species. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (3)2: 1–113, 12 pls.

Parry, F. J. S. 1864b: Further remarks on Mr James Thomson’s ‘Catalogue of Lucanidae’. Proceedings, pp 5–8 in Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (3) 2.

Parry, F. J. S. 1870: A revised catalogue of the lucanoid Coleoptera, with remarks on the nomenclature, and descriptions of new species. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, 1870: 53–118.

Parry, F. J. S. 1873: Characters of seven nondescript lucanoid Coleoptera, and remarks upon the genera Lissotes, Nigidius and Figulus. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1873: 335–345, pl. 5.

Parry, F. J. S. 1875: Catalogus Coleopterorum Lucanoidum (Editio tertia). London, E. W. Janson. 29 pp.

Patrick, B. H. 1988: Ecological studies of marine terrace sequences in the Waitutu District of southern New Zealand. Pt. 4: Insecta: Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 18: 85–88.

Patrick, B. H.; Barratt, B. I. P.; Rance, B., Heads, M.; Tangney, R. 1986: Entomological survey of the Slopedown Range 1986. Department of Conservation, Dunedin. 39 unnumbered pp.

Patrick, B. H.; Rance, B. D.; Barratt, B. I. P.; Tangney, R. 1987: Entomological survey of the Longwood Range, Longwood Ecological District. Department of Conservation, Dunedin. 86 pp.

Paulsen, M. J.; Mondaca E., J. 2006: Revision of the South American Ceratognathini (Coleoptera: Lucanidae: Aesalinae) with the description of a new genus and a new species. Zootaxa 1191: 1–19.

Paulsen, M. J.; Smith, A. D. 2005: A new species of stag beetle from sand dunes in west Texas, and a synopsisof the genus Nicagus (Coleoptera: Lucanidae: Aesalinae: Nicagini). Zootaxa 1050: 45–60.

Philpott, A. 1919: Notes on birds of south-western Otago. Transactions of the New Zealand Institute 51: 216–224.

Reid, B.; Ordish, R. G.; Harrison, M. 1982: An analysis of the gizzard contents of 50 North Island Brown Kiwis, Apteryx australis mantelli, and notes on feeding observations. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 5: 76–85.

Roon, G. van 1910: Coleopterorum Catalogus. S. Schenkling (Ed.). Pars 8. Lucanidae. Berlin, W. Junk. 70 pp.

Sandager, F. 1890: Observations on the Mokohinou Islands and the birds that visit them. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute (1889) 22: 286–294.

Schlein, Y.; Galun, R.; Ben-Eliahu, M. N. 1980: The legs of Musca domestica and Glossinia morsitans females as the site of sex pheromone release. Experientia 36: 1174–1176.

Sharell, R. 1971: New Zealand insects and their story. Auckland & London, Collins. 268 pp.

Sharp, D. 1881: Some new species and genera of Coleoptera from New Zealand. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 18: 46–51.

Sharp, D. 1882: On some New Zealand Coleoptera. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London: 73–99.

Sharp, D. 1884: Notes on the nomenclature of New Zealand Lucanidae. (Extracted from “Comptes-rendus de la Société Entomologique de Belgique” 2nd February 1884.) New Zealand Journal of Science 2: 220–221.

Sharp, D. 1886: On New Zealand Coleoptera, with descriptions of new genera and species. Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society (2)3: 351–454.

Sharp, D.; Muir, F. 1912: The comparative anatomy of the male genital tube in Coleoptera. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London: 477–642, pls 42–78.

Sherley, G.; Green, C.; Owen, K. 1994: Distribution, conservation status and some features of the natural history of Dorcus stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). New Zealand Department of Conservation Science and Research Series 75. 3+26 pp.

Snodgrass, R. E. 1935: Principles of Insect Morphology. New York & London, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. ix+667 pp.

Sprecher, E.; Taroni, G. 2004. Lucanus cervus depictus. G. Taroni (Ed.). Como, New Press. 160 pp.

Taroni, G. 1998: Il Cervo Volante (Coleoptera Lucanidae). G. Taroni (Ed.). Milano, Electa. 184 pp.

Taylor, R. H. 1978: Distribution and interactions of rodent species in New Zealand. Pp. 135–143 in P. R. Dingwall, I. A. E. Atkinson, & C Hay (Eds): The ecological control of rodents in New Zealand nature reserves. Department of Lands & Survey Information Series 4: 1–237+8 unnumbered pp.

Thomson, J. 1862: Catalogue des Lucanides de la collection de M. James Thomson, suivi d’un Appendix renfermant la description des coupes génériques et spécifique nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (4) 12: 389–436.

Thorpe, S. 2000: Brown stag beetle: Ryssonotus nebulosus (Kirby) (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). Newsletter No. 90, April 2000 of the Entomological Society of New Zealand (Inc.), Auckland Branch, 1 unnumbered page.

Thorpe, S. 2001: Notes on the establishment in Auckland of the Australian stag beetle Ryssonotus nebulosus (Kirby), a new host plant record for it, and a practical identification key to the genera of New Zealand stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). The Weta (Newsbulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Inc.) 23: 22–24.

Thunberg, C. P. 1806: Lucani monographi. Mem. Soc. Nat. Moscou 1 183–206. [As cited in Moore & Cassis (1992), not seen.]

Tillyard, R. J. 1926: Insects of Australia and New Zealand. Sydney, Angus & Robertson Ltd. xi+560 pp.

Trewick, S. A. 2000: Molecular evidence for dispersal rather than vicariance as the origin of flightless insect species on the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Journal of Biogeography 27: 1189–1200.

Waterhouse, C.O. 1874: Descriptions of five new lucanoid Coleoptera. Entomologists Monthly Magazine 11: 6–8.

Watt, J. C. 1971: The North Island Kiwi: a predator of pasture insects. New Zealand Entomologist 5 (1): 25–27.

Watt, J. C. 1979: Abbreviations for entomological collections. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 6: 519–520.

Watt, J. C. 1982: Terrestrial arthropods from the Poor Knights Islands, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 12: 283–320.

Westwood, J. O. 1844: Continuation of a memoir containing descriptions of new exotic Lucanidae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London: 106.

Westwood, J. O. 1847: On the sectional characters of the genus Lucanus, with descriptions of some new species of Lucanidae. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 4: 271–277.

Westwood, J. O. 1855: Descriptions of some new species of exotic Lucanidae. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. (New Series) 3: 197–221, pls 10–12.

Westwood, J. O. 1863: Descriptions of some new exotic species of Lucanidae. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (3)1: 429–437, pls 14–16.

White, A. 1846: Insects of New Zealand. Pp. 1–27, pls 1–7 in The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Erebus and Terror 2(4).

Wright, A. E. 1980: Auckland University Field Club scientific trip to the Mokohinau Islands, May 1979. Introduction and acknowledgements. Tane 26: 1–6.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.